Fylosan is one of several conlangs created by Sraemoyes for the universe that her novels-in-progress are set in. Please be patient while these languages are being transferred from several loose documents.
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
|Progress||Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%|
Classification and DialectsEdit
Fylosan is descended from Old Fylosan through Middle Fylosan. It is a member of the Fylosic branch of the Ngrial-Fylosic language family.
Fylosan gained many speakers during the days of the dragon empire Fylsa. It replaced the native tongues of the related languages in the area, as well as the several Rakish languages (a language family of water-based dragons).
After the fall of Fylsa, dialects diverged greatly - especially where other languages had previously been spoken. From Middle Fylosan came Drua, Gwazol Fils, Leimai, Leitrua, Mayiadrua, Maevur, and present-day Fylosan.
As a native language, present-day Fylosan is spoken primarily by mountain and river dragons living in or around the Fylosan Mountain Range.
|Plosive||/p/ /b/||/t/ /d/||/q/ /G/|
|Fricative||/ɸ/ /β/||/s/ /z/|
|Flap or tap|
Declarative and expressive sentences fall at the end. Questions, requests, and (polite) commands remain flat. Mockery and (rude) commands rise at the end. These patterns may be broken when emphasizing the final word.
Word stress is volume-based and determined by the penultimate syllable of a word's base.
Fylosan was the first language in its area with a written form. In its early days, it developed logographs that were typically carved into stone or wood. Later, the literate population of dragons dwindled to nothing during the Fylsan Empire's internal collapse, but the written system was passed to a nearby human population (Tunisans) and adapted.
Text reads vertically, left to right.
On this wiki, the language has been romanized for convenience.
Accusative-case object comes before dative-case object.
Genitive-case items follow other items.
Subject-dropping and object-dropping are permitted.
Different types of sentences are formed by adding a clause marker to the beginning. The default is a declarative sentence, and the exception is an equative sentence (see "Copula").
Verbs inflect for two tenses and three persons. Modal verbs are used, but even when they're present, there may only be one verb per clause. (See "Modals.")
|Tense Inflections||1st Person||2nd Person||3rd Person|
I (be) eat (grin) a fish (kale): grin be kale.
You (fu) eat a fish: grinto fu kale.
Those two (tral) eat a fish: grindi tral kale.
I ate a fish: grinzali be kale.
You ate a fish: grinzali fu kale.
Those two ate a fish: grin tral kale.
Modal verbs inflect like any other verb. When present, they force any other verb to become a noun with noun-class-2 suffix -(m)eir. (See "Most-Predictable Derivations" for more information.) They force nouns from these other verbs to take the genitive case, attached to the sentence's subject.
I allow (mok) you to eat a fish: mok be grineirmu kale.
Most-Predictable Derivations: Edit
-ma: forms the gerund for activities (class 3 suffix). The verb becomes the final element of a compound word that includes its objects.
Eating fish (plural is kave) is filling (uam): kavegrinma uam.
The sentence shows an effect of eating fish. It says nothing about the experience.
-byo: forms the gerund for experiences (class 3 suffix). Like -ma, the verb becomes the final element of a compound.
Eating fish is boring (bular): Kavegrinbyo bular.
This sentence shows a subjective experience about eating fish.
-(m)eir: forms the gerund used with modals (class 2 suffix). The m is present if the verb base ends with a vowel. The gerund's position compared to other objects is flexible.
I allow you to eat a fish: mok be grineirmu kale OR mok be kale grineirmu.
-le: "one that Verbs" (class 1 suffix).
Krin - to eat, but krinle - an eater.
Many of these forms have meanings extended to other referents.
-(a)ria: "the method of Verbing/how to Verb" (class 2 suffix). The a is present if the verb base ends with a consonant.
Krin - to eat, but krinaria - the method of eating/how to eat.
-fya: forms an adjective with positive connotations (class 2 suffix).
Krin - to eat, but krinfya - appetizing/delicious.
-sor: forms an adjective with neutral connotations (class 3 suffix).
Krin - to eat, but krinsor - edible (objective fact).
-ye: forms an adjective with negative connotations (class 4 suffix).
