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Fèngë

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Fèngë
Fèngës èmèr
Type
Rather synthetic
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental/Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m (m) n (n)
Plosive p (p)
b (b)
t (t)
d (d)
k (k)
g (g)
ʔ (')
Fricative ɸ (f)
β (v)
s (s)
z (z)
θ (þ)
ʃ (š)
ʒ (ž)
χ (x)
ʁ (ğ)
ɦ (h)
Affricate ts (c) tʃ (č) ɟ͡ʝ (đ)
c͡ç (ŧ)
Approximant j (y)
Trill r: (r)
Lateral app. l (l)

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Short Long Short Long Short Long
Close

i (i)

y (ü)

i: (í)

y: (ű)

u (u) u: (ú)
Mid

e (e)

ø (ö)

e: (é)

ø: (ő)

ə (ë)* o (o) o: (ó)
Open-mid ɛ (è) ɛ: (ȅ) ɔ (ò) ɔ: (ȍ)
Open ä (a) ä: (á) ɒ (à) ɒ: (ȁ)

* Usually [ɘ].

Vowels can be nasalised by putting a ņ after them.

Diphthongs: ai /aɪ/, oi /oɪ/, òi /ɔɪ/, ei /eɪ/, èi /ɛɪ/; au /aʊ/, èu /ɛʊ/, òu /ɔʊ/, iu /iʊ/

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

PronounsEdit

1st person
2nd person
3rd person ë

3rd person pronoun has also 2 human variants: lë and në for male and female respectively.

The declension of pronouns is similar to declension of nouns ending on ë.

NounsEdit

Nouns have 5 main cases, 4 secondary cases and a wide pattern of declension. Secondary cases (inessive, lative, ablative, similative) have identical rules for all declensions.

Ending in a consonant, short final vowelEdit

Singular Plural
Nominative bȅxèt (table) bȅxȅt
Genitive bȅxèt(ë)s bȅxȅt(ë)s
Dative bȅxètum bȅxȅtum
Accusative bȅxèti bȅxȅti
Essive bȅxètaņ bȅxȅtaņ
Inessive bȅxètaņdë bȅxȅtaņdë
Lative bȅxètaņtȅm bȅxȅtaņtȅm
Ablative bȅxètaņlek bȅxȅtaņlek
Similative bȅxètkö bȅxȅtkö

Ending in a short vowelEdit

Singular Plural
Nominative ume (headless man) umé
Genitive umes umés
Dative umem umém
Accusative umer umér
Essive umeņ uméņ

Ending in a long vowelEdit

Those declensions usually don't take a -në nominative ending, but declension remains such.

Sing. Pl.
Nom. èžé-në (all) èžénè
Gen. èžév èžép 
Dat. èžénam èžénum
Acc. èžén èžét
Ess. èžénö èžéne

Ending in ëEdit

Singular Plural
Nom. më (mouse) mëņ
Gen. mës mëņs
Dat. mëm mëņm
Acc. mër mëņr
Ess. mëtèņ mëņtèņ In.

Ending in a consonant, long final vowelEdit

These declensions take -èš in nominative.

Sing. Pl.
Nom. imȅd-èš (word) imȅdër
Gen. imȅdë imȅdér
Dat. imȅdȅ imȅdȅr
Acc. imȅdí imȅdír
Ess. imȅdaņ imȅdőņ

Ending in a consonant, final vowel ëEdit

Sing. Pl.
Nom. ëc (tree) ëcëņ
Gen. ëcë ëceņ
Dat. ëcé ëcéņ
Acc. ëcën ëcër
Ess. ëca ëcaņ

Ending in öEdit

S. P.
N. tö (grass) tèvéš
G. tév tèvéše
D. tèvéšam
A. tén tèvéšom
E. téné tèvéša

Ending in őEdit

S. P.
N. lő (a Fèngë alcoholic beverage) lévè
G. lővèk lék
D. lőnam lém
A. lőbè lé'è
E. lőņ

Irregular nounsEdit

Fèngëkòm (Fèngë man/woman)Edit

Sing. Pl.
Nom.

Fèngëkòm

Fèngëkòmët

All other is like the basic declension.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives decline as nouns, but can be not declined at all.

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are made by doubling the final consonant (not indicated in writing) and adding an -öš ending. E.g. èn (soft) [ɛn] becomes ènöš ['ɛ.n:ø̞ʃ]. The -èš adjectives drop the -èš ending.

If an adjective ends in a vowel, a -nè ending is added instead.

Irregularities:

amál [a.'ma:l] (again), adverbs of time, and adverbs like ödöt (once) are put after the verb.

đebèr [ɟ͡ʝe.'bɛr] - đebèröš ['ɟ͡ʝe.bɛ.r:ø̞ʃ] (fast, quick - fast, quickly)

VerbsEdit

Verbs have 3 conjugations, 3 persons, and different mood markers. The infinitive endings are -čë and -të for imperfect and perfect verbs respectively (perfect ending is used more frequently). The sparingly used 3rd class verbs carry same mood markers as imperfect verbs.

Note: the perfect form is always used in colloquial speech.

Imperfect Sing. Pl.
1st p. -ex -eņx
2nd p. -ek -eņk
3rd p. -e -eņ
Perfect Sing. Pl.
1st p. -ëx -ëņx
2nd p. -ëk -ëņk
3rd p. -ëņ
Other Sing. Pl.
1st p. -ëm -ëņm
2nd p. -ës -ëņs
3rd p. -ët -ëņt

Tense markersEdit

Present Past Future
-d- -t- -v-

Mood markersEdit

Verbs have indicative, interrogative, potential, conditional, subjunctive and imperative moods. All of these are expressed by infixes.

Ind. Int. Pot. Cond. Subj. Imp.
Perf. -e- -ö- -è- -ü- -í- -i-
Imp. -ë- -o- -ò- -u- -é- -a-

The subjunctive mood is used to express "if" clauses.

Between two moods (usually any mood with interrogative) a -š- infix is put.

E.g. "will you be able to think?" (think - "műxètë") is "műxèvošòk?"

The verb "to be"Edit

The verb "to be" (èčë, 3c) is irregular and is used sparingly.

Sing. Pl.
1st p. èmxë èmxënè
2nd p. èmkë èmkënè
3rd p. èmlë èmë
Pot. mood Sing. Pl.
1st p. èmxò èmxònè
2nd p. èmkò èmkònè
3rd p. èmlò èmò

Between two moods a standard -š- infix is put.

NumeralsEdit

Numerals come in 2 forms, "indefinite" (if counting or saying the digit or a "foreign" number school mark) and "common" (if saying something like "two cows"). Here is the list of the most commonly used numerals:

English Indef. Common
zero oy eyö
one yat ödö
two ŧet setö
three èrèk tarö
four èŧe artö
five èž ketö
six òt detö
seven dèt tötö
eight göc išö
nine gí /gij/ tasö
ten pès gedö
hundred daš kesö
thousand adèr tadö
million gada gadö
billion mot fatö

VocabularyEdit

Swadesh listEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3heë
4wexëņ
5you (plural)këņ
6theyëņ
7thisèþ
8that
9here
10there
11who
12whatmét
13whereèđél
14whenvélèt
15howđen
16not
17allèžé
18manyšèmè
19someèménèš
20fewím
21otherèņtè
22oneyat
23twoŧét
24threeérèk
25fourèŧe
26fiveèž
27bigđe
28longètèš
29widešèlémèš
30thickétèk
31heavyëŧi
32smallkèŧénèš
33shortčenékeš
34narrowcèr
35thinèšélèš
36womannènà
37man (adult male)đérèš
38man (human being)ènè
39childènèd
40wifeèštè
41husbandèšèr
42motherène
43fatherèt
44animalxèvé
45fishdȅgèš
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


GreetingsEdit

Űvèrèdex! - Hello! (lit. I greet!) (formal)

Űvèrök! - Hello!

Èrűdak se'èņtèm! - Goodbye! (lit. Go in peace!) (formal)

Töpök! - Bye!

Ȍfëtén mő èmlatë ëmën! - May our discussion not be foolish!

Èzék _____ - My name is _____ (formal) Èzés kivë? - What's your name? (lit. What your name will be?) (formal)

Xë _____ - I'm _____

Kë xèvëk? - Who you are? (lit. Who will you be?)

Đen èmètéx? - How are you? (lit. How's your life?)

Common phrasesEdit

Èbèraņ - on the behalf

Ètèskö - for example

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