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Galach

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(NOT COMPLETE... YET) A simplification and reconstruction of the ancient Gaulish language.

Name: [[]]

Type:

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders:

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

PhonologyEdit

Letter IPA
A a /a/
B b between /b/ and /p/
C c /k/
D d /d/
E e /e/ or /ɛ/
F f /f/
G g between /g/ and /k/
H h /h/
I i /i/ or /i:/
L l /l/
M m /m/
N n /n/
O o /o/ or /o:/
P p /p/
R r /r/
S s /s/
T t /t/
U u /u/ or /u:/
W w /w/
X x between /ks/ and /gs/
J j

/j/

Z z /ts/

Basic GrammarEdit

The basic word order is: Subject-Verb-Indirect object-Direct Object, but this is very flexible and varies greatly. Prepositions preceed nouns and adjectives and possessors preceed or follow them.


NounsEdit

Nouns are declined by number (singular, plural) and case (Nominative, Vocative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Instrumental, and Locative). There are 5 stemps, or declensions: the a, o, i, u, and r stem. They are declined here:

Singular:

Nom Voc Acc Gen Dat Ins Loc
a -a -a -an -as -ai -ia -ai
o -os(neu. -on) -e -on -i -ui -u -e
i -is -i -in -es -e -i -i
u -us -u -un -ous -ou -ou -u
r -ir -ir -erem -eros -eri -ere -eri


Plural:

Nom Voc Acc Gen Dat Ins Loc
a -as
-as
-as
-anom
-abo
-abi
-abi
o -oi (neu. -a) -us -us (neu. -a) -on -obo -obi -obi
i -es (neu. -ja) -es -is (neu. -ja) -ion -ibo -ibi -ibi
u -oues -oues -uas -uon -uebo -uebi -uebi
r -ir -ir -erem -eros -eri -ere -eri


Verbs:Edit

Verbs in the Neo-Gallic language differ the most from Classical Gaulish because our knowledge of Gaulish nouns is hazy and this is an atempt to simplify them. They inflect for tense (past, present, future) and conjugate for person. There is no infinative but the unconjugated verb becomes a "verbnoun" which acts as infinative, supine, and gerund.

Past Present Future Subjunctive Passive
1st sg. -sami -mi -simi -u -or
2nd sg. -sasi -si -sis -usi -sir
3rd sg. -sati -ti -sit -ud -tir
1st pl. -samu -mu -simu -umu -mur
2nd pl. -sate -te -site -uti -ter
3rd pl. -sant -(o)nt -siont -uent -(o)ntor

CopulaEdit

Infinitive: es

Past Present Future Subjunctive
1st sg. buimi immi biiimi su
2nd sg. buesi esi biesi susi
3rd sg. bueti esti bieti sud
1st pl. buimu immu biimu sumu
2nd pl. buete este biete suti
3rd pl. buont sent biont suent


Subordinate clauses contain the ending -jo. In example:


scrisusami-jo | welor


"I wish that I had spit" (Literally "that I had spit, I wish")



gobedbui | dugijont-jo | ucuetin | in alisijai


Dative-verb-accusative-locative


"to the smiths who serve Ucuetis in Alisia"



Pronouns


I, me--mi


You sg.--tu


He--so, en


You pl.--su


it--id


DictionaryEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


aballo- (an apple) [IE *amlu-, *samlu- 'apple'?, OI uball] adiat (aspiration) aesus (m) (an age) [Latin aes, Irish aois] allos (other, second) [IE *alyo-, OI aile] ambi- (around) ardus (high) [IE *er@d- 'high', CC *ardwo-] are (before, at, on) [IE *par-, Greek para, Latin prae, OI ar] arganto-, argento- (silver) [IE *arg'- 'white, to shine'] art- (a bear) [IE *arkt-, *Hart- 'a bear'] artuas (stone plates; pl.) ater (m) (father) [IE *pa'te'r 'a father'] atespos (m) (an answer) aus (an ear) [Latin ausus] bagaudas (guerilla fighters) [OI ba'gaim 'I fight'] bardos (m) (a poet) [OI bard, Greek phrazo' 'I speak'] beber, bibro- (a beaver) [IE *bebhro- 'a wild animal, a beaver'] beccus (a beak) [Old English becca 'a hoe', Middle High German bicke] bedo- (a channel) bekos (a bee) [IE *bhey- 'a bee', OI bech]
bel- (white; in Belenos, Belisama) [IE *bhel-, *bhal- 'white, to shine'] benn- (a top, a peak) [English knoll, Irish beann] benna (a carriage) [OI buinne] bitu- (world, life) [IE *gwei- 'to live', OI bith 'world'] boduus (m) (a raven) [OI bodb 'raven'] brace (malt) [IE *mar- 'dirty', OI mraich] bratu- (to judge) [OI bra'th 'court'] briga (f) (a hill) bri'ua (f) (a bridge) [Germanic *bro'wo', *bruwwi' 'a bridge', Old Church Slavonic brivno 'a log'] bru'kos (a pen) caballos (m) (a working horse) caddos (saint) [MI cád 'holy'] cambios (n) (exchange) cambos (m) (a slope) cammano- (a pitch, a step) camulos (war god) [MI cuma 'woe', MB caffou 'woe']
candetum (a hundred feet long) [CC *cant-pedum, IE *ped- 'a foot'] cant- (an edge, a circle) [IE *kem- 'to cover', Welsh cant] capt, coept (captured, taken; participle) carb- (a wagon) carros (m) (a wagon) catu- (a battle) [IE *kot- 'a battle', Greek kotos 'rage', Middle High German hader 'a quarrel', OI cath 'a battle'] cauaros, cavarillus (a giant) [Welsh cawr, Cornish caur] cervesia (f) (beer) cet, cait (wood) cingeto- (m) (a warrior) [OI cingim 'I step, march', cing a warrior', Welsh & Breton cam a step'] cintu-, cintus (first) [Latin recens 'fresh, young', Greek kainos 'new', Sanskrit kani'nas 'young', OI ce't, ce'tna] com- (with, together with) [Latin, Umbrian com-,cum-] couer (appropriate, worth-while) courmi (a sort of beer) [Latin cremor 'dense juice', Russian korm 'forage', OI coirm 'beer'] crix (curly) crodio- (hard, difficult) -cue, -pe (and) [IE *kwe 'and'] cumba (dishes) dag- (kind) decametos (tenth) [IE *dekmot 'ten'] dede (he put; 3rd sg. perf.) [IE *dhe'- 'to put, to set', OI dál] delgu (I hold; 1st sg. pres.) dervo- (a tree) [IE *deru- 'a tree, wood'] deus (m) (a god) [IE *deiwo- 'a deity'] dexs (right) [IE *deks- 'right, correct'] dibu e debu (to the gods and goddesses) [IE *deiwo- 'a deity'] divertomu (we turn; 1st pl. pres.) [IE *wer-t- 'to turn, to roll'] doenti (they give; 3st pl. pres. Celtiberian) [IE *do'- 'to give'] doro (a mouth) [IE *dhwer- 'a door, a gate'] drungus (m) (a crowd) [OI drong] dubi- (black) [IE *dhubh- 'to smoke', OI dub 'black'] du'la- (a leaf) [MI duille, Welsh dalen, Middle Breton del] dumno- (world) [OI domun 'world'] dunum (n) (a fort) [Germanic *tu'na- 'town'] dusios (a demon) [OI da'sacht 'rage'] eimu (we go; 1st pl. pres.) [IE *ei- 'to go'] embrekton (a dipped piece of food) [IE *mer- 'wet'] eporeto- (a chariot) [IE *ekwo- + *ret-] epos, eqwos (a horse) [IE *ekwo- 'a horse'] es, ex (from, out of) [IE *eghs 'out', OI acht 'but'] esok- (a salmon) [Latin esox, Early Irish co', Welsh, Breton eog, Welsh ehawc, Cornish ehog] essedum (a two-seat wagon) [IE sed- 'to sit', OI saidim 'I sit'] gabi (take!; 2nd sg. imp.) [IE *gebh-, OI gabaim 'I take', Gothic giban 'give', Lithuanian gabe'nti 'bring'] gabro- (a goat) [OI gabor, Welsh gafr] gaesum (n) (a spear) geistl- (a lien) gena (f) (a cheek) geno-, gnatos (born) [IE *g'enu- 'a knee, a kin, to know', OI gnó] giam- (a winter) [IE *gheim- 'winter'] glastu- (light blue) [Early Irish glass 'pale', Welsh, Old Welsh, Breton glas 'green', German glast 'sheen'] gobbo- (a mouth) [IE *gonbho- 'a ledge', Irish gob] gutus (m) (a voice) [Irish guth] inter (between) [IE *en-ter 'between'] iouin- (young) [IE *you-n- 'young'] isarno- (iron) [IE *esro-no- 'red, bloody metal'?; or IE *ayos-, *ayes- 'metal'] landa- (a field) [IE *lendh- 'open land', OI land] lanu- (flat, plain) [IE *plo-no- 'full, plain, flat'] lautro- (a bath) [Latin lavare 'to wash', OI lo'athar] legasit (he laid), lega' (laying; participle pres.) [OI lige 'a bed'] leux, lugus (light) [IE *leuk- 'light, to shine'] lexo- (a slope) litano- (wide, broad) [IE *plotno- 'wide', OI lethan 'wide'] logan (a grave) [IE *legh- 'to lie'] luct- (a tribe, a part) [IE *leug- 'to break', OI lucht 'a part'] magus (young, a servant, a boy) [IE *maghu- 'a young person'] magu- (a field) [OI mag 'field'] maniakys (a neck bandage) [IE *moni'- 'a neck'] maponos (a son) [Ogham Irish maqq 'a son'] marka (a horse) [OI marc] maru- (great) [IE *mar-, *mor- 'great'] marvos (dead) [IE *mer-, *mor- 'to die'] mat- (kind, good) [IE *ma- 'good', Irish ma'ith] medios (medium) [IE *medhyo- 'medium, middle'] mesga (to mix) [IE *meik- 'to mix'] more-, -mori- (a sea) [Latin mare, OI muir, Slavic *more, Lithuanian marios] naumetos (ninth) [IE *newno 'nine'] nemeton, nempton (a temple) [OI nemed 'a temple'] nertos (force, strength) [IE *@ner-, *ner-t- 'strength, power'] nowio- (new) odocos (an elder) ogros (cold) oinos (one) ollo- (all, the whole) windo- (white) oxtometos (eighth) penno- (a head) petri (four) petrudecametos (fourteenth) petsi- (a thing) pinpetos (fifth) recto- (right) reda (a chariot) ritu- (a ford) rix (pl. riges) (a king) roudo- (red) sam- (a summer) sapo- (soap) sedlon (a saddle, a seat) sego- (a victory) selwa (a possession) seno- (old) siron (a star) sista (to stand) slug- (a servant) smer- (fat) sosin (that) suadu- (pleasant) suextos, sextos (sixth) tarvos (a bull) tigern- (a house) teuto-, touto- (people) trag- (a foot) tri (three) trougo- (unhappy) uedi (to pray) weramos (supreme, the highest) werno- (an alder) wesu-, wisu- (cheerful) winos (wine) wiro- (a man, a husband) uros (a bull) uxello- (high) vasso- (a servant) ve'co- (fury, rage) ver (above)

Example textEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

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