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Fylosan is one of several conlangs created by Sraemoyes for the universe that her novels-in-progress are set in. Please be patient while these languages are being transferred from several loose documents.

Fylosan
Losagrun
Type Inflectional
Alignment
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Statistics
Nouns Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Verbs Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Adjectives Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Syntax Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Words 138 of 100
Creator Sraemoyes


Classification and DialectsEdit

Fylosan is descended from Old Fylosan through Middle Fylosan. It is a member of the Fylosic branch of the Ngrial-Fylosic language family.

Fylosan gained many speakers during the days of the dragon empire Fylsa. It replaced the native tongues of the related languages in the area, as well as the several Rakish languages (a language family of water-based dragons).

After the fall of Fylsa, dialects diverged greatly - especially where other languages had previously been spoken. From Middle Fylosan came Drua, Gwazol Fils, Leimai, Leitrua, Mayiadrua, Maevur, and present-day Fylosan.

As a native language, present-day Fylosan is spoken primarily by mountain and river dragons living in or around the Fylosan Mountain Range.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal /m/ /n̪/
Plosive /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /q/ /G/
Fricative /ɸ/ /β/ /s/ /z/
Affricate
Approximant /j/ /ʁ/
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. /l/
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High /i/ /u/
Near-high
High-mid
Mid /e/ /o/
Low-mid
Near-low
Low /a/

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)(C)V(C)(C)

Intonation Edit

Declarative and expressive sentences fall at the end. Questions, requests, and (polite) commands remain flat. Mockery and (rude) commands rise at the end. These patterns may be broken when emphasizing the final word.

Word stress is volume-based and determined by the penultimate syllable of a word's base.

Writing SystemEdit

Fylosan was the first language in its area with a written form. In its early days, it developed logographs that were typically carved into stone or wood. Later, the literate population of dragons dwindled to nothing during the Fylsan Empire's internal collapse, but the written system was passed to a nearby human population (Tunisans) and adapted.

Text reads vertically, left to right.

On this wiki, the language has been romanized for convenience.

Sound /m/ /n̪/ /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /q/ /G/ /ɸ/ /β/
Romanization m n p b t d k g f v
Sound /s/ /z/ /j/ /ʁ/ /l/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /a/
Romanization s z y r l i u e o a

GrammarEdit

Syntax Edit

VSO

SA

C-PP-AdvP-Neg-V

D-N-Adj-Adv-PP

Accusative-case object comes before dative-case object.

Genitive-case items follow other items.

Subject-dropping and object-dropping are permitted.

Different types of sentences are formed by adding a clause marker to the beginning. The default is a declarative sentence, and the exception is an equative sentence (see "Copula").

Verbs Edit

Verbs inflect for two tenses and three persons. Modal verbs are used, but even when they're present, there may only be one verb per clause. (See "Modals.")

Tense Inflections 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Incompletive (none) -t(o) -di
Completive -zali -zali (none)

Examples:

I (be) eat (grin) a fish (kale): grin be kale.

You (fu) eat a fish: grinto fu kale.

Those two (tral) eat a fish: grindi tral kale.

I ate a fish: grinzali be kale.

You ate a fish: grinzali fu kale.

Those two ate a fish: grin tral kale.

Modals Edit

Modal verbs inflect like any other verb. When present, they force any other verb to become a noun with noun-class-2 suffix -(m)eir. (See "Most-Predictable Derivations" for more information.) They force nouns from these other verbs to take the genitive case, attached to the sentence's subject.

Example:

I allow (mok) you to eat a fish: mok be grineirmu kale.

Most-Predictable Derivations: Edit

V->N Edit

-ma: forms the gerund for activities (class 3 suffix). The verb becomes the final element of a compound word that includes its objects.

Example:

Eating fish (plural is kave) is filling (uam): kavegrinma uam.

The sentence shows an effect of eating fish. It says nothing about the experience.

-byo: forms the gerund for experiences (class 3 suffix). Like -ma, the verb becomes the final element of a compound.

Example:

Eating fish is boring (bular): Kavegrinbyo bular.

This sentence shows a subjective experience about eating fish.

-(m)eir: forms the gerund used with modals (class 2 suffix). The m is present if the verb base ends with a vowel. The gerund's position compared to other objects is flexible.

Example:

I allow you to eat a fish: mok be grineirmu kale OR mok be kale grineirmu.

-le: "one that Verbs" (class 1 suffix).

Example:

Krin - to eat, but krinle - an eater.

Many of these forms have meanings extended to other referents.

-(a)ria: "the method of Verbing/how to Verb" (class 2 suffix). The a is present if the verb base ends with a consonant.

Example:

Krin - to eat, but krinaria - the method of eating/how to eat.

V->A Edit

-fya: forms an adjective with positive connotations (class 2 suffix).

Example:

Krin - to eat, but krinfya - appetizing/delicious.

-sor: forms an adjective with neutral connotations (class 3 suffix).

Example:

Krin - to eat, but krinsor - edible (objective fact).

-ye: forms an adjective with negative connotations (class 4 suffix).

Example:

Krin - to eat, but krinye - unappetizing/barely edible (subjective judgment).

Copula Edit

Fylosan has no copula. Instead the S and A of these sentences take the default case and function without a verb.

NounsEdit

Nouns are divided into three classes. They inflect for three cases and two numbers.

Inflections Number Default Genitive Instrumental-Locative
Class 1 1 -mi -(i)m -me
Class 1 2 -(e)m -mu -mya
Class 2 1 -le -lya -lu
Class 2 2 -ve -vya -vu
Class 3 1 -gru -(a)s -ze
Class 3 2 -ya -mi -pod

Examples:

The pup (lar - class 1) eats: grindi larmi.

The pups eat: grindi larem.

The Yukalitan (utel - class 2) eats: grindi utelle.

The Yukalitans eat: grindi utelve.

The human soldier (kasun - class 3) eats: grindi kasungru.

The human soldiers eat: grindi kasunya.

I eat the pup's fish: grin be kale larim.

I eat the pups' fish: grin be kale larmu.

I eat the Yukalitan's fish: grin be kale utellya.

I eat the Yukalitans' fish: grin be kale utelvya.

I eat the human soldier's fish: grin be kale kasunas.

I eat the human soldiers' fish: grin be kale kasunmi.

The parasites (vasum - class 3) eats inside the pup: grindi vasumya larme.

The parasites eat inside the pups: grindi vasumya larpod.

The parasites eat inside the fish (singular): grindi vasumya kalu.

The parasites eat inside the fish (plural): grindi vasumya kavu.

The parasites eat inside the human soldier: grindi vasumya kasunze.

The parasites eat inside the human soldiers: grindi vasumya kasunpod.

Most-Predictable Derivations: Edit

N->V Edit

Zero derivation.

N->A Edit

Class 1 nouns become class 1 adjectives through zero derivation.

Class 2 nouns become class 2 adjectives through zero derivation.

Class 3 nouns become class 3 adjectives through zero derivation.

Adjectives and Adverbs Edit

Adjectives and adverbs are the same part of speech in Fylosan. They come in four classes. They inflect for three cases and two numbers. In noun phrases, the adjectives' case and number must match the nouns'. In verb phrases, they use their base forms.

Inflections Number Default Genitive Instrumental-Locative
Class 1 1 -gru -g(e) -gwa
Class 1 2 -kra -k(e) -kwa
Class 2 1 -ya -yu -yu
Class 2 2 -ye -ye -ye
Class 3 1 -vi -vu -vu
Class 3 2 -fi -fu -fu
Class 4 1 - -ya -
Class 4 2 - -fwa -

The e's in the class 1 genitive case only show up when required.

Comparatives: Edit

Adjectives form the comparative by taking the prefix pi(r)-. (The r only appears before vowels.) This does not affect their class.

Superlatives: Edit

Adjectives form the superlative by taking the prefix tre(r)-. (Again, the r only appears before vowels.) This does not affect their class.

Most Predictable Derivations Edit

A->V Edit

Zero derivation.

A->N Edit

-kei: used when adjectives end with a vowel (class 3 suffix).

-ol: used when adjectives end with a consonant (class 3 suffix).

Pronouns Edit

Pronouns decline for three persons, three numbers, and three cases.

Person Number Default Genitive Instrumental-Locative
First Singular (1) Be Bwa Bo
First Dual (2) De Dwa Do
First Plural (3+) Me Mwa Mo
Second Singular (1) Fu If Fa
Second Dual (2) Su Is Sa
Second Plural (3+) Nu In Na
Third Singular (1) Vel Val Vi
Third Dual (2) Tral Tral Tre
Third Plural (3+) Pal Pal Pi

LexiconEdit

Verbs Edit

Desir - to carve

Filsa - to open (eyes)

Gribiba - to enjoy/to like

Grin - to eat

Grivan - to speak

Im.1 (modal) - to see something happening; to observe something happening

Im.2 - to see (with eyes - just no activities involved)

Lakom - to fly

Mayer - to enslave

Mok.1 (modal) - to allow oneself to do something (valence 2 verb)

Mok.2 (modal) - to allow someone else to do something (valence 3 verb)

Nosva - to be moral; to be good

Nya - to leave *irregular form with the suffix -ma: nama

Petra - to bloom; to blossom; to become beautiful. (Also acts as a girl's name.)

