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Felönrätli

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Lonra language
Felönrätli
Type
Synthetic Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Felönrätli is the official language of the Felönrä Empire. Being the mothertongue to the Felönra nation, it has been developing for more than 2 thousand years already. Although Felönra make only 20% of the Empire's population, their language is widely used as a lingua-franca within its borders and beyond.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ ð  z (s) ʃ ʒ χ h
Approximant ɹ j w
Trill r
Lateral fric. ɬ
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Near-back Back
Close i i: y y: ɨ ɨ: u:
Near-close ʊ
Close-mid e e: ø ø:  o:
Open-mid ɔ
Near-open æ æ:
Open a a:

Vowel HarmonyEdit

There is a system of vowel harmony in Felönrätli. Sounds a, u, o, õ (and their long pairs) are considered to be "back" sounds while ä, ö, ü (and their long pairs) are "front" ones and i and e are neutral. A word may contain only back and neutral or only front and neutral consonants, and if other morphemes are connected to the root of the word, the vowel sounds in them change as shown:

æ - a

y - u

ø - o

AlphabetEdit

In this Wiki Felönrätli uses Latin alphabet with some digraphs and letters with diacritics added.

Digraphs:

"si" for [ʃ]

"zi" for [ʒ]

"ch" for [χ]

"wr" for [ɹ]

"ng" for [ŋ]

"th" for [θ]

"dh" for [ð]

Diacritics:

ä for [æ]

ö for [ø]

ü for [y]

õ for [ɨ]

OrthographyEdit

1. Long sounds are represented by double letters. To represent a long digraph sound, only the last letter of digraph becomes double.

2. [i] is represented by 'y' after 'z' and 's'.

3. Letter 'i' represents the sound [j] before vowels and in the and of a syllable.

4. Letter 's' represents the sound [s] after the consonants and [ɬ] in other positions.

5. [χ] becomes [ç] before front vowels except 'e' and 'i'

The following combinations are pronounced differently due to the difficulty of the original pronunciation. They may occur between morphemes.

stch - si


sb - sm


sth - ch

nm - mm

Definite article 'tka' is pronounced as 'ka' unless preceded by a vowel.

'h' is not pronounced after fricatives.

If a consonant occures between two nasals then it is omitted in pronunciation, e.g.

nkn - nn

PhonotacticsEdit

Possible syllables:

V, CV, CVA, VC, CVC CCVC, CCV, CCVCC, CAV*

  • Where A is an approximant.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Morphology.Edit

Article.Edit

1. In most cases noun is preceded by an article, which changes according to the gender, case, number and definiteness of a noun. Here are the declensions of both types of articles. Cases

Indefinite articleEdit
Case Singular,male Plural,male Singular,female Plural,female
Nominative ied fa fwa
Accusative i i fan fen
Ablative iwi iedi fai fein
Comitative ied fa fwa
Genitive fil fil fil fil
Dative iri iri fe fewri
Instrumental iüsy iesi fasi fesi
Inessive iünpi ienpi fami fem
Allative i iri fan fen
Terminative itik ite fak fek
Abessive et et fat fet
Definite ArticleEdit
Case Singular,male Plural,male Singular,female Plural,female
Nominative tka ta bet val
Accusative ten tan bin van
Ablative tewi tadi taiy tain
Comitative tka ta bet val
Genitive blit blit blit blit
Dative tri tar be bechi
Instrumental tkasi tasy besi vasi
Inessive tkanpi tanpi benpi vapi
Allative ten tan bin van
Terminative tak tet bak veik
Abessive teth tath baith weth

Noun.Edit

Number and Cases.Edit

Nouns may be divided in two groups according to their gender. Gender affects declension and some verb and adjective forms. Also there are two types of declension for each gender, with the last sound being vowel or consonant. Here is the paradigm for masculine nouns.

Masculine Nouns

Case Ending with consonant Ending with vowel
singular plural singular plural
Nominative dach* dach-im chaa** chaa-m
]Accusative dach-an dach-im-in chaa[n] chaa-m-an
Ablative dach-ewa dach-im-iwe chaa-wa chaa-m-wa
Comitative dach-na dach-im-na (dachimma) chaa-na chaa-m-a
Genitive dach dach-im chaa chaa-m
Dative dach-lek dach-im-lik chaa-lek chaa-m-lek
Instrumental dach-esi dach-im-isi chaa-sie chaa-m-sie
Inessive dach-enpi dach-im-pi chaa-npi chaa-m-pi
Allative dach-et dach-im-ot chaa-t chaa-m-ot
Terminative dach-õk dach-im-ok chaa-k chaa-m-ak
Abessive dach-eth dach-im-ith chaa-th chaa-m-eth

knife*

horse**


Feminine Nouns Feminine nouns that consist of only one syllable become plural by replacing the back vowels by the corresponding front ones, for example:

fa kap (a pit) - fwa käp (pits).

fa nõt (an ear) - fwa nit (ears)

Such forms are declined as the plural form of a general noun.

Declension:

Case Ending with consonant Ending with vowel
singular plural singular plural
Nominative minith* minitha öröchü* öröchüin
Accusative minithe minithai öröchün öröchüni
Ablative minitheia minithaia öröchüia öröchünia
Genitive minith minitha öröchü öröchüin
Dative minithel minithal öröchül öröchülin
Instrumental minithed minithad öröchüd öröchünid
Inessive minithenpi minithanpi

öröchünpi

öröchünpin
Allative minitheit minithait öröchüit öröchüinit
Terminative minithek minithok öröchük öröchünik
Abessive minitheng minithang öröchüng öröchüning

thought*

beast**

Dual numberEdit

Some nouns like siechalia (glasses) are considered to exist in dual number. It doesn't affect the declension, though there is a special verb form to represent it. It is also used when subjects represented by general nouns are meant to exist in pair.

Possessive suffixesEdit

Instead of possessive adjectives Felönrätli uses possessive suffixes to represent posession. They are added to the root of the word, before the case and number affixes, after what the word may change it’s declension pattern, e.g. val 'minithintain (my thoughts) These are all the possessive suffixes present in Felönratli:

number/person I II III
singular -nta/-inta -taa/-etaa -din
plural -wong -fonk -son
Various affixes.Edit

Felönratli possesses lots of affixes that change the meaning of a word in different ways. For the nouns there are following:

-maith: a suffix with the same meaning as -ism

-chat: makes a noun that indicates the place in which something exists or is happening or with some quality, for example, kallechat (fight-place) - boxing ring.

loia-: suffix replaces words like "great" in "great grandmother" and has also the same meaning as 'pre-' in "prehistorical"

Verb.Edit

Conjugation in Present  Indicative.Edit

There are two types of conjugation in Felonratli: for the verbs with last sound consonant and vowel. Those types are called Ist declension and IInd declension respectively.

Ist declension Present Indicative.

Of the verb 'mit-' (to see)

Number/Person I II III IV*
Singular mit[at] mit[ach] mit mitii
Plural

mit[ais]

mit[ent] mit[vas]
Dual mit[ile]

IInd declension Present Indicative.

Of the verb nessa - to say

Number/Person I II III IV
Singular nessa[ith] nessa[hi] nessa nessaa
Plural nessa[ia] ness[ed] nessattu
Dual nessars nessaiel
Conjugation in Past  IndicativeEdit

Ist Declension.

of the verb ichi - to live

Number/Person I II III IV
masc. fem. masc. fem. masc. fem. masc. fem.
singular ichink ichinä ichirt ichirtä ichiz ichizä         ichii
plural ichinkü ichinwä ichirtü ichirtwä ichizü ichizwä
dual ichinkü ichinee ichirtü ichirtee ichizü ichizee

IIst Declension.

of the verb gend - to lie (to tell lies)

Number/Person I II III IV
masc. fem. masc. fem. masc. fem. masc. fem.
singular gendilt gendiltä gendisk gendizäs gendi gendä      gendee
plural gendichre gendichrä gendiseng gendiäng gendöf gendifä
dual gendichre gendichre gendiseng gendiseng gendöf gendöf


Verb affixes.Edit
  • -vien-: passive voice
  • -var- : expresses the idea of 'must'.
  • -nis-: negative form
  • fant-: prefix to express respecfullness
  • -wris- expresses that something may happen
  • -suuv- - indicates having right or obligation to do smth.
  • sa- makes a future form of a verb in present tense. Samit (lit. "it will see") - "who knows?".

Fantmitnisvarvienais - We should not be see'n (from low-ranks to high-ranks person).

Syntax.Edit

Felönrätli uses SVO word order, for example:

Edh echel iü pengällenä.(lit.I am-1p.singular a(masc.singular.) fish(comitative)) - I've got a fish.


When used as subjects, personal pronouns may be omitted, e.g.

Ikvarnisat föderrecht.(lit. 'go-must-not-1p.singular.indicative' any-where-allative) - I don't have to go anywhere.


Ikat derrecht valat. (lit. 'go-1p.singular.indicative' where-allative want-1p.singular.indicative) I'm going where I want to.


Modifier always follows the world it modifies, e.g.

VocabularyEdit


No. English Felönrätli
1Iedh (male), ma(female)
2you (singular)lussa
3hesil
4webliisi (exc), wind (inc)
5you (plural)skad
6theyritoch (male), itled (female), münskü (both)
7thisinsi(m) inset(f), insua(m.pl), insõdh(f.pl.)
8thatpätti, pättet, pättüä, pättidh
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whodroso
12whatfää
13wherederre
14whendrimma
15howContionary_Wiki
16not-nis-
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22onemõtle
23twosetle
24threechenle
25fourkärrä
26fivehöö
27bigtodhuu
28longlestika
29widewrili
30thickhöppö
31heavyuming
32smallling
33shorthaas
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinchaveth
36womanonaha
37man (adult male)vifüü
38man (human being)dõõne
39childwaiang
40wifeümitä
41husbandböthche
42mothereneli
43fathertasyngi
44animalörröhü
45fishpengälle
46birdbincha
47dogangus
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakepüp
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treewavi
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatvang
64bloodlip-lip
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headiriok
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyesälmi
75nosepännä
76mouthvõska
77toothdhuu
78tonguesusin
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80foottais
81legwaneka
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handsivvel
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckpeklä
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughselgeth
101seemit
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowthärech
104thinkömö
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepinipür
108liveichi
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killdhiris
111fightContionary_Wiki
112hunthathich
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swiminthelle
120flytoa
121walkik
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallsylmään
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdtõcha
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140saynessa
141singlette
142playchesik
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeinirruta(intr), chenirruta(tr)
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunmarwa
148moongawen
149starsungeth
150waterthelle
151rainsymba
152riverrunat
153lakethellemäith
154seaängith
155saltsuad
156stonedhant
157sandsvikkä
158dustContionary_Wiki
159eartharaia
160cloudweehit
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skysiorä
163windhaanee
164snowngaska
165iceirruta
166smokechiüü
167firesiesiä
168ashäth
169burninsiesiä (intr) chesiesiä (tr)
170roaddheret
171mountainmezult
172redwraadha
173greenüüchis
174yellowngielte
175whitefiasse
176blacknechaawre
177nightsaksa
178daythiche
179yearluna
180warmazu
181coldskinkö
182fullmälle
183newvith
184oldziemo
185goodioog
186badwrohiach
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyvõõha
189straighthenipi
190roundchöriäth
191sharpluurri
192dullfukshe
193smooththriin
194wetmäkkä
195drywröhö
196correcttahu
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farsyynö
199rightbääche
200leftwinse
201atContionary_Wiki
202in-npi, -pi, -enpi
203with-na, -nna
204andeith
205ifmäithe
206becausechaku
207namewelä


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