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Evansk

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Evansk
Evvānsk/Godspraksk
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
First
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Evansk is a conlang that exists primarily in the fictional world of Čuld, as the language of the Mighty Kingdom (Mīčtos Onwāldinn). It is spoken mostly by humans, but some other inhabitants and traders speak is as well, such as elves, goblins, the occasional halfling, and others. However, just because it exists in a fictional world does not mean it is restricted to it! I attempt to use Evansk in my daily life, and I hope to grow it to a fully functional conlang little by little. Anyone is welcome to attempt to learn it (as I don't think that it is too hard), and the more who I have to speak it with, the merrier! Although I have had many conlang ideas, Evansk is my most fleshed-out and well developed conlang, with both history and a tiny bit of writing in it. It was also my first conlang, although not necessarily the first one that I developed heavily; some other ideas have been scrapped, and I've always come back to Evansk.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental  Alveolar

Post-alveolar

Palatal Velar  Uvular Glottal
Nasal m <m> n <n> (ŋ) <n>
Plosive p <p> b <b> t <t> d <d> k <k> g <g>
Fricative f <f> (v) <v> θ <þ>  (ð) <ð> s <s> ʃ <š> h <h>
Affricate tʃ <č>
Approximant j <j> w <w>
Trill r <r>
Lateral app. l <l>

VowelsEdit

Long Short
Close Front i: <i ī> ɪ <i>
Close Back u (u:) <u>
Mid Front e: <e ē> ɛ <e>
Mid Back o (o:) <o>
Open Front æ <a>
Open Back ɑ: <a ā>

AlphabetEdit

The three alphabets in use are the Latin alphabet (in our world) plus Wāgdov Runov and Folmratanov Runov, the two conscripts that have been created for the language for use in our world and in the conworld it exists in. The only differences are minor allophonic variations that are expressed in the Latin alphabet but not in the native one, as well as four additional letters in the native alphabets which represent <st nd eo ei>.

Latin Alphabet: < f u þ a r k g č w h n i j p z s š t b e m l o d ž (ð) (v) >. Although optional, <ð v> are usually used to indicate voiced allophones of <þ f> to increase simplicity for non-speakers.

Wāgdov Runov:
Evvansk alphabet2
This native alphabet is used for formal documents, lasting writings on stone,religious ceremonies, and other important events, similar to print in English.


Folmratanov Runov:
Evvansk alphabet handwritten2
This handwritten alphabet is used for daily documents, letters, quick notes, personal records/documents and other informal uses, similar to cursive in English.

OrthographyEdit

Most letters are pronounced the same no matter what their position in a word. The exceptions are f, þ, and vowels.

F /f/ and Þ /θ/ are pronounced unvoiced (unstēvd) when at the beginning of a word or when followed or preceded by an unvoiced consonant (unstēvd midstevinn); they are voiced (stēvd) in all other positions, realized as [v] and [ð].

Weak vowels, or eðeliššov leoðrunov, and become short (lutel) when followed by a consonant cluster in the Latin orthography. This can be negated by adding a macron (stav) to <a e i>, turning them to firm vowels, or trumov leoðrunov. A trum leoðrun is unaffected by the consonants surrounding it and thus is always long (lan). The vowels <o u> are always trumov leoðrunov and thus cannot become short; however, they vary allophonically in length according to the environment. For instance, /hund/ is pronounced [hund] but /uvel/ is pronounced [u:ve:l].

For the following examples, I will use ð, s and t as my example consonants; however, know that they can be replaced by any other consonants and the effect on the vowel will be the same.

Lanov Leoðrunov Lutelov Leoðrunov
< ā aða > [ɑ:] < aðð² > [æð]
< ē eða > [e:] < ess² > [ɛs]
< ī iða > [i:] < itt² > [ɪt]
< oða > [o:]¹ < ost > [ost]
< uða > [u:]¹ < ust > [ust]

¹ Note that /u/ and /o/ do not vary phonemically in length, and thus cannot take a stavum to show that they would vary in length. Therefore, a word such as fūrð cannot exist and would instead be spelled furð.

² A double consonant (twotfeld midstevinn) in the Latin orthography shortens an eðelišš leoðrun before it just as a consonant cluster (midstevinn klot) would. The consonant itself does not change, but the vowel just before it becomes lutel when it would otherwise be lan. Because this is the only function of a twotfeld midstevinn, a stav followed by one is impossible. Therefore, a word such as ētten cannot exist, and a word such as fūrr can doubly not exist.

Finally, when combining words, conjugating verbs or declining nouns, the elimination of a vowel after a twotfeld midstevinn often renders it unnecessary  due to the production of a new midstevinn klot, thus reducing it to one consonant. For example, the word sprikku, when conjugated to 2nd person singular, gives sprikst.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

VerbsEdit

Present Tense (Nufjērst tid)Edit

The present tense in Evansk serves as a habitual present (as in English he runs) as well as an actual present (as in English he is running). Another way to form the present progressive, with more emphasis on the fact that the action is happening at that very moment, is to use the construction binnu att ____, where the blank is filled in by any infinitive (i.č binn att sprikku) Verbs in Evansk conjugate by replacing the infinitival marker -u with different suffixes. The following chart shows the conjugations of the verb sprikku (to speak).

sprikke sprikkom
sprikst¹ sprikkiðð
sprikt¹ sprikken

¹ For the 2nd and 3rd person singular conjugations, twotfeldov midstevinnov in the infinitive may be reduced to a single consonant in accordance with the orthographic rules for vowel shortening. Conversely, if the vowel is a lan eðelišš leoðrun, a stav will be added to preserve vowel length.

Another example conjugation can be given of a slightly different verb with a lan eðelišš leoðrun: seku (to attack).

seke sekom
sēkst¹ sekiðð
sēkt¹ seken

Thus, the verb endings for the general present tense are -e, -st, -t, -om, -iðð, -en.

Simple Past Tense (Soð ārfjērst)Edit

The past tense in Evansk is formed by changing the vowel closest to the end of the word in the present tense, and dropping the -e in the 1st person singular. Otherwise, the conjugations are the same. The list of vowel changes are listed below.

Nufjērst Ārfjērst
/ɛ/ /ɪ/
/e/ /ɑɪ̯/
/ɪ/ /æ/
/i/ /ɑ/
/æ/

/ɛ/

/ɑ/ /e̯o/
/u/ /o/
/o/ /u/
/e̯o/ /ju/*
/ɑɪ̯/ /jɑ/*
  • If the stem of a verb in the present tense has a glide before the primary vowel, that glide is replaced by /j/ upon conversion to the past tense. For example, ič čweorve is changed to ič čjurv.

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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