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Faulona

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Faulona was created to familiarize myself with Latin and Italian, and yes, it is another Romance conlang, but it contains genders and a bit more of a grammar than my previous conlangs. It's vocabulary is largely from Vulgar Latin, with a bit from Classical Latin, and it underwent many of the same sound changes as Italian, except for the "l>i" shift seen in words like "piacere". from Latin "placere".


Progress 57%


Name: Faulona

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Final (mostly)

Number of genders: Two

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes No Yes No No No No No
Participles Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

I don't really have a conworld, as I'm not as much into that, but if I were to designate a place to this language, it would definitely be somewhere along the northern coast of the Mediterranean, due to its similarity to Latin and Italian.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

These mostly are written as they appear in the language. However, not that the alveolo-palatal fricative and affricates, are pronounced as such every time an "i" follows a /t/, /d/, or /s/. The palatal nasal is represent by the digraph "gn" and the voiceless velar plosive is represented by "c".

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ (gn)
Plosive p b t d k (c) g
Fricative f v s z ɕ ʑ (si)
Affricate tɕ (ti) dʑ (di)
Approximant ɹ
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i ɨ (i) u
Near-close ɪ (i)
Close-mid e
Mid ə (e)
Open-mid ɛ (e) ʌ (a, u) ɔ (o)
Near-open
Open a ɑ (a)

Alphabet:

A B C D E F G I K L M N O P R S T U V (Z)

A Be Ce De E Ef Ge I Ka El Em En O Pe Er Es Te U Ve (Ze)

PhonotacticsEdit

In the alphabet, the "z" is shown in brackets because there is not actually a letter for it.“Z” is written with one “s” in the middle of a word (whereas “s” is written with two), and it simply isn't put at the beginning of a word. It also doesn't come up in consonant clusters unless the other consonant is a voiced plosive.

Casa=house=/ˈka.zʌ/

Cassa=he breaks/ˈka.sʌ/

Basically, "z" is an allophone of "s" intervocalically.

Most words cannot end in any kind of consonant, but words that end in nasals or "r" are allowed, and the nasals assimilate to the next letter's point of articulation.

"Un" and "On" are never written with "m" at the end, but still assimilate.

Other words ending in nasals are usually prepositions, and end with a voiced bilabial nasal (written "m") before a vowel (as long as the next consonant is not also a voiced bilabial nasal), as well as before bilabial letters. Before alveolar consonants, a voiced alveolar nasal (written "n") is used, and before velar consonants, a voiced velar nasal (written "n") is used. Before labiodental fricatives, a voiced labiodental nasal (written "n") is used.

Cum=with

Sem=like, as (semblative/essive, cognate with "same")

Cun on basio=with a kiss ("n" is actually a voiced bilabial nasal)

Cum on sodalo=with a comrade

Cum pane=with bread

The usage of "r" varies, and is not dependent on spelling. Spelling changes according to the number of syllables, where the letters are in the word, what suffixes and prefixes are added, (such as the transitional and causative verb prefix "a-", which doubles following unvoiced consonants, "r", and nasals) and which letter is in question (generally voiced consonants, except for nasals, don't double). Some words differentiate only by their spellings. I still need to kind of work it out more fully. "R" is generally tapped when alone, trilled when beside other letters, and approximated when another "r" is placed in the same syllable, and is part of the root (since conjugations can dissimilate "r" into "l").

"Gn" is a generally palatalized voiced alveolar nasal, especially at the beginning of a word, but can be pronounced as its separate components as per the whim of the speaker when it is in the middle of the word (despite this sometimes violating phonotactics).

A voiced plosive followed by a voiced fricative is only allowed when they are an affricate, and no nasal or approximant can come before a plosive or fricative at the beginning of a syllable.

In a word where "l" is in a consonant cluster, like in "pulvre", meaning "dust", the "l" can be softened to a vowel—the same kind of sound as the "o" in Serbian "Beograd", which sounds like an "l" but is kind of softer to say. A "dark l" can also be used. This also happens when the "l" is alone intervocalically, but not at the start of a sentence.

Normally stress is penultimate, but when the last two syllables are both vowels (e.g. "venio", I come), stress can either be placed on the penultimate syllable, or the one before that.

There is a "low" dialect, which fricativizes many phones. This includes turning "g" and "c" into a voiced velar fricative and an unvoiced one, respectively, as well as palatalizing "si" and "ti" more sharply than normal, so that the "i" is no longer pronounced (unless it is by itself). "V" also becomes even less like a voiced fricative and more like an approximant. "Ni" also palatalizes, as well as "li".

Basic GrammarEdit

Largely SVO, or SOV in which the object is a pronoun, including the reflexive "se" pronoun. Adjectives come before the nouns they modify, and adverbs come after verbs, but before adjectives. Articles come before the nouns they modify, and prepositions are used. Sentence structure can be reverted to VSO for the sake of avoiding two "a"s in hiatus, as they do not have comfortable alternate pronunciations to be in a row, whereas "e e" can revert to "e ɛ", "i i" can revert to "i ɪ", "o o" can have a "w" semivowel placed intervocalically, and "u u" can revert to "u ʌ".

"Dat-il a la filia un flora" means "He gives a flower to the girl", with VSO word order, and the indirect object coming after the direct. The word "da", meaning "he/she/it gives", has an archaic "t" added on (somewhat influenced by French liaison and also by older Latin spellings) to have the sequence "da il" made more comfortable to say. Sometimes, even these modifications aren't enough, so word order changes slightly again, and "a" turns into "ad", exactly like the Latin word of the same meaning, rendering "Il dica a Anna" ("he speaks to Anna") from an awkward triple-a hiatus, into "Ad Anna dicat-il".