Krin - to eat, but krinye - unappetizing/barely edible (subjective judgment).
Fylosan has no copula. Instead the S and A of these sentences take the default case and function without a verb.
Nouns are divided into three classes. They inflect for three cases and two numbers.
The pup (lar - class 1) eats: grindi larmi.
The pups eat: grindi larem.
The Yukalitan (utel - class 2) eats: grindi utelle.
The Yukalitans eat: grindi utelve.
The human soldier (kasun - class 3) eats: grindi kasungru.
The human soldiers eat: grindi kasunya.
I eat the pup's fish: grin be kale larim.
I eat the pups' fish: grin be kale larmu.
I eat the Yukalitan's fish: grin be kale utellya.
I eat the Yukalitans' fish: grin be kale utelvya.
I eat the human soldier's fish: grin be kale kasunas.
I eat the human soldiers' fish: grin be kale kasunmi.
The parasites (vasum - class 3) eats inside the pup: grindi vasumya larme.
The parasites eat inside the pups: grindi vasumya larpod.
The parasites eat inside the fish (singular): grindi vasumya kalu.
The parasites eat inside the fish (plural): grindi vasumya kavu.
The parasites eat inside the human soldier: grindi vasumya kasunze.
The parasites eat inside the human soldiers: grindi vasumya kasunpod.
Most-Predictable Derivations: Edit
Class 1 nouns become class 1 adjectives through zero derivation.
Class 2 nouns become class 2 adjectives through zero derivation.
Class 3 nouns become class 3 adjectives through zero derivation.
Adjectives and Adverbs Edit
Adjectives and adverbs are the same part of speech in Fylosan. They come in four classes. They inflect for three cases and two numbers. In noun phrases, the adjectives' case and number must match the nouns'. In verb phrases, they use their base forms.
The e's in the class 1 genitive case only show up when required.
Adjectives form the comparative by taking the prefix pi(r)-. (The r only appears before vowels.) This does not affect their class.
Adjectives form the superlative by taking the prefix tre(r)-. (Again, the r only appears before vowels.) This does not affect their class.
Most Predictable Derivations Edit
-kei: used when adjectives end with a vowel (class 3 suffix).
-ol: used when adjectives end with a consonant (class 3 suffix).
Pronouns decline for three persons, three numbers, and three cases.
Desir - to carve
Filsa - to open (eyes)
Gribiba - to enjoy/to like
Grin - to eat
Grivan - to speak
Im.1 (modal) - to see something happening; to observe something happening
Im.2 - to see (with eyes - just no activities involved)
Lakom - to fly
Mayer - to enslave
Mok.1 (modal) - to allow oneself to do something (valence 2 verb)
Mok.2 (modal) - to allow someone else to do something (valence 3 verb)
Nosva - to be moral; to be good
Nya - to leave *irregular form with the suffix -ma: nama
Petra - to bloom; to blossom; to become beautiful. (Also acts as a girl's name.)
Rank - to have
Rema (modal) - to be obligated to occur
Rinya - to escape; to get out of danger; to get out of something
To - to give
Trin - to invoke; to summon (primarily used in introductions)
Vak (modal) - to regret doing something
Vasya - to be familiar with
Vikran - to help/to aid/to save; also to spare
Yesan - to come from; to originate
Ziyir - to hatch
Ada.1 (class 3) - human settlement of any size; also refers to any building
Ada.2 (class 1) - loot
Agrin (class 3) - eye
Ase (class 2) - a dragon who's been trained in magic
Bokain (class 1) - tree
Boken (class 3) - sun (also used as a girl's name)
Ege (class 2) - scales; skin
Fil (class 3) - mountain
Fils (class 2) - Fylsa
Fo (class 2) - poison
Fu (class 2) - potion
Gri (class 3) - love (refers to both romantic love and familial love)
Griar (class 3) - belly
Griave (class 2) - mouth (river)
Grun.1 (class 2) - language
Grun.2 (class 1) - snout
Iyur (class 2) - where
Ka (class 2) - fish
Kasun (class 3) - human assassin; human soldier; human military
Krai (class 2) - dragon (general term)
Lar (class 1) - pup (dragon)
Larle (class 1) - priestess; nun; any woman who works with spirituality or religion
Mayerle (class 1) - slaver
Minria (class 2) - goodness (treatment)
Nal (class 1) - morning
Nar (class 3) - dragon den
Neswal (class 1) - formal lesson
Nyama (class 1) - transportation
On (class 3) - male dragon
Or (class 2) - tooth (also used as a final element in names for either sex)
Pala (class 2) - terrorist
Rekwa (class 3) - supremacy
Rin (class 1) - wind (also used as a final element in boys' names)
Rizal (class 2) - human
Sim (class 1) - clan (of dragons)
Soyir (class 2) - human-lover (insult)
Sode (class 2) - slave
Stefa (class 2) - sky (becomes Stephan when used as a boys' name)
Stuyi.1 (class 2) - education (both formal and informal)
Stuyi.2 (class 2) - magic
Ta (class 2) - egg
Tage (class 3) - (unit of weight)
Tes (class 3) - Tunisan currency
Trayau (class 2) - rapids
Tureso (class 2) - name of a terrorist group
Tusa (irregular) - Tunisa (name of a country - doesn't inflect)
Tuyi (class 1) - fire
Uamoma (class 3) - foundling (a dragon pup or a human child)
Utel.1 (class 2) - Yukalita (name of a country)
Utel.2 (class 2) - Yukalitan (a citizen of Yukalita)
Uva (class 3) - shield (also used as a girls' name)
Vakel (class 1) - river
Vazum (class 3) - parasite
Yamlon (class 3) - venom (venomous breeds of dragon also use it as a girl's name)
Zipal (class 2) - day
Zirki (class 3) - age (as in how old?)
Birthday - dragons aren't born, they hatch. They're not likely to talk about when it happened either (well, unless the eggs are newly hatched, but it's expressed a different way).
Ayitre (class 2) - beautiful
Bular (class 4) - boring
Embiya (class 1) - strong (physically)
Ge (class 2) - fat (positive connotations)
Gribiba (class 1) - obsessive or compelling
Gormwa.1 (class 1) - high (height)
Gormwa.2 (class 1) - tall
Hans (class 3) - reliable (also used as a boys' name - transfers regularly to noun class 3)
Stil (class 2) - single; unmated
Karl (class 1) - immortal (also used as a boys' name - transfers regularly to noun class 1)
Krinfya (class 2) - appetizing/delicious
Krinsor (class 3) - edible
Krinye (class 4) - unappetizing/barely edible
Mil (class 4) - sacred
Ral (class 2) - common; everyday
Ri (class 3) - vicious (also used as a final element in girls' names - transfers regularly to noun class 3)
Stel (class 2) - alone/lone
Sude (class 4) - wrong (actions); also used as "unfortunately" or "wrongly."
Trama (class 3) - fast/speedy/quick
Trial (class 4) - now
Uam (class 3) - full (belly)/filling
Ul (class 1) - kind
Vor (class 4) - good (generic)
Vular (class 4) - weak (physically)
Vyakra (class 3) - addictive
Stel - one
Vam - two
Gre - three
And - four
Yin - five
To ... minriamu (someone) - lit. "to give (someone) goodness." It means to show respect.
Gram - (standard greeting)
Lua - not (negation)
Me - question marker (a clause marker)
Nura - after (preposition)
Yar - any (determiner)
Si - but (conjunction)
Grindi boyerle kave. Boyer eats fish.
Grin boyerle kale. Boyer ate a fish.
Remadi boyerle grinerim rizalem. Boyer must eat a human.
Lakommagru nyamagru vor. Flying is good transportation.
Grindi ulrinri mayerlem. Ulrin eats slavers.
Lua vasyadi boyerle rinyariale. Boyer doesn't know how to get out of it.
Me gribibat fu lakombyogru? Do you (singular) like flying?
Nura vikranvi val, sude lua to falrile yar minriamu larlemima grivansorva ulya. Unfortunately, after her help, Falri didn't show any respect to the kindly-spoken nun.