Faulona was created to familiarize myself with Latin and Italian, and yes, it is another Romance conlang, but it contains genders and a bit more of a grammar than my previous conlangs. It's vocabulary is largely from Vulgar Latin, with a bit from Classical Latin, and it underwent many of the same sound changes as Italian, except for the "l>i" shift seen in words like "piacere". from Latin "placere".
| Name: Faulona
Head Direction: Final (mostly)
Number of genders: Two
I don't really have a conworld, as I'm not as much into that, but if I were to designate a place to this language, it would definitely be somewhere along the northern coast of the Mediterranean, due to its similarity to Latin and Italian.
These mostly are written as they appear in the language. However, not that the alveolo-palatal fricative and affricates, are pronounced as such every time an "i" follows a /t/, /d/, or /s/. The palatal nasal is represent by the digraph "gn" and the voiceless velar plosive is represented by "c".
|Plosive||p b||t d||k (c) g|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ɕ ʑ (si)|
|Affricate||tɕ (ti) dʑ (di)|
|Flap or tap||ɾ|
|Open-mid||ɛ (e)||ʌ (a, u) ɔ (o)|
A B C D E F G I K L M N O P R S T U V (Z)
A Be Ce De E Ef Ge I Ka El Em En O Pe Er Es Te U Ve (Ze)
In the alphabet, the "z" is shown in brackets because there is not actually a letter for it.“Z” is written with one “s” in the middle of a word (whereas “s” is written with two), and it simply isn't put at the beginning of a word. It also doesn't come up in consonant clusters unless the other consonant is a voiced plosive.
Basically, "z" is an allophone of "s" intervocalically.
Most words cannot end in any kind of consonant, but words that end in nasals or "r" are allowed, and the nasals assimilate to the next letter's point of articulation.
"Un" and "On" are never written with "m" at the end, but still assimilate.
Other words ending in nasals are usually prepositions, and end with a voiced bilabial nasal (written "m") before a vowel (as long as the next consonant is not also a voiced bilabial nasal), as well as before bilabial letters. Before alveolar consonants, a voiced alveolar nasal (written "n") is used, and before velar consonants, a voiced velar nasal (written "n") is used. Before labiodental fricatives, a voiced labiodental nasal (written "n") is used.
Sem=like, as (semblative/essive, cognate with "same")
Cun on basio=with a kiss ("n" is actually a voiced bilabial nasal)
Cum on sodalo=with a comrade
Cum pane=with bread
The usage of "r" varies, and is not dependent on spelling. Spelling changes according to the number of syllables, where the letters are in the word, what suffixes and prefixes are added, (such as the transitional and causative verb prefix "a-", which doubles following unvoiced consonants, "r", and nasals) and which letter is in question (generally voiced consonants, except for nasals, don't double). Some words differentiate only by their spellings. I still need to kind of work it out more fully. "R" is generally tapped when alone, trilled when beside other letters, and approximated when another "r" is placed in the same syllable, and is part of the root (since conjugations can dissimilate "r" into "l").
"Gn" is a generally palatalized voiced alveolar nasal, especially at the beginning of a word, but can be pronounced as its separate components as per the whim of the speaker when it is in the middle of the word (despite this sometimes violating phonotactics).
A voiced plosive followed by a voiced fricative is only allowed when they are an affricate, and no nasal or approximant can come before a plosive or fricative at the beginning of a syllable.
In a word where "l" is in a consonant cluster, like in "pulvre", meaning "dust", the "l" can be softened to a vowel—the same kind of sound as the "o" in Serbian "Beograd", which sounds like an "l" but is kind of softer to say. A "dark l" can also be used. This also happens when the "l" is alone intervocalically, but not at the start of a sentence.
Normally stress is penultimate, but when the last two syllables are both vowels (e.g. "venio", I come), stress can either be placed on the penultimate syllable, or the one before that.
There is a "low" dialect, which fricativizes many phones. This includes turning "g" and "c" into a voiced velar fricative and an unvoiced one, respectively, as well as palatalizing "si" and "ti" more sharply than normal, so that the "i" is no longer pronounced (unless it is by itself). "V" also becomes even less like a voiced fricative and more like an approximant. "Ni" also palatalizes, as well as "li".
Largely SVO, or SOV in which the object is a pronoun, including the reflexive "se" pronoun. Adjectives come before the nouns they modify, and adverbs come after verbs, but before adjectives. Articles come before the nouns they modify, and prepositions are used. Sentence structure can be reverted to VSO for the sake of avoiding two "a"s in hiatus, as they do not have comfortable alternate pronunciations to be in a row, whereas "e e" can revert to "e ɛ", "i i" can revert to "i ɪ", "o o" can have a "w" semivowel placed intervocalically, and "u u" can revert to "u ʌ".
"Dat-il a la filia un flora" means "He gives a flower to the girl", with VSO word order, and the indirect object coming after the direct. The word "da", meaning "he/she/it gives", has an archaic "t" added on (somewhat influenced by French liaison and also by older Latin spellings) to have the sequence "da il" made more comfortable to say. Sometimes, even these modifications aren't enough, so word order changes slightly again, and "a" turns into "ad", exactly like the Latin word of the same meaning, rendering "Il dica a Anna" ("he speaks to Anna") from an awkward triple-a hiatus, into "Ad Anna dicat-il".
Auxiliary verbs come before main verbs, and conditional mood and subjunctive mood are conjugated, whereas negative mood is shown with a separate word, "no", placed before the verb. The subjunctive is also used as an optative, and occasionally as a conditional, as it is really just a general irrealis mood. The desiderative mood is shown with the modal verb "vellere", placed before the main. Interrogative is expressed with present indicative, and there is not really a third-person interrogative, however the third-person singular subjunctive conjugation can be used for this. Directive moods are generally shown with modal verbs, as are most epistemic moods (except the subjunctive). The indicative can also show the progressive, jussive, and gnomic, besides its usual use as an aorist aspect.
Masculine nouns usually end in "-o", changing to "-i" in the plural, whereas feminine nouns end in "-a", changing to "-e" in the plural. Several nouns end in "-e" in the singular and plural, with genders that vary and must be memorized for each noun. Also, there are a handful of neuter nouns; see the "Other" section at the bottom for those. "Mano" is a feminine word, and "atta" is another feminine word, that means "father".
I thought of something while wondering why "qui/chi" doesn't decline in Romanic languages. It does in Latin, so why not in its descendants? So, I made some words, "cui/cue" (once "cua" too) nominatively and "cuom/cuem" (once "cuim" too) accusatively, to show the pronoun "who" and "whom", respectively. The plural/singular distinction isn't expressed in this pronoun, but number would still carry on after. As a subordinating conjunction, however, "ce" is still used. "Cuam" can be used as a formal "than", replacing "ce", but "cuanto" could also be used for this, and would decline.
Illo opea ce sia grandioro=he wishes he were larger
There are no ergative verbs in Faulona. "Lu pane cocca" means that the bread is actually cooking, not being cooked
"Essere" is the basic copula, but "stare" is used to show existence ("there is"="sta", "there are"="stano") and height ("...le monte stavano ultre ardue...").
Verbs have three tenses, two moods, and multiple aspects. Imperfect and basic past is formed as shown in the verb conjugations below, but a compound verb is used for perfect voice, the auxiliary verb being "avere", followed by the past participle. Like Italian and French, if the direct object is a pronoun and comes before the auxiliary verb (including "cuem" (masc.) and "cuam" (fem.)), then its gender and number are reflected in the PPP's ending (PPP=past passive participle).
To make the mediopassive voice, with no marked volition, turn the verb into its PPP form before conjugating it normally (retaining the verb type). This is why "metire" means "measure, estimate; mete out, ration", and its PPP infinitive verb form, "mensire", means "equal (in number/measure)". "Mensire" technically means "to be measured/estimated/meted out".
Causitive and mediopassive verbsEdit
Intransitive verbs are made causative by marking the passive voice, transitive verbs require the passive of auxiliary verb “facere”.
Clamatto=I am caused to cry
Curettevemo=We were forced to run
Illo me clamatta=He is caused to cry (by me)
Io lu facco clamare=I make him cry
Fatto edere=I am caused to eat
Facco edere=I cause to eat
Fatta me facere clamare/fatta me clamattare
He is caused to cause me to cry
Fattevo lu videre=I was forced to see him
Mora=he is dying, he dies
Morta=he is dead, he died
Me morta=he is dead (by/because of me)
Cesa=it has happened
Cuando veniri?=when will you be coming?
Cuando venitiri?=when will you have arrived?
Ili moventa, moveno, movunt
Ili moverenta, movereno, moverunt
Ili movebenta, movebeno, movebunt
Io moviero, moveo
Tu moviere, movi
Il moviera, movia
Ili movienta, moveano, moviunt
Impersonal participle: Movetto
Root/base: Mov-, muev-
"Io" basis for non-progressive/gnomic conjugations:
Perfect: Avo movetto
Pluperfect: Avebo movetto
Perfect subjunctive: Auro movetto
Pluperfect subjunctive Aurevo movetto
Io fino, finio
Ili finenta, finino, finint
Ili finirenta, finirino, finirint
Ili finiventa, finivino, finivint
Io finisco, fineo
Tu finisce, fini
Il finisca, finia
Noi finissamo, finiamo
Voi finissate, finiate
Ili finissenta, finissino, finiano, finissint
Impersonal participle: Finito
"Io" basis for non-progressive/gnomic conjugations:
Perfect: Avo finito
Pluperfect: Avebo finito
Perfect subjunctive: Auro finito
Pluperfect subjunctive Aurevo finito
-ARE: CANTARE (related to "canare", meaning "to recite" or "to chant")
Ili cantana, cantano, cantunt
Ili cantarana, cantarano, cantarunt
Ili cantavana, cantavano, cantavunt
Noi cantiamo, cantemo
Voi cantiate, cantete
Ili cantiana, cantiano, canteno, cantiunt
Impersonal participle: Cantatto
"Io" basis for non-progressive/gnomic conjugations:
Perfect: Avo cantatto
Pluperfect: Avebo cantatto
Perfect subjunctive: Auro cantatto
Pluperfect subjunctive Aurevo cantatto
For verbs whose roots end in “v”, the past “-ev" infix turns into “-ebb” for the singular conjugations and “-eb” for the plural.
For verbs whose roots end in “r” in which the conjugations contain another “r” as the next consonant (so things like “rier-” or “rer-” aren’t viable), the second “r” changes to “l” through dissimilation. This "l" follows the rules of the "b" in the first rule listed above.
For third person plural conjugations, the first is an old system I used (I keep it written mostly for sentimental value, I guess), the second is revised, and the third is what it changes to during Subject-Verb switching, so "Ili cantarano?" becomes "Cantarunt-ili?" with the syllable break actually between the second "n" and "t" in "Cantarunt", much like the added "t" changing "Il canta?" into "Cantat-il?". The reason it's written down for the plural third person and not the singular is because the plural is more irregular. Also, in both sound shifts, the final "t" is actually pronounced at the beginning of the "Il" syllable, not at the end of the "nt", because the phonotactics allow nasals to end syllables, but not plosives.
To make the past subjunctive one word, infix the imperfect ending before the subjunctive.
Past passive participles were detailed above. Past active participles can be done by passively conjugating the verb before adding the present participle ending; so "having spoken" could be written as "diceventa". "Aventa dicetto" also works.
For "-ere" and "ire" verbs, the present participles is "-enta", and for "-are" verbs, it is "-anta". There are not really present passive participles, however a present participle followed by a past conjugated verb can work. Also, "stanta (past passive participle)" could be used.
Future active participles can be formed by adding the future conjugation before adding the active ending, so "(about/yet) to speak" would be "dicerenta". Future passive participles also aren't easy to form, but "Staranta dicetto" works.
Past Passive: Dicetto, aventa stare dicetto, stavanta dicetto
Past Active: Diceventa, aventa dicetto
Present Passive: Stanta dicetto
Present Active: Dicenta
Future Passive: Staranta dicetto, diceretto
Future Active: Dicerenta
For "-ere" and "ire" verbs, the gerund is "-endo", and for "-are" verbs, it is "-ando". The infinitive is preferred when possible
"Por" is used to form the supine. "Il me faula por me faccere nettere" means "He talks to me to make me understand".
Subjunctive is widely used in Faulona, and is used after "si" (if), "ante ce" (before, in a subordinate clause), "secuenta ce" (after, in a subordinate clause), and "a la ora ce" (if/when). It is also used in hypothetical or could-have-happened situations, so "I hope he comes" is "Spero ce venia", and "I wish he had come" is "Vellerio c'il aura venito", with "wish" being glossed as "would like" (showing that you still wish this, not that it was a previous wish). Another usage is in forming "lazy conditional", so instead of "Avro gaudetto s'il aura venito", to mean "I would have rejoiced if he'd have come", "Auro gaudetto..." would be used, just to mean "I rejoiced (hypothetically) if he'd have come".
Comparative and Superlative
Here are the irregular words from root to conditional to superlative:
Bona>Meliora>Oppima (good, better, best)
Mala>Peiora>Pessima (bad, worse, worst)
Magna/Granda>Maiora>Massima (big/great, bigger/better, biggest/best)
Parva>Minora>Minima (small, smaller, smallest)
Multa>Plura>Plurima (many, more, most)
Alta>Superiora>Suprema (high, higher, highest)
Bassa>Inferiora>Infima (low, lower, lowest)
Otherwise, the suffix for comparative is "-iora", and for superlative, "-issima". Until adverbs are fully worked out, the comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are uncertain, although "-iore"/"-issime" is the best current setup.
Essere and Stare "Essere" is kind of like a gnomic form of "stare", they both are copulas, but "stare" is also existential, and it means "to stand", but it is also more often used for unaccusative auxiliary verb forms, and the passive voice for other verbs. "Essere" relates to the basic condition of something, such as its body parts, its abstract qualities, its generally stable physical qualities, and its location if it is a building, a plant, or some other generally static object. "Stare" is comparative to "am being" as opposed to just "am" in English, showing a current or temporary state, feeling, quality, or location.
I do have a ~150 page grammar guide and dictionary for this language written on my computer, I'm just in the middle of putting it online.
|37||man (adult male)||omo|
|38||man (human being)||—|
|104||think||pendere, censere, credere|
|105||smell||odorare, olere (copula version)|
|106||fear||metuere, tremere, lu meto|
|123||lie||fallere (be false),cubare (recline)|
|154||sea||mare (fem.), talasso, sallo|
In Faulona, quotation marks only contain punctuation if they actually quote something. If there is a pause, it is marked with a comma, but if someone is continuously speaking but there is non-quoted text in between, the comma will go after the quotation mark to show the reader to pause, while still letting them know that the quoted person didn't pause. I will use examples to clarify.
"Cuei ve?" ella diceva. NOT "Cuei ve," ella diceva?
"Dun c'illo me faulava", dicevat-ella, "illo diceva ce tu lu placa." NOT "Dun c'illo me faulava," dicevat-ella, "illo diceva ce tu lu placa." Unless she actually paused while saying that.
Also, sentences start with one space, not two. Sentences must be capitalized, but the word "io" doesn't have to be. Slashes are used in various ways, and parentheses are always written "()", even if there are parentheses within parentheses. The semicolon is not used. "@" can be used, and arguably makes even more sense in Faulona, since the word for "at" is "a".
Apostrophes mark omitted text, and quotations within quotations are simply expressed with more quotation marks. To adapt, either a keyboard with two different quotation marks would have to exist, or dumb quotes would be used.
Text breaks into paragraphs to separate ideas and to make the text more legible.
"Si te placa" means "please", and is cognate with "s'il te plait". It is used as in English or French, as a polite way to mark a request or demand. It is usually used simply with an imperative phrase. It does not have to be used when ordering something at a restaurant, instead, you can say "si lica", which roughly means "if that's OK". Another option, which is rarer, is "Velle (cuiva facere)", which kind of means "May you want (to do something)".
"Te laudo" is used to express thanks after someone does something for you. Usually, it is an active thing, saying that you're praising them and are of a status to be able to praise or accept something. Otherwise, you can say "Avo gratia", which means "I have thankfulness", or "Sto placetto", which means "I am pleased".
"Ste/esse grata/grato // este grate" means "you're welcome".
"Me parce" means "Forgive me" or "I'm sorry", and can be rendered more desperate or strong with "si te placa".
"Te lasso" means "I let you" or "I forgive you", and is used as a response to "me parce". A harsh way to let someone know that you acknowledge their apology but you don't want to forgive them is "te fugo", which roughly means "I dismiss you" or "I exile you". This would never be spoken by family members, and would be warrant for a divorce if one spouse apologizes and the other says "te fugo". It's similar to "fuck off" or "go away". "Se fuge" can also be used, and means "dismiss yourself" or "show yourself out", but this can also be used as a slightly less harsh way (esp. with "si te placa" or "velle") to tell someone to leave your house.
The plural "you" is never used as a respectful singular, it is simply a plural.
Letters can be signed with "cum basi" at the end, which means "with kisses". This is usually used when the letter is addressed to parents and grandparents.
The first listed number is used as the actual name of the number, the second number is cardinal (five fish=cuinci pisci), and the third number is ordinal (the fifth fish=lu pisco cuinto).
1=Uno, una, prima
2=Duo, due, secunda
3=Tre, trie, tertia
4=Cuattro, cuattre, cuarta
5=Cuince, cuince, cuinta
6=Sesso, sesse, sesta
7=Seppe, seppa, seppima
8=Otto, otte, ottava
9=Nove, nove, nona
20=Viginta, viginte, vicensima
21=Uno e viginta
30=Triginta, triginte, tricensima
40=Quattranta, cuadraginte, cuadragensima
50=Cincanta, cuincaginte, cuincagensima
60=Seccanta, sessaginte, sessagensima
70=Settuanta, seppuaginta, seppuagensima
80=Ottanta, ottoginta, ottocensima
90=Nonnanta, nonaginta, nonagensima
100=Cento, cente, centemsima
321=Tri-centi, viginta e uno
The irregular verbs are "essere", "avere", "allare", "potere", "vullere", "ire", and, to a lesser part, "faccere". MANY verbs have past participles that seem irregular, but most "irregular" past participles are formed in the same way, depending on their last letter.
Illo esta, est
Illi suenta, sunt
Illi erano, erant
Illi sino, sint
Illi aveno, avent
Illi avereno, averent
Illi aureno, aurent
Illi ieono, ieont
Illi ivino, ivint
Future Io irio Tu iri Illo ira Noi irimo Voi irite Illi irino, irint
Illi ieano, ieant
Illi possono, possunt
Illi poteveno, potevunt
Illi potereno, poterunt
Illi possino, possint
Illi vullono, vollunt
Illi volerano, volerant
Illi voluerano, voluerant
Illi vellino, vellint
Past passive participlesEdit
As stated in the above section, past participles depend on the verb, and its last letter. Bellow is a crude list of such changes.
Frangere, tangere, pingere, stringere> fratto, tatto, pitto, stritto
Cernere>cretto, future basic crev-
Surgere>suretto (Latin, subrectere>surgere?)
"Tenere" and "venire" become "tiendr-" and "viendr-" respectively in the subjunctive.
Common "-ere" verbsEdit
Ciere=put in motion, move, stir, shake, summon, call, appeal, awaken, rouse, stimulate, excite, disturb, produce, cause, begin, provoke (see excite)
Diluere=wash away, dilute, purge, dissolve, dissipate
Eicuere=to equal, object=subject
Lincuere=leave, quit forsake, depart from
Alluere=lap, bathe, flow near or past
Delincuere=transgress, fail in duty, offend, trespass, sin
Licuere=flow, be liquid
Tribuere=grant, bestow, give up, yield, concede, allow, submit
Struere=gather, compose, pick up, amass
Suere=sow, stich; join, fasten together; devise
Tuere=behold, look or gaze at, watch, view; care for, guard, defend, protect, support; uphold, keep up, maintain, preserve
Metuere=fear, be afraid of/to
Battuere=beat (up), hit, pound, fight
Eruere=cast out, throw away; dig, tear, or pluck out
Sorbere=suck in, drink up
Tabere=melt, dwindle, rot, waste away
Cressere, crescere=increase, appear, grow, become
Peiscere=feed, nourish, maintain, support, cultivate
Santafacere=make sacred/holy/healthy/right, worship, sanctify
Noscere=know, recognize, be acquainted with, experience
Parcere=be lenient with, spare, forbear
Licere=be permitted, be allowed
Licere=be for sale, have a price, cost, be worth
Nascere=to be born, to start, to be generated, arise
Ducere=lead, guide, command
Mulcere=stroke, caress, make sweet or pleasant
Poscere=beg, request, demand, desire; call someone; demand (as in hand in marriage)
Tracere=drag, tug, pull
Rubescere=become red, redden
Videre=watch, see, look
Rodere=gnaw, nibble, bite; erode, corrode, eat away
Mordere=bite, nip, sting, eat, take hold of, hurt; rob, steal
Findere=split, cleave, separate, divide, break off (related to fissure, bite)
Frendere=gnash, crush, bruise, grind
Claudere=close, shut, imprison, restrict, limit
Fidere=trust, rely upon, put confidence in
Audere=dare, venture, risk
Cadere=fall, die, cease, happen
Sedere=be sitting down
Gaudere=rejoice, take pleasure in
Sidere=settle, agree, decide
Pendere=to hang, suspend, think, consider
Caedere=cut, hew, fell, strike, beat, kill
Trudere=thrust, push, shove
Attendere=attend to, pay attention to, heed
Tendere=stretch, reach, proceed, strive for, reach for
Ocidere=fall down, set, die
Scandere=climb, ascend, mount
Plodere=clap, strike, burst, pop
Suadere=recommend, advise; advocate, promote, support; urge, exhort, persuade
Grafere=carve, scratch, write, draw
Tingere=wet, moisten, impregnate, dye, tinge
Veggere=excite, move, quicken; be active or lively (see wagon)
Leggere=collect, gather, pick up; count, choose, select, appoint; tell, read, recite
Tangere=touch, grasp, reach, arrive at, attain to, move, affect
Frangere=break, shatter, press, crush
Auggere=increase, enlarge, exaggerate; honor, exalt, praise
Luggere=mourn, grieve, lament
Fulgere=glitter, gleam, glare, glisten
Stringere=press, be tight, be closed
Astringere= Draw close, bind or tie together; tighten, contract; check, repress, restrain, squeeze
Plangere=bewail, lament, mourn
Iogare, iungere=join, connect, bind; understand
Agere=do, act, make, manage, conduct
Spargere=scatter, sprinkle, strew
Fingere=mold, train, teach, fashion, form, instruct
Tergere=rub, wipe, clean; polish, burnish
Reggere=to rule, guide, direct, govern
Teggere=cover, shield, protect, defend, hide, bury
Surgere=get up, wake up, rise, arise
Pangere=fasten, fix, set; drive in, sink in; settle, conclude, fix, pledge, pact
Docere=teach, show, instruct
Fallere=deceive, trick, lie, cheat, disappoint, perjure; escape the notice of, be unseen
Alere=nourish, feed, maintain, develop
Tollere=raise, lift up, elevate; remove, take away; destroy, abolish; erase
Dolere=suffer, grieve, lament, ache, feel pain
Valere=be strong/healthy, be worth; to be able/have capacity to
Flere=weep, cry; lament, grieve for (1st person singular=fleo)
Olere=give off a smell, omit an odor
Emere=buy, purchase, acquire
Vomere, vemere=spew, vomit, rush forth
Sumere=assume, suppose, take up, seize, undertake
Premere=press, pursue, nag, annoy, follow, be a nuisance, hunt
Tremere=be afraid of, tremble/shake/shudder at
Sinere=let, permit, suffer, set, put down, lay down
Cernere=discern, differentiate, sift, distinguish (see discern)
Manere=stay, remain; wait for, expect; last, endure
Tenere=hold, have, rent, keep, sustain
Cappere=capture, buy, take
Appere=fasten, connect, attach, bind
Coepere=begin (coepio in Latin)
Scalpere=scratch, carve, engrave
Carpere=pluck, pick, harvest; tear off, seize, steal; select, pick
Cuerere=seek, demand, question, wonder
Serere=sow, plant, establish, found, produce; close, connect, bind, compose, interweave, entwine, braid
Terrere=frighten, alarm, scare, terrify
Arere=to be dry, parched, withered
Virere=be verdant, green; flourish, be lively
Censere=give opinion, think, recommend, judge, suppose, decree, vote, determine, count, reckon, assess
-ismo, -isere=school of thought/gerund, causative suffix
Rettivisere=elect, designate as leader, instruct, train, or prepare (e.g. teachers, soldiers)
Valettisere=promote, extol, strengthen, give ability or allowance
Pottare=drink (esp. liquor)
Sistere=place, set, stand, appear
Nettere=bind, tie, fasten, relate, connect; learn
Mittere=send, release, discharge, dismiss
Putere=stink, be rotten, be valueless
Petere=ask for, beg for, pray
Nitere=shine, glitter, be radiant
Plettere=weave, braid, pleat; twist, bend, turn
Pettere=seek, aim at, desire; hunt, pursue
Cuatere=shake, agitate; vex, harass; excite, affect
Vertere=turn, revolve; exchange, translate
Certere=argue, dispute, contend, settle (esp. by combat)
Devere=owe, ought, should, must (regular)
Favere=notice, pay attention to (pp fauto)
Solvere=loosen, undo, free up, solve
Pavere=to be afraid, struck with fear, be scared of
Livere=be bluish, livid
Vivere=live, be alive; reside in
Common "-ire" verbsEdit
Adire=approach, go to, attend, undertake, undergo
Servire=serve, be slave to, be subject to, be devoted to
Condire=season, spice, make savory, embalm, cultivate, temper
Partire=share, apportion, divide, distribute
Patire=suffer, endure, acquiesce, submit, allow, endure
Munire=protect, enclose, fortify, defend
Secuire=follow, come after
Aurire=drain, drink up, absorb, swallow; devour, consume, exhaust, deplete, use up, engulf; tear up, pluck out, draw out, dig up, hollow out; derive, borrow, take
Fodire=dig, dig out, mine, quarry, clear the earth, bury
Cuire=be able (rare)
Sapire=know (information, skill)
Vestire=clothe, dress, attire, deck
Subire=submit to, undergo
Orire=rise up, spring, appear, originate from
Tranire=go over/across, pass
Metire=measure, estimate; mete out, ration
Mensire=equal (in number/measurement)
Crocire=croak, caw loudly
Sentire=feel, perceive, sense
Common "-are" verbsEdit
Plorare=cry, be sad, rain
Vacare=to lack, be empty, be free, at leisure/bored, hungry
Cellare=hide (see conceal)
Secare=cut, divide, amputate
Pugnare=punch, fistfight, brawl
Lassare=expand, make lax, open, release
Vorare=eat, consume, glutton, binge
Laudare=laud, praise, extol
Nuntiare=count; narrate, report, recount, announce (Latin “nuntiare”)
Narrare=narrate, recount, recite, speak
Fablare, faulare=talk, converse, discuss, talk about
Stare=stand, exist, be (location, height)
Firmare=make firm, strengthen, harden
Arare=plough, till, cultivate land, farm
Veinare=hunt, pursue, chase; strive
Vocare=call, pronounce, voice
Ornare=furnish, equip, adorn, decorate, prepare, ornament
Ceicare=blind, obscure, deprive of light or sight
Vigilare=watch, remain awake, be vigil, last through, survive
Vagare=amble, wander, stroll; waver, be unsettled
Palare=wander about, stray, be dispersed
Lacerare=rend, mutilate, mangle, wreck
Mandare=consign, hand over, entrust, confide
Stipare=crowd, press together, compress; cram, stuff, fill; squeeze
Cremare=destroy by fire, burn, cremate
Fumare=to be smoking/smoldering
Dare=give (short form of "donnere")
Precare=beseech, wish, beg, pray
Plorare=wail, complain, lament, cry out
Lentare=bend under strain, flex
Mercare=trade, deal, sell
Laetare=rejoice, cause to rejoice
Mirare=be astonished/amazed at, marvel/wonder at, admire, watch, look at, face (a direction/person)
Lucrare=profit, gain, benefit, earn, win
Cassare=cancel, annul; break, reverse, overturn; make useless or empty
Cuassare=weaken, shake, quake
Oppare=choose, select; wish for, desire; elect (desire/wish=conditional/subjunctive form)
Rogare=ask, enquire, request
Ligare=tie, bind; bandage, wrap around
Latrare=bark, roar, rant
Spirare=breathe, draw breath
Iare=yawn, gape; be open, pause
Odorare=smell (actively, not as a copula)
Mattare=reward, honour; punish, trouble
Fugare=chase away, exile, dismiss
Cailare=carve, engrave, emboss; embroider
Cubare=lie down, recline, be asleep; be bedridden
Formare=make, form, shape, fashion
Pensare=ponder, consider; weigh; think
Flammare=burn, set on fire, go red, blush
Undare=surge, flow, abound
Metare=measure, mete, mark out
Cruentare=stain with blood, dye red, make bloody
Maculare=stain, defile, pollute, dishonor
Cuinare=pollute, defile, stain, befoul; corrupt, contaminate
Micare=vibrate, quiver, beat, glitter, twinkle, tremble
Vetare=forbid, oppose, veto
Violare=treat with violence, abuse, maltreat; violate, defile, profane
Parare=prepare, arrange, provide, furnish
Prepositions that decline to what they modify:
Ultra=above, beyond, over
Infra=underneath, on the bottom of
Sutta=below, underneath, beneath
Vulta=on the subject of
Erga=because of, about, on account of
Versa=toward (when previous vowel is "a", so "a" can't be used)
Cerca=near, around, with, about
Prepositions that do not decline:
A(d)=at, to, toward
|37||man (adult male)||—|
|38||man (human being)||—|
The Babel Text
Lu torre da Babella
Ie lu mondo totto avebba una lingua e on dico vulgo.
E dunc’illi se erente cietti a l’esta, illi trovebeno on plano en Tinara, e evi se certeveno.
E illi se diceveno, “Venite, fattamo di brici e li coccamo plene.” Uteveno lu brico em pono du sasso, e la picce sen gleitto.
Pui illi se diceveno, “Venisso, strucamo por li stessi un ciutta, cum on torre ci se tratat a ceilo, por ce noi cresciamo on nomo por li stessi e no poi siamo spargi per totta supra terra.
Mai lu Dio vennivat a fondo por videre la ciutta e lu torre ce li omi struceveno.
Lu Dio diceva, “Si, sem on greggo vocento la stessa lingua, ili aveno coepetto cuisto fattere, nolla ie c’illi se sidiamo fattere sera no cedila por ili.
Venite, allamo a fondo e malfundamo ilora lingua por c’illi no se intralegiono.”
Poi lu Dio li spargeva du evi per totta supra terra, e illi arrestavano struccere la ciutta.
Lu cuisto es porcuei ella fu vocatta Babella—parcosce evi lu Dio malfundeva la lingua du mundo totto. E di evi lu Dio li spargeva supra la pella du mundo totto.
Patrono e lu Draco— Grandfather and the Dragon
Dun ce mo alto-alto-patrono fu omo iuveno, illo vagava lu mundo.
Iva prime a favonio; ivi stava sola l’arena.
Iva secuente a seppentrio; ivi stava sola la nivea.
Iva secuente a la oriente; ivi le monte stavano ultre ardue e alto-alto-patrono no poteva le scandere.
Tande sideva vagare a l’austra, par ecuo, par plaustro, e par barca.
A l’austro videva la grandissima ciutta du totto du mundo.
LU VENTO SEPPENTRIO E LA SOLE certeveno supre cui fossa lu potentissimo, e sideveno ce lu cui fossa vocatto vincoro fossa lu cui potea primamente devestire on omo vaganto de veste. Lu Vento Seppentrio tentava primamente doccere ce valea e flava da forte totta, aute dun ce flava fortiure, lu Vaganto ligava le veste plu stringamente, usce tande, teggento totto sperantia da vincere, lu Vento vocava la Sole por videre lu cui potavea facere. La Sole niteva plodamente da caldite totta. Lu Vaganto, per sentire li radi mulcenti, deprendeva la catta de veste, un secuenta un alia, e tande, magno retto par la caldite, devestiva e alluetta par un fluentina cue cubava en sa passira.
Lu persuasio esta maiora cuanta la stippantia.
I was wondering about adverbs, because I don't understand how it's OK for adjectives to match nouns, but not for adverbs to match adjectives (just obviously not verbs, which don't carry gender in Faulona), which I've heard from various places. Currently I simply have a suffix "-e" off the root for an adverb, maybe I could add an "-i" suffix variant for masculine adverbs? Another thing I have is "-itre", from Latin "iter", but I find it kind of clunky and find it kind of close to the abstract nominalizer, "-ite". One old thing I did was I used "cum _ite", so "he runs beautifully" would be glossed as "he runs with beauty", written "Il curra cum belite". Below, you'll see that I've decided what to do with adverbs, but I'm still not fully sure—should verbs carry on gender, despite not marking it? My first instinct is to say no, since I don't want everything in the sentence ending in the same letter.
Neuter gender is another issue. I currently have it so ambiguous things are masculine in the singular, and feminine in the plural (which I came up with myself before realizing it's also in Romanian), any thoughts on if this sounds good? I don't want this to be a typical "male-priority" Romance language. Also, what about a handful of neuter nouns, that also follow this? The only out-of-the-ordinary one I have so far is "genu", meaning "gender", which would be "gene" in the plural.
What about words like "nolla", meaning "nothing", or "totto", meaning "all", having gender, as they currently do? They don't in French, who's grammar I mostly based my previous conlangs' grammars off of (such as Jamauwyeyh Yatan). Also, I have "no plu" meaning "no longer" or "no more", but I don't really know what kind of word that "more" or "longer" would be in the context, so I want to make some kind of phrase like "per no tempo pluro", meaning "through no more time". I also don't like the French (maybe this is in other Romance languages, too) tendency to add prepositions after a verb, so "j'essaie de me taire" would become "Tento se tacere".
As a related side note, since English just uses the basic "to" infinitive for various things, for a while I didn't understand exactly why French used "pour + infinitive" for the supine until I got more into Latin while making this language and ran into the Latin supine. I'm worried there's some similar reason why the "de" is there in French sentence in the above paragraph, that I'm completely ignorant of, being Anglophone.
There's also a small issue with conjugations for the irregular verbs (essere, avere, allere, venire, tenere), none of which I've posted yet while I finish making sure they're somewhat easy to memorize. For any past subjunctive or conditional, a compound form is needed using an auxiliary verb. I'm fine with compound verbs for perfatto/perfect and pluperfatto/pluperfect, but other Romance languages have a single word, say, for a past subjunctive of a given verb. I'm not sure if I should include this.
I've had the idea of having passive conjugations, like in Latin, in which there would be the root, followed by the root of the passive participle, and then a normal conjugation for the verb type. For example, "it is said" would be written "(il) dicetta", and "you are loved" would be "(tu) amate". Participles would otherwise stay the same as they currently are. Any input on this would be appreciated.
Credo ce avo sidetto ce le tangore aliale (adverbs, "affectors of other(s)") siono formatte utente "-mente" si lu verbo prevenento no mutattea per la gendra du facoro. Ditto aliamento, le tangore aliale no mutattano secuente li verbi facenti, aute mutattano secuente li mutori di verbi (adjectives), e secuente le alie tangore aliale cue attangeno li mutori di verbi.
I think I've decided that adverbs are made with "-mente" if the previous word doesn't change according to the gender of the subject. In other words, adverbs don't change after verbs, but do change after adjectives, or after other adverbs (as long as those adverbs modify adjectives).
Also, adverbs change to participles.
"Li omi, essenti veramenti grandi, fureno veramente fablati sem essenti aute supri alti por gradere per un ianua."
"The men, being truly large, were actually said to be also too tall to walk through doorways."
This sentence matches the first adverb to the participle, but the second adverb affects the verb (not the participle, even if it appears this way), so the basic "-mente" form is used, as per older Latin customs.
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