Auxiliary verbs come before main verbs, and conditional mood and subjunctive mood are conjugated, whereas negative mood is shown with a separate word, "no", placed before the verb. The subjunctive is also used as an optative, and occasionally as a conditional, as it is really just a general irrealis mood. The desiderative mood is shown with the modal verb "vellere", placed before the main. Interrogative is expressed with present indicative, and there is not really a third-person interrogative, however the third-person singular subjunctive conjugation can be used for this. Directive moods are generally shown with modal verbs, as are most epistemic moods (except the subjunctive). The indicative can also show the progressive, jussive, and gnomic, besides its usual use as an aorist aspect.

Masculine nouns usually end in "-o", changing to "-i" in the plural, whereas feminine nouns end in "-a", changing to "-e" in the plural. Several nouns end in "-e" in the singular and plural, with genders that vary and must be memorized for each noun. Also, there are a handful of neuter nouns; see the "Other" section at the bottom for those. "Mano" is a feminine word, and "atta" is another feminine word, that means "father".

I thought of something while wondering why "qui/chi" doesn't decline in Romanic languages. It does in Latin, so why not in its descendants? So, I made some words, "cui/cue" (once "cua" too) nominatively and "cuom/cuem" (once "cuim" too) accusatively, to show the pronoun "who" and "whom", respectively. The plural/singular distinction isn't expressed in this pronoun, but number would still carry on after. As a subordinating conjunction, however, "ce" is still used. "Cuam" can be used as a formal "than", replacing "ce", but "cuanto" could also be used for this, and would decline.

Illo opea ce sia grandioro=he wishes he were larger

There are no ergative verbs in Faulona. "Lu pane cocca" means that the bread is actually cooking, not being cooked

"Essere" is the basic copula, but "stare" is used to show existence ("there is"="sta", "there are"="stano") and height ("...le monte stavano ultre ardue...").

Verbs have three tenses, two moods, and multiple aspects. Imperfect and basic past is formed as shown in the verb conjugations below, but a compound verb is used for perfect voice, the auxiliary verb being "avere", followed by the past participle. Like Italian and French, if the direct object is a pronoun and comes before the auxiliary verb (including "cuem" (masc.) and "cuam" (fem.)), then its gender and number are reflected in the PPP's ending (PPP=past passive participle).

To make the mediopassive voice, with no marked volition, turn the verb into its PPP form before conjugating it normally (retaining the verb type). This is why "metire" means "measure, estimate; mete out, ration", and its PPP infinitive verb form, "mensire", means "equal (in number/measure)". "Mensire" technically means "to be measured/estimated/meted out".

Causitive and mediopassive verbsEdit

Intransitive verbs are made causative by marking the passive voice, transitive verbs require the passive of auxiliary verb “facere”.


Clamatto=I am caused to cry

Curettevemo=We were forced to run


Illo me clamatta=He is caused to cry (by me)

Io lu facco clamare=I make him cry


Fatto edere=I am caused to eat

Facco edere=I cause to eat


Fatta me facere clamare/fatta me clamattare

He is caused to cause me to cry


Fattevo lu videre=I was forced to see him


Unaccusitive verbs


Mora=he is dying, he dies

Morta=he is dead, he died

Me morta=he is dead (by/because of me)


Ceda=it happens

Cesa=it has happened


Cuando veniri?=when will you be coming?

Cuando venitiri?=when will you have arrived?

ConjugationsEdit

-ERE: MOVERE

Present

Io muevo

Tu mueve

Il mueva

Noi movamo

Voi movete

Ili moventa, moveno, movunt


Future

Io movero

Tu moveri

Il movera

Noi moveremo

Voi moverete

Ili moverenta, movereno, moverunt


Past

Io movebbo

Tu movebbe

Il movebba

Noi movebamo

Voi movebete

Ili movebenta, movebeno, movebunt


Subjunctive

Io moviero, moveo

Tu moviere, movi

Il moviera, movia

Noi moveamo

Voi moveate

Ili movienta, moveano, moviunt


Impersonal participle: Movetto

Root/base: Mov-, muev-


"Io" basis for non-progressive/gnomic conjugations:

Perfect: Avo movetto

Pluperfect: Avebo movetto

Perfect subjunctive: Auro movetto

Pluperfect subjunctive Aurevo movetto


-IRE: FINIRE

Present

Io fino, finio

Tu fine

Il fina

Noi finisso

Voi finite

Ili finenta, finino, finint


Future

Io finiro

Tu finiri

Il finira

Noi finirisso

Voi finirite

Ili finirenta, finirino, finirint


Past

Io finivo

Tu finive

Il finiva

Noi finivisso

Voi finivite

Ili finiventa, finivino, finivint


Subjunctive

Io finisco, fineo

Tu finisce, fini

Il finisca, finia

Noi finissamo, finiamo

Voi finissate, finiate

Ili finissenta, finissino, finiano, finissint


Impersonal participle: Finito

Root/base: Fin-


"Io" basis for non-progressive/gnomic conjugations:

Perfect: Avo finito

Pluperfect: Avebo finito

Perfect subjunctive: Auro finito

Pluperfect subjunctive Aurevo finito

-ARE: CANTARE (related to "canare", meaning "to recite" or "to chant")

Present

Io canto

Tu cante

Il canta

Noi cantamo

Voi cantate

Ili cantana, cantano, cantunt


Future

Io cantaro

Tu cantari

Il cantara

Noi cantaramo

Voi cantarate

Ili cantarana, cantarano, cantarunt


Past

Io cantavo

Tu cantave

Il cantava

Noi cantavamo

Voi cantavate

Ili cantavana, cantavano, cantavunt


Subjunctive

Io cantiaro/canteo

Tu cantiare/canti

Il cantiara/cantea

Noi cantiamo, cantemo

Voi cantiate, cantete

Ili cantiana, cantiano, canteno, cantiunt


Impersonal participle: Cantatto

Root/base: Cant-


"Io" basis for non-progressive/gnomic conjugations:

Perfect: Avo cantatto

Pluperfect: Avebo cantatto

Perfect subjunctive: Auro cantatto

Pluperfect subjunctive Aurevo cantatto

Notes

For verbs whose roots end in “v”, the past “-ev" infix turns into “-ebb” for the singular conjugations and “-eb” for the plural.

For verbs whose roots end in “r” in which the conjugations contain another “r” as the next consonant (so things like “rier-” or “rer-” aren’t viable), the second “r” changes to “l” through dissimilation. This "l" follows the rules of the "b" in the first rule listed above.

For third person plural conjugations, the first is an old system I used (I keep it written mostly for sentimental value, I guess), the second is revised, and the third is what it changes to during Subject-Verb switching, so "Ili cantarano?" becomes "Cantarunt-ili?" with the syllable break actually between the second "n" and "t" in "Cantarunt", much like the added "t" changing "Il canta?" into "Cantat-il?". The reason it's written down for the plural third person and not the singular is because the plural is more irregular. Also, in both sound shifts, the final "t" is actually pronounced at the beginning of the "Il" syllable, not at the end of the "nt", because the phonotactics allow nasals to end syllables, but not plosives.

To make the past subjunctive one word, infix the imperfect ending before the subjunctive.

GrammarEdit

Participles

Past passive participles were detailed above. Past active participles can be done by passively conjugating the verb before adding the present participle ending; so "having spoken" could be written as "diceventa". "Aventa dicetto" also works.

For "-ere" and "ire" verbs, the present participles is "-enta", and for "-are" verbs, it is "-anta". There are not really present passive participles, however a present participle followed by a past conjugated verb can work. Also, "stanta (past passive participle)" could be used.

Future active participles can be formed by adding the future conjugation before adding the active ending, so "(about/yet) to speak" would be "dicerenta". Future passive participles also aren't easy to form, but "Staranta dicetto" works.

Past Passive: Dicetto, aventa stare dicetto, stavanta dicetto

Past Active: Diceventa, aventa dicetto

Present Passive: Stanta dicetto

Present Active: Dicenta

Future Passive: Staranta dicetto, diceretto

Future Active: Dicerenta


Gerund

For "-ere" and "ire" verbs, the gerund is "-endo", and for "-are" verbs, it is "-ando". The infinitive is preferred when possible

Supine

"Por" is used to form the supine. "Il me faula por me faccere nettere" means "He talks to me to make me understand".

Subjunctive

Subjunctive is widely used in Faulona, and is used after "si" (if), "ante ce" (before, in a subordinate clause), "secuenta ce" (after, in a subordinate clause), and "a la ora ce" (if/when). It is also used in hypothetical or could-have-happened situations, so "I hope he comes" is "Spero ce venia", and "I wish he had come" is "Vellerio c'il aura venito", with "wish" being glossed as "would like" (showing that you still wish this, not that it was a previous wish). Another usage is in forming "lazy conditional", so instead of "Avro gaudetto s'il aura venito", to mean "I would have rejoiced if he'd have come", "Auro gaudetto..." would be used, just to mean "I rejoiced (hypothetically) if he'd have come".

Comparative and Superlative

Here are the irregular words from root to conditional to superlative:

Bona>Meliora>Oppima (good, better, best)

Mala>Peiora>Pessima (bad, worse, worst)

Magna/Granda>Maiora>Massima (big/great, bigger/better, biggest/best)

Parva>Minora>Minima (small, smaller, smallest)

Multa>Plura>Plurima (many, more, most)

Alta>Superiora>Suprema (high, higher, highest)

Bassa>Inferiora>Infima (low, lower, lowest)


Otherwise, the suffix for comparative is "-iora", and for superlative, "-issima". Until adverbs are fully worked out, the comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are uncertain, although "-iore"/"-issime" is the best current setup.

Essere and Stare "Essere" is kind of like a gnomic form of "stare", they both are copulas, but "stare" is also existential, and it means "to stand", but it is also more often used for unaccusative auxiliary verb forms, and the passive voice for other verbs. "Essere" relates to the basic condition of something, such as its body parts, its abstract qualities, its generally stable physical qualities, and its location if it is a building, a plant, or some other generally static object. "Stare" is comparative to "am being" as opposed to just "am" in English, showing a current or temporary state, feeling, quality, or location.


DictionaryEdit

I do have a ~150 page grammar guide and dictionary for this language written on my computer, I'm just in the middle of putting it online.



No. English
1Iio
2you (singular)tu
3heil/Illo
4weel/Ella
5you (plural)voi
6theyil(l)i/El(l)e
7this(lu) cuisto
8that(lu) ivi
9hereecce
10thereevi
11whoci
12whatcuei
13whereuve
14whendun cuall'ora/dun
15howsencuei
16notno
17alltotta
18manymulta
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otheralia
22oneun/on
23twodue, dui
24threetre, tri
25fourcuattre, cuattri
26fivecince, cinci
27biggranda, magna
28longlonga
29widelatta
30thickcrassa
31heavygrava
32smallpaula, parva
33shortbreva
34narrowstritta
35thintenua
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)omo
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42mothermatra
43fatherpatro
44animalbesto
45fishpisco
46birdava
47dogcano
48lousepeda
49snakeangua
50wormverma
51treearboro
52forestsilva
53stickramino
54fruitfruga
55seedsemina
56leaffolio
57rootradica
58barkcortice (masc.)
59flowerflora
60grasserba
61ropefune (masc.)
62skinpella
63meatcarne (fem.)
64bloodsangue
65boneosso
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggovo
68horncornu
69tailcauda
70featherpluma
71hairpilo
72headcapo
73earaura
74eyeoco
75nosenaso
76mouthbucca
77toothdento
78tonguelingua
79fingernailunguo
80footpedo
81leggamba
82kneegenu
83handmano (fem.)
84wingalla
85bellyventre (masc.)
86gutsille (masc.)
87neckcollo
88backdorso
89breastubra, petto
90heartcore
91liveriecura
92drinkda bere
93eatedere
94biterodere
95suckfellere
96spitspuere
97vomitvomere
98blowflare
99breathespirare
100laughridere
101seevidere
102hearaudire
103knowscire
104thinkpendere, censere, credere
105smellodorare, olere (copula version)
106fearmetuere, tremere, lu meto
107sleepdormire
108livevivere
109diemorire
110killlettare
111fightbellare, battuere
112huntpremere
113hitpugnare, battuere
114cutsecare
115splitfindere
116stabforare
117scratchscalpere
118digfodire
119swimnattare
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkgradere
122comevenire
123liefallere (be false),cubare (recline)
124sitsedere
125standStare
126turnvolvere
127fallcadere
128givedare, donere
129holdtenere
130squeezestipare
131rubfricare
132washlavare
133wipetergere
134pulltrattare
135pushtrudere
136throwiaccare
137tieiogare
138sewsuere
139countnuntire
140saydicere
141singcantare
142playludere
143floatnare
144flowlicuere
145freezeglacere
146swelltumere
147sunsole (fem.)
148moonluna
149starstella
150wateracua
151rainpluvia
152riverfluva
153lakelaco
154seamare (fem.), talasso, sallo
155saltsale (fem.)
156stonesasso, petra
157sandsabla, arena
158dustpulvre (masc.)
159earthterra
160cloudnebula
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skycailo, ceilo
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireigne (masc.)
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenvira
174yellowlaura
175whitealba
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178daydiorno
179yearanno
180warmcalda
181coldfriga
182fullplena
183newnova
184oldsenna
185goodbona
186badmala
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightretta
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetrorra
195drysicca
196correctretta
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightdesco
200leftseve (fem.)
201ata
202inen
203withcum
204ande
205ifsi
206becauseparcosce
207nameContionary_Wiki


PunctuationEdit

In Faulona, quotation marks only contain punctuation if they actually quote something. If there is a pause, it is marked with a comma, but if someone is continuously speaking but there is non-quoted text in between, the comma will go after the quotation mark to show the reader to pause, while still letting them know that the quoted person didn't pause. I will use examples to clarify.

"Cuei ve?" ella diceva. NOT "Cuei ve," ella diceva?

"Dun c'illo me faulava", dicevat-ella, "illo diceva ce tu lu placa." NOT "Dun c'illo me faulava," dicevat-ella, "illo diceva ce tu lu placa." Unless she actually paused while saying that.

Also, sentences start with one space, not two. Sentences must be capitalized, but the word "io" doesn't have to be. Slashes are used in various ways, and parentheses are always written "()", even if there are parentheses within parentheses. The semicolon is not used. "@" can be used, and arguably makes even more sense in Faulona, since the word for "at" is "a".

Apostrophes mark omitted text, and quotations within quotations are simply expressed with more quotation marks. To adapt, either a keyboard with two different quotation marks would have to exist, or dumb quotes would be used.

Text breaks into paragraphs to separate ideas and to make the text more legible.

EtiquetteEdit

"Si te placa" means "please", and is cognate with "s'il te plait". It is used as in English or French, as a polite way to mark a request or demand. It is usually used simply with an imperative phrase. It does not have to be used when ordering something at a restaurant, instead, you can say "si lica", which roughly means "if that's OK". Another option, which is rarer, is "Velle (cuiva facere)", which kind of means "May you want (to do something)".

"Te laudo" is used to express thanks after someone does something for you. Usually, it is an active thing, saying that you're praising them and are of a status to be able to praise or accept something. Otherwise, you can say "Avo gratia", which means "I have thankfulness", or "Sto placetto", which means "I am pleased".

"Ste/esse grata/grato // este grate" means "you're welcome".

"Me parce" means "Forgive me" or "I'm sorry", and can be rendered more desperate or strong with "si te placa".

"Te lasso" means "I let you" or "I forgive you", and is used as a response to "me parce". A harsh way to let someone know that you acknowledge their apology but you don't want to forgive them is "te fugo", which roughly means "I dismiss you" or "I exile you". This would never be spoken by family members, and would be warrant for a divorce if one spouse apologizes and the other says "te fugo". It's similar to "fuck off" or "go away". "Se fuge" can also be used, and means "dismiss yourself" or "show yourself out", but this can also be used as a slightly less harsh way (esp. with "si te placa" or "velle") to tell someone to leave your house.

The plural "you" is never used as a respectful singular, it is simply a plural.

Letters can be signed with "cum basi" at the end, which means "with kisses". This is usually used when the letter is addressed to parents and grandparents.

NumbersEdit

The first listed number is used as the actual name of the number, the second number is cardinal (five fish=cuinci pisci), and the third number is ordinal (the fifth fish=lu pisco cuinto).

1=Uno, una, prima

2=Duo, due, secunda

3=Tre, trie, tertia

4=Cuattro, cuattre, cuarta

5=Cuince, cuince, cuinta

6=Sesso, sesse, sesta

7=Seppe, seppa, seppima

8=Otto, otte, ottava

9=Nove, nove, nona

10=Dece, decimal

11=Undece, undecima

12=Duodece

13=Tredece

14=Cuattordece

15=Cuindece

16=Sedece

17=Seppendece, tredeviginte

18=Duadeviginte

19=Undeviginte

20=Viginta, viginte, vicensima

21=Uno e viginta

30=Triginta, triginte, tricensima

40=Quattranta, cuadraginte, cuadragensima

50=Cincanta, cuincaginte, cuincagensima

60=Seccanta, sessaginte, sessagensima

70=Settuanta, seppuaginta, seppuagensima

80=Ottanta, ottoginta, ottocensima

90=Nonnanta, nonaginta, nonagensima

100=Cento, cente, centemsima

321=Tri-centi, viginta e uno

1000=Milla

Irregular VerbsEdit

The irregular verbs are "essere", "avere", "allare", "potere", "vullere", "ire", and, to a lesser part, "faccere". MANY verbs have past participles that seem irregular, but most "irregular" past participles are formed in the same way, depending on their last letter.

ESSERE

Present

Io so

Tu esse

Illo esta, est

Noi somo

Voi este

Illi suenta, sunt


Imperfect

Io foi

Tu fueste

Illo fu

Noi fuimo

Voi fuste

Illi fuereno


Future

Io ero

Tu ere

Illo era

Noi eramo

Voi erate

Illi erano, erant


Subjunctive

Io sio

Tu sie/sieste

Illo sia

Noi siamo

Voi siate

Illi sino, sint


Past subjunctive

Io fosso

Tu fosse

Illo fossa

Noi fossemo

Voi fossete

Illi fosseno


AVERE

Present

Io avo

Tu ave

Illo ava

Noi avemo

Voi avete

Illi aveno, avent


Imperfect

Io avebbo

Tu avebbe

Illo avebba

Noi avebemo

Voi avebete

Illi avebeno


Future

Io avero

Tu averi

Illo avera

Noi averemo

Voi averete

Illi avereno, averent


Subjunctive

Io auro

Tu aure

Illo sia

Noi auremo

Voi aurete

Illi aureno, aurent


IRE

Present

Io io

Tu ie

Illo ia

Noi imo

Voi ite

Illi ieono, ieont


Imperfect

Io ivio

Tu ive

Illo iva

Noi ivimo

Voi ivite

Illi ivino, ivint


Future Io irio Tu iri Illo ira Noi irimo Voi irite Illi irino, irint


Subjunctive

Io ieo

Tu ii

Illo iea

Noi ieamo

Voi ieate

Illi ieano, ieant


POTERE

Present

Io posso

Tu pote

Illo pota

Noi possamo

Voi possete

Illi possono, possunt


Imperfect

Io potevo

Tu poteve

Illo poteva

Noi potevemo

Voi potevete

Illi poteveno, potevunt


Future

Io potero

Tu poteri

Illo potera

Noi poteremo

Voi poterete

Illi potereno, poterunt


Subjunctive

Io possio

Tu possie

Illo possia

Noi possiamo

Voi possiate

Illi possino, possint


VULLERE

Present

Io vullo

Tu ve

Illo vua

Noi vullomo

Voi volte

Illi vullono, vollunt


Imperfect

Io volevo

Tu voleve

Illo voleva

Noi volevamo

Voi volevate

Illi volerano, volerant


Future

Io voluero

Tu voluere

Illo voluera

Noi volueramo

Voi voluerate

Illi voluerano, voluerant


Subjunctive

Io vello

Tu velle

Illo vella

Noi vellimo

Voi vellite

Illi vellino, vellint

Past passive participlesEdit

As stated in the above section, past participles depend on the verb, and its last letter. Bellow is a crude list of such changes.


Videre>viso

Frangere, tangere, pingere, stringere> fratto, tatto, pitto, stritto

Scrivere>pp scritto

Videre>viso

Morire>morto

Cernere>cretto, future basic crev-

Mittere>misso

Iacere>iatto

Lavare>lautto

Secare>setto

Cedere>ceso

Nascere>natto

Patire>passo

Iuvare>iutto

Gerere>gesto

Fallere>falso

Secare>setto

Dicere>ditto

Claudere>clauso

Ponere>posto

Flere>fletto

Vertere>verso

Reggere>retto

Teggere>tetto

Lincuere>litto

Vincuere>vitto

Iungere>iunto

Sentire>senso

Pingere>pitto

Movere>motto

Tendere>tento/tenso

Solvere>soluto

Surgere>suretto (Latin, subrectere>surgere?)

Plodere>ploso

Fluere>flusso

Suadere>suaso

Ire>ito

Mentire>menso

Ardere>arso

Luere>luto

Pangere>patto

Tingere>tinto

Ciere>cito

Vullere>voluo

-egg>-ett

-c>-tt

-v>-tt

-d>-s

-ng>-tt

"Tenere" and "venire" become "tiendr-" and "viendr-" respectively in the subjunctive.

Common "-ere" verbsEdit

Ciere=put in motion, move, stir, shake, summon, call, appeal, awaken, rouse, stimulate, excite, disturb, produce, cause, begin, provoke (see excite)

Diluere=wash away, dilute, purge, dissolve, dissipate

Eicuere=to equal, object=subject

Lincuere=leave, quit forsake, depart from

Alluere=lap, bathe, flow near or past

Allicuere=melt

Delincuere=transgress, fail in duty, offend, trespass, sin

Futuere=f***

Licuere=flow, be liquid

Tribuere=grant, bestow, give up, yield, concede, allow, submit

Struere=gather, compose, pick up, amass

Suere=sow, stich; join, fasten together; devise

Spuere=spit, spew

Tuere=behold, look or gaze at, watch, view; care for, guard, defend, protect, support; uphold, keep up, maintain, preserve

Metuere=fear, be afraid of/to

Battuere=beat (up), hit, pound, fight

Eruere=cast out, throw away; dig, tear, or pluck out

Fluere=flow

Sorbere=suck in, drink up

Glubere=peel, cleave

Tabere=melt, dwindle, rot, waste away

Nubere=marry, wed

Rubere=be red

Iacere=throw

Cressere, crescere=increase, appear, grow, become

Tacere=be quiet

Peiscere=feed, nourish, maintain, support, cultivate

Santafacere=make sacred/holy/healthy/right, worship, sanctify

Placere=please

Noscere=know, recognize, be acquainted with, experience

Parcere=be lenient with, spare, forbear

Licere=be permitted, be allowed

Licere=be for sale, have a price, cost, be worth

Nascere=to be born, to start, to be generated, arise

Ducere=lead, guide, command

Mulcere=stroke, caress, make sweet or pleasant

Poscere=beg, request, demand, desire; call someone; demand (as in hand in marriage)

Tracere=drag, tug, pull

Glacere=freeze

-escere=become

Dicere=talk, speak

Rubescere=become red, redden

Videre=watch, see, look

Edere=eat

Rodere=gnaw, nibble, bite; erode, corrode, eat away

Mordere=bite, nip, sting, eat, take hold of, hurt; rob, steal

Findere=split, cleave, separate, divide, break off (related to fissure, bite)

Frendere=gnash, crush, bruise, grind

Claudere=close, shut, imprison, restrict, limit

Studere=study

Fidere=trust, rely upon, put confidence in

Audere=dare, venture, risk

Cadere=fall, die, cease, happen

Sedere=be sitting down

Gradere=walk

Vendere=sell

Gaudere=rejoice, take pleasure in

Sidere=settle, agree, decide

Pendere=to hang, suspend, think, consider

Prendere=take, grab

Ludere=amuse, frolic

Ridere=laugh

Credere=believe

Caedere=cut, hew, fell, strike, beat, kill

Trudere=thrust, push, shove

Attendere=attend to, pay attention to, heed

Tendere=stretch, reach, proceed, strive for, reach for

Ocidere=fall down, set, die

Scandere=climb, ascend, mount

Plodere=clap, strike, burst, pop

Suadere=recommend, advise; advocate, promote, support; urge, exhort, persuade

Persuadere=persuade

Ardere=burn

Cedere=happen/occur

Grafere=carve, scratch, write, draw

Tingere=wet, moisten, impregnate, dye, tinge

Veggere=excite, move, quicken; be active or lively (see wagon)

Leggere=collect, gather, pick up; count, choose, select, appoint; tell, read, recite

Intrascire, intraleggere=understand

Tangere=touch, grasp, reach, arrive at, attain to, move, affect

Frangere=break, shatter, press, crush

Auggere=increase, enlarge, exaggerate; honor, exalt, praise

Luggere=mourn, grieve, lament

Pingere=paint

Fulgere=glitter, gleam, glare, glisten

Stringere=press, be tight, be closed

Astringere= Draw close, bind or tie together; tighten, contract; check, repress, restrain, squeeze

Plangere=bewail, lament, mourn

Iogare, iungere=join, connect, bind; understand

Agere=do, act, make, manage, conduct

Navagere=navigate

Spargere=scatter, sprinkle, strew

Fingere=mold, train, teach, fashion, form, instruct

Tergere=rub, wipe, clean; polish, burnish

Reggere=to rule, guide, direct, govern

Teggere=cover, shield, protect, defend, hide, bury

Surgere=get up, wake up, rise, arise

Pangere=fasten, fix, set; drive in, sink in; settle, conclude, fix, pledge, pact

Docere=teach, show, instruct

Fallere=deceive, trick, lie, cheat, disappoint, perjure; escape the notice of, be unseen

Alere=nourish, feed, maintain, develop

Fellere=suck

Tollere=raise, lift up, elevate; remove, take away; destroy, abolish; erase

Dolere=suffer, grieve, lament, ache, feel pain

Valere=be strong/healthy, be worth; to be able/have capacity to

Flere=weep, cry; lament, grieve for (1st person singular=fleo)

Olere=give off a smell, omit an odor

Plere (pleo=1PS)=fill

Emere=buy, purchase, acquire

Vomere, vemere=spew, vomit, rush forth

Tumere=swell, bulge

Sumere=assume, suppose, take up, seize, undertake

Premere=press, pursue, nag, annoy, follow, be a nuisance, hunt

Tremere=be afraid of, tremble/shake/shudder at

Intratenere=share

Sinere=let, permit, suffer, set, put down, lay down

Cernere=discern, differentiate, sift, distinguish (see discern)

Pertenere=continue, sustain

Manere=stay, remain; wait for, expect; last, endure

Tenere=hold, have, rent, keep, sustain

Cappere=capture, buy, take

Appere=fasten, connect, attach, bind

Coepere=begin (coepio in Latin)

Serpere=crawl, creep

Repere=crawl, creep

Scalpere=scratch, carve, engrave

Carpere=pluck, pick, harvest; tear off, seize, steal; select, pick

Cuerere=seek, demand, question, wonder

Serere=sow, plant, establish, found, produce; close, connect, bind, compose, interweave, entwine, braid

Currere=to run

Terrere=frighten, alarm, scare, terrify

Arere=to be dry, parched, withered

Merere=deserve, merit

Virere=be verdant, green; flourish, be lively

Censere=give opinion, think, recommend, judge, suppose, decree, vote, determine, count, reckon, assess

Pulverisere=pulverise

-ismo, -isere=school of thought/gerund, causative suffix

Attivisere=activate

Rettivisere=elect, designate as leader, instruct, train, or prepare (e.g. teachers, soldiers)

Nattivisere=make accustomed

Sensivisere=sensitise

Trattisere=lengthen, stretch

Valettisere=promote, extol, strengthen, give ability or allowance

Vulgisere=publish

Pottare=drink (esp. liquor)

Sistere=place, set, stand, appear

Nettere=bind, tie, fasten, relate, connect; learn

Mittere=send, release, discharge, dismiss

Putere=stink, be rotten, be valueless

Petere=ask for, beg for, pray

Nitere=shine, glitter, be radiant

Plettere=weave, braid, pleat; twist, bend, turn

Pettere=seek, aim at, desire; hunt, pursue

Cuatere=shake, agitate; vex, harass; excite, affect

Vertere=turn, revolve; exchange, translate

Utere=use

Certere=argue, dispute, contend, settle (esp. by combat)

Bivere=drink

Devere=owe, ought, should, must (regular)

Favere=notice, pay attention to (pp fauto)

Solvere=loosen, undo, free up, solve

Pavere=to be afraid, struck with fear, be scared of

Livere=be bluish, livid

Vivere=live, be alive; reside in

Common "-ire" verbsEdit

Avrire=open

Adire=approach, go to, attend, undertake, undergo

Servire=serve, be slave to, be subject to, be devoted to

Condire=season, spice, make savory, embalm, cultivate, temper

Bullire=bubble, boil

Morire=die

Venire=come

Partire=share, apportion, divide, distribute

Devenire=become

Patire=suffer, endure, acquiesce, submit, allow, endure

Munire=protect, enclose, fortify, defend

Scire=to know

Odire=hate

Secuire=follow, come after

Aurire=drain, drink up, absorb, swallow; devour, consume, exhaust, deplete, use up, engulf; tear up, pluck out, draw out, dig up, hollow out; derive, borrow, take

Fodire=dig, dig out, mine, quarry, clear the earth, bury

Cuire=be able (rare)

Sapire=know (information, skill)

Vestire=clothe, dress, attire, deck

Subire=submit to, undergo

Orire=rise up, spring, appear, originate from

Tranire=go over/across, pass

Metire=measure, estimate; mete out, ration

Mensire=equal (in number/measurement)

Crocire=croak, caw loudly

Audire=hear

Sentire=feel, perceive, sense

Common "-are" verbsEdit

Plorare=cry, be sad, rain

Flare=blow, flare

Iuvare=help

Vacare=to lack, be empty, be free, at leisure/bored, hungry

Avacare=to empty

Cellare=hide (see conceal)

Secare=cut, divide, amputate

Pugnare=punch, fistfight, brawl

Lassare=expand, make lax, open, release

Vorare=eat, consume, glutton, binge

Laudare=laud, praise, extol

Lettare=kill, slay

Nuntiare=count; narrate, report, recount, announce (Latin “nuntiare”)

Narrare=narrate, recount, recite, speak

Fablare, faulare=talk, converse, discuss, talk about

Stare=stand, exist, be (location, height)

Firmare=make firm, strengthen, harden

Arare=plough, till, cultivate land, farm

Veinare=hunt, pursue, chase; strive

Sperare=hope

Tropare=find, presume

Trovare=find

Opare=work

Vocare=call, pronounce, voice

Ornare=furnish, equip, adorn, decorate, prepare, ornament

Ceicare=blind, obscure, deprive of light or sight

Lavare=wash

Vigilare=watch, remain awake, be vigil, last through, survive

Vagare=amble, wander, stroll; waver, be unsettled

Palare=wander about, stray, be dispersed

Lacerare=rend, mutilate, mangle, wreck

Mandare=consign, hand over, entrust, confide

Stipare=crowd, press together, compress; cram, stuff, fill; squeeze

Cremare=destroy by fire, burn, cremate

Cantare=sing

Fumare=to be smoking/smoldering

Caccare=defecate

Bappisare=baptize

Dare=give (short form of "donnere")

Precare=beseech, wish, beg, pray

Plorare=wail, complain, lament, cry out

Nutare=allow, nod

Lentare=bend under strain, flex

Forare=bore, pierce

Nattare=swim

Vettare=bear, carry

Mercare=trade, deal, sell

Laetare=rejoice, cause to rejoice

Cenare=dine

Serare=close, fasten

Mirare=be astonished/amazed at, marvel/wonder at, admire, watch, look at, face (a direction/person)

Lucrare=profit, gain, benefit, earn, win

Cassare=cancel, annul; break, reverse, overturn; make useless or empty

Cuassare=weaken, shake, quake

Oppare=choose, select; wish for, desire; elect (desire/wish=conditional/subjunctive form)

Rogare=ask, enquire, request

Ligare=tie, bind; bandage, wrap around

Iocare=play

Mandiare=eat

Latrare=bark, roar, rant

Spirare=breathe, draw breath

Iare=yawn, gape; be open, pause

Odorare=smell (actively, not as a copula)

Bellare=war

Mattare=reward, honour; punish, trouble

Fugare=chase away, exile, dismiss

Cailare=carve, engrave, emboss; embroider

Cubare=lie down, recline, be asleep; be bedridden

Fricare=rub, chafe

Formare=make, form, shape, fashion

Mutare=change

Usare=use

Dubitare=doubt

Pensare=ponder, consider; weigh; think

Flammare=burn, set on fire, go red, blush

Undare=surge, flow, abound

Metare=measure, mete, mark out

Cruentare=stain with blood, dye red, make bloody

Salvare=save

Maculare=stain, defile, pollute, dishonor

Cuinare=pollute, defile, stain, befoul; corrupt, contaminate

Micare=vibrate, quiver, beat, glitter, twinkle, tremble

Vetare=forbid, oppose, veto

Rutilare=redden

Violare=treat with violence, abuse, maltreat; violate, defile, profane

Parare=prepare, arrange, provide, furnish

Tentare=try

Coccare=cook

AdpositionsEdit

Prepositions that decline to what they modify:


Supra=on, above

Ultra=above, beyond, over

Infra=underneath, on the bottom of

Sutta=below, underneath, beneath

Intra=among


Contra=against

Vulta=on the subject of

Secuenta=after

Erga=because of, about, on account of

Versa=toward (when previous vowel is "a", so "a" can't be used)

Lincuenta=away from

Cerca=near, around, with, about


Prepositions that do not decline:


Ante=before

Por=for

Per=through

Par=by

A(d)=at, to, toward

En=in, inside

Sem=as, like

Cum=with

Example textEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


The Babel Text


Lu torre da Babella

Ie lu mondo totto avebba una lingua e on dico vulgo.

E dunc’illi se erente cietti a l’esta, illi trovebeno on plano en Tinara, e evi se certeveno.

E illi se diceveno, “Venite, fattamo di brici e li coccamo plene.” Uteveno lu brico em pono du sasso, e la picce sen gleitto.

Pui illi se diceveno, “Venisso, strucamo por li stessi un ciutta, cum on torre ci se tratat a ceilo, por ce noi cresciamo on nomo por li stessi e no poi siamo spargi per totta supra terra.

Mai lu Dio vennivat a fondo por videre la ciutta e lu torre ce li omi struceveno.

Lu Dio diceva, “Si, sem on greggo vocento la stessa lingua, ili aveno coepetto cuisto fattere, nolla ie c’illi se sidiamo fattere sera no cedila por ili.

Venite, allamo a fondo e malfundamo ilora lingua por c’illi no se intralegiono.”

Poi lu Dio li spargeva du evi per totta supra terra, e illi arrestavano struccere la ciutta.

Lu cuisto es porcuei ella fu vocatta Babella—parcosce evi lu Dio malfundeva la lingua du mundo totto. E di evi lu Dio li spargeva supra la pella du mundo totto.


Patrono e lu Draco— Grandfather and the Dragon

Dun ce mo alto-alto-patrono fu omo iuveno, illo vagava lu mundo.

Iva prime a favonio; ivi stava sola l’arena.

Iva secuente a seppentrio; ivi stava sola la nivea.

Iva secuente a la oriente; ivi le monte stavano ultre ardue e alto-alto-patrono no poteva le scandere.

Tande sideva vagare a l’austra, par ecuo, par plaustro, e par barca.

A l’austro videva la grandissima ciutta du totto du mundo.


LU VENTO SEPPENTRIO E LA SOLE certeveno supre cui fossa lu potentissimo, e sideveno ce lu cui fossa vocatto vincoro fossa lu cui potea primamente devestire on omo vaganto de veste. Lu Vento Seppentrio tentava primamente doccere ce valea e flava da forte totta, aute dun ce flava fortiure, lu Vaganto ligava le veste plu stringamente, usce tande, teggento totto sperantia da vincere, lu Vento vocava la Sole por videre lu cui potavea facere. La Sole niteva plodamente da caldite totta. Lu Vaganto, per sentire li radi mulcenti, deprendeva la catta de veste, un secuenta un alia, e tande, magno retto par la caldite, devestiva e alluetta par un fluentina cue cubava en sa passira.

Lu persuasio esta maiora cuanta la stippantia.

OtherEdit

I was wondering about adverbs, because I don't understand how it's OK for adjectives to match nouns, but not for adverbs to match adjectives (just obviously not verbs, which don't carry gender in Faulona), which I've heard from various places. Currently I simply have a suffix "-e" off the root for an adverb, maybe I could add an "-i" suffix variant for masculine adverbs? Another thing I have is "-itre", from Latin "iter", but I find it kind of clunky and find it kind of close to the abstract nominalizer, "-ite". One old thing I did was I used "cum _ite", so "he runs beautifully" would be glossed as "he runs with beauty", written "Il curra cum belite". Below, you'll see that I've decided what to do with adverbs, but I'm still not fully sure—should verbs carry on gender, despite not marking it? My first instinct is to say no, since I don't want everything in the sentence ending in the same letter.

Neuter gender is another issue. I currently have it so ambiguous things are masculine in the singular, and feminine in the plural (which I came up with myself before realizing it's also in Romanian), any thoughts on if this sounds good? I don't want this to be a typical "male-priority" Romance language. Also, what about a handful of neuter nouns, that also follow this? The only out-of-the-ordinary one I have so far is "genu", meaning "gender", which would be "gene" in the plural.

What about words like "nolla", meaning "nothing", or "totto", meaning "all", having gender, as they currently do? They don't in French, who's grammar I mostly based my previous conlangs' grammars off of (such as Jamauwyeyh Yatan). Also, I have "no plu" meaning "no longer" or "no more", but I don't really know what kind of word that "more" or "longer" would be in the context, so I want to make some kind of phrase like "per no tempo pluro", meaning "through no more time". I also don't like the French (maybe this is in other Romance languages, too) tendency to add prepositions after a verb, so "j'essaie de me taire" would become "Tento se tacere".

As a related side note, since English just uses the basic "to" infinitive for various things, for a while I didn't understand exactly why French used "pour + infinitive" for the supine until I got more into Latin while making this language and ran into the Latin supine. I'm worried there's some similar reason why the "de" is there in French sentence in the above paragraph, that I'm completely ignorant of, being Anglophone.

There's also a small issue with conjugations for the irregular verbs (essere, avere, allere, venire, tenere), none of which I've posted yet while I finish making sure they're somewhat easy to memorize. For any past subjunctive or conditional, a compound form is needed using an auxiliary verb. I'm fine with compound verbs for perfatto/perfect and pluperfatto/pluperfect, but other Romance languages have a single word, say, for a past subjunctive of a given verb. I'm not sure if I should include this.

I've had the idea of having passive conjugations, like in Latin, in which there would be the root, followed by the root of the passive participle, and then a normal conjugation for the verb type. For example, "it is said" would be written "(il) dicetta", and "you are loved" would be "(tu) amate". Participles would otherwise stay the same as they currently are. Any input on this would be appreciated.

Credo ce avo sidetto ce le tangore aliale (adverbs, "affectors of other(s)") siono formatte utente "-mente" si lu verbo prevenento no mutattea per la gendra du facoro. Ditto aliamento, le tangore aliale no mutattano secuente li verbi facenti, aute mutattano secuente li mutori di verbi (adjectives), e secuente le alie tangore aliale cue attangeno li mutori di verbi.

Translation:

I think I've decided that adverbs are made with "-mente" if the previous word doesn't change according to the gender of the subject. In other words, adverbs don't change after verbs, but do change after adjectives, or after other adverbs (as long as those adverbs modify adjectives).

Also, adverbs change to participles.

"Li omi, essenti veramenti grandi, fureno veramente fablati sem essenti aute supri alti por gradere per un ianua."

"The men, being truly large, were actually said to be also too tall to walk through doorways."

This sentence matches the first adverb to the participle, but the second adverb affects the verb (not the participle, even if it appears this way), so the basic "-mente" form is used, as per older Latin customs.

This language was created by [1]. Do not delete.

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