Rank - to have

Rema (modal) - to be obligated to occur

Rinya - to escape; to get out of danger; to get out of something

To - to give

Trin - to invoke; to summon (primarily used in introductions)

Vak (modal) - to regret doing something

Vasya - to be familiar with

Vikran - to help/to aid/to save; also to spare

Yesan - to come from; to originate

Ziyir - to hatch

Nouns Edit

Ada.1 (class 3) - human settlement of any size; also refers to any building

Ada.2 (class 1) - loot

Agrin (class 3) - eye

Ase (class 2) - a dragon who's been trained in magic

Bokain (class 1) - tree

Boken (class 3) - sun (also used as a girl's name)

Ege (class 2) - scales; skin

Fil (class 3) - mountain

Fils (class 2) - Fylsa

Fo (class 2) - poison

Fu (class 2) - potion

Gri (class 3) - love (refers to both romantic love and familial love)

Griar (class 3) - belly

Griave (class 2) - mouth (river)

Grun.1 (class 2) - language

Grun.2 (class 1) - snout

Iyur (class 2) - where

Ka (class 2) - fish

Kasun (class 3) - human assassin; human soldier; human military

Krai (class 2) - dragon (general term)

Lar (class 1) - pup (dragon)

Larle (class 1) - priestess; nun; any woman who works with spirituality or religion

Mayerle (class 1) - slaver

Minria (class 2) - goodness (treatment)

Nal (class 1) - morning

Nar (class 3) - dragon den

Neswal (class 1) - formal lesson

Nyama (class 1) - transportation

On (class 3) - male dragon

Or (class 2) - tooth (also used as a final element in names for either sex)

Pala (class 2) - terrorist

Rekwa (class 3) - supremacy

Rin (class 1) - wind (also used as a final element in boys' names)

Rizal (class 2) - human

Sim (class 1) - clan (of dragons)

Soyir (class 2) - human-lover (insult)

Sode (class 2) - slave

Stefa (class 2) - sky (becomes Stephan when used as a boys' name)

Stuyi.1 (class 2) - education (both formal and informal)

Stuyi.2 (class 2) - magic

Ta (class 2) - egg

Tage (class 3) - (unit of weight)

Tes (class 3) - Tunisan currency

Trayau (class 2) - rapids

Tureso (class 2) - name of a terrorist group

Tusa (irregular) - Tunisa (name of a country - doesn't inflect)

Tuyi (class 1) - fire

Uamoma (class 3) - foundling (a dragon pup or a human child)

Utel.1 (class 2) - Yukalita (name of a country)

Utel.2 (class 2) - Yukalitan (a citizen of Yukalita)

Uva (class 3) - shield (also used as a girls' name)

Vakel (class 1) - river

Vazum (class 3) - parasite

Yamlon (class 3) - venom (venomous breeds of dragon also use it as a girl's name)

Zipal (class 2) - day

Zirki (class 3) - age (as in how old?)

Lexical gaps:

Birthday - dragons aren't born, they hatch. They're not likely to talk about when it happened either (well, unless the eggs are newly hatched, but it's expressed a different way).

Adjectives Edit

Ayitre (class 2) - beautiful

Bular (class 4) - boring

Embiya (class 1) - strong (physically)

Ge (class 2) - fat (positive connotations)

Gribiba (class 1) - obsessive or compelling

Gormwa.1 (class 1) - high (height)

Gormwa.2 (class 1) - tall

Hans (class 3) - reliable (also used as a boys' name - transfers regularly to noun class 3)

Stil (class 2) - single; unmated

Karl (class 1) - immortal (also used as a boys' name - transfers regularly to noun class 1)

Krinfya (class 2) - appetizing/delicious

Krinsor (class 3) - edible

Krinye (class 4) - unappetizing/barely edible

Mil (class 4) - sacred

Ral (class 2) - common; everyday

Ri (class 3) - vicious (also used as a final element in girls' names - transfers regularly to noun class 3)

Stel (class 2) - alone/lone

Sude (class 4) - wrong (actions); also used as "unfortunately" or "wrongly."

Trama (class 3) - fast/speedy/quick

Trial (class 4) - now

Uam (class 3) - full (belly)/filling

Ul (class 1) - kind

Vor (class 4) - good (generic)

Vular (class 4) - weak (physically)

Vyakra (class 3) - addictive

Numbers Edit

Stel - one

Vam - two

Gre - three

And - four

Yin - five

Idioms Edit

To ... minriamu (someone) - lit. "to give (someone) goodness." It means to show respect.

Other Edit

Gram - (standard greeting)

Lua - not (negation)

Me - question marker (a clause marker)

Nura - after (preposition)

Yar - any (determiner)

Si - but (conjunction)

Example textEdit

Grindi boyerle kave. Boyer eats fish.

Grin boyerle kale. Boyer ate a fish.

Remadi boyerle grinerim rizalem. Boyer must eat a human.

Lakommagru nyamagru vor. Flying is good transportation.

Grindi ulrinri mayerlem. Ulrin eats slavers.

Lua vasyadi boyerle rinyariale. Boyer doesn't know how to get out of it.

Me gribibat fu lakombyogru? Do you (singular) like flying?

Nura vikranvi val, sude lua to falrile yar minriamu larlemima grivansorva ulya. Unfortunately, after her help, Falri didn't show any respect to the kindly-spoken nun.

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