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word /pronounciation guide/ \\ *root word < Root language ISO code

part of speech. definition

  • Hawaiian: word in Hawaiian
  • Māori: word in Māori
  • Marquesan: word in Marquesan
  • Samoan: word in Samoan

If the word's equivalent cannot be found in that language, that language will be removed from the list. If the etymology is unclear (i.e., reconstructed by myself with Hawaiian, Māori, Marquesan, and Samoan words), it will be listed as 

n. noun
adj. adjective
v. verb
adv. adverb
prep. preposition
par. particle

Word ListEdit

ariki / \\ *‘ariki < PP

n. chief, leader, mayor

  • Hawaiian: ali‘i
  • Māori: ariki
  • Samoan: ali‘i
hā‘ea /ha:.ʔe.a/ \\ 

adj. wide

  • Hawaiian: ākealaulā
  • Māori: whānui
  • Marquesan: