Wikia

Conlang

Evansk

3,215articles on
this wiki
Talk0


Progress 0%
Evansk
Evvānsk/Godspraksk
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
First
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Evansk is a conlang that exists primarily in the fictional world of Čuld, as the language of the Mighty Kingdom (Mīčtos Onwāldinn). It is spoken mostly by humans, but some other inhabitants and traders speak is as well, such as elves, goblins, the occasional halfling, and others. However, just because it exists in a fictional world does not mean it is restricted to it! I attempt to use Evansk in my daily life, and I hope to grow it to a fully functional conlang little by little. Anyone is welcome to attempt to learn it (as I don't think that it is too hard), and the more who I have to speak it with, the merrier! Although I have had many conlang ideas, Evansk is my most fleshed-out and well developed conlang, with both history and a tiny bit of writing in it. It was also my first conlang, although not necessarily the first one that I developed heavily; some other ideas have been scrapped, and I've always come back to Evansk.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental  Alveolar

Post-alveolar

Palatal Velar  Uvular Glottal
Nasal m <m> n <n> (ŋ) <n>
Plosive p <p> b <b> t <t> d <d> k <k> g <g>
Fricative f <f> (v) <v> θ <þ>  (ð) <ð> s <s> ʃ <š> h <h>
Affricate tʃ <č>
Approximant j <j> w <w>
Trill r <r>
Lateral app. l <l>

VowelsEdit

Long Short
Close Front i: <i ī> ɪ <i>
Close Back u (u:) <u>
Mid Front e: <e ē> ɛ <e>
Mid Back o (o:) <o>
Open Front æ <a>
Open Back ɑ: <a ā>

AlphabetEdit

The three alphabets in use are the Latin alphabet (in our world) plus Wāgdov Runov and Folmratanov Runov, the two conscripts that have been created for the language for use in our world and in the conworld it exists in. The only differences are minor allophonic variations that are expressed in the Latin alphabet but not in the native one, as well as four additional letters in the native alphabets which represent <st nd eo ei>.

Latin Alphabet: < f u þ a r k g č w h n i j p z s š t b e m l o d ž (ð) (v) >. Although optional, <ð v> are usually used to indicate voiced allophones of <þ f> to increase simplicity for non-speakers.

Wāgdov Runov:
Evvansk alphabet2
This native alphabet is used for formal documents, lasting writings on stone,religious ceremonies, and other important events, similar to print in English.


Folmratanov Runov:
Evvansk alphabet handwritten2
This handwritten alphabet is used for daily documents, letters, quick notes, personal records/documents and other informal uses, similar to cursive in English.

OrthographyEdit

Most letters are pronounced the same no matter what their position in a word. The exceptions are f, þ, and vowels.

F /f/ and Þ /θ/ are pronounced unvoiced (unstēvd) when at the beginning of a word or when followed or preceded by an unvoiced consonant (unstēvd midstevinn); they are voiced (stēvd) in all other positions, realized as [v] and [ð].

Weak vowels, or eðeliššov leoðrunov, and become short (lutel) when followed by a consonant cluster in the Latin orthography. This can be negated by adding a macron (stav) to <a e i>, turning them to firm vowels, or trumov leoðrunov. A trum leoðrun is unaffected by the consonants surrounding it and thus is always long (lan). The vowels <o u> are always trumov leoðrunov and thus cannot become short; however, they vary allophonically in length according to the environment. For instance, /hund/ is pronounced [hund] but /uvel/ is pronounced [u:ve:l].

For the following examples, I will use ð, s and t as my example consonants; however, know that they can be replaced by any other consonants and the effect on the vowel will be the same.

Lanov Leoðrunov Lutelov Leoðrunov
< ā aða > [ɑ:] < aðð² > [æð]
< ē eða > [e:] < ess² > [ɛs]
< ī iða > [i:] < itt² > [ɪt]
< oða > [o:]¹ < ost > [ost]
< uða > [u:]¹ < ust > [ust]

¹ Note that /u/ and /o/ do not vary phonemically in length, and thus cannot take a stavum to show that they would vary in length. Therefore, a word such as fūrð cannot exist and would instead be spelled furð.

² A double consonant (twotfeld midstevinn) in the Latin orthography shortens an eðelišš leoðrun before it just as a consonant cluster (midstevinn klot) would. The consonant itself does not change, but the vowel just before it becomes lutel when it would otherwise be lan. Because this is the only function of a twotfeld midstevinn, a stav followed by one is impossible. Therefore, a word such as ētten cannot exist, and a word such as fūrr can doubly not exist.

Finally, when combining words, conjugating verbs or declining nouns, the elimination of a vowel after a twotfeld midstevinn often renders it unnecessary  due to the production of a new midstevinn klot, thus reducing it to one consonant. For example, the word sprikku, when conjugated to 2nd person singular, gives sprikst.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

VerbsEdit

Present Tense (Nufjērst tid)Edit

The present tense in Evansk serves as a habitual present (as in English he runs) as well as an actual present (as in English he is running). Another way to form the present progressive, with more emphasis on the fact that the action is happening at that very moment, is to use the construction binnu att ____, where the blank is filled in by any infinitive (i.č binn att sprikku) Verbs in Evansk conjugate by replacing the infinitival marker -u with different suffixes. The following chart shows the conjugations of the verb sprikku (to speak).

sprikke sprikkom
sprikst¹ sprikkiðð
sprikt¹ sprikken

¹ For the 2nd and 3rd person singular conjugations, twotfeldov midstevinnov in the infinitive may be reduced to a single consonant in accordance with the orthographic rules for vowel shortening. Conversely, if the vowel is a lan eðelišš leoðrun, a stav will be added to preserve vowel length.

Another example conjugation can be given of a slightly different verb with a lan eðelišš leoðrun: seku (to attack).

seke sekom
sēkst¹ sekiðð
sēkt¹ seken

Thus, the verb endings for the general present tense are -e, -st, -t, -om, -iðð, -en.

Simple Past Tense (Soð ārfjērst)Edit

The past tense in Evansk is formed by changing the vowel closest to the end of the word in the present tense, and dropping the -e in the 1st person singular. Otherwise, the conjugations are the same. The list of vowel changes are listed below.

Nufjērst Ārfjērst
/ɛ/ /ɪ/
/e/ /ɑɪ̯/
/ɪ/ /æ/
/i/ /ɑ/
/æ/

/ɛ/

/ɑ/ /e̯o/
/u/ /o/
/o/ /u/
/e̯o/ /ju/*
/ɑɪ̯/ /jɑ/*
  • If the stem of a verb in the present tense has a glide before the primary vowel, that glide is replaced by /j/ upon conversion to the past tense. For example, ič čweorve is changed to ič čjurv.

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


Example textEdit

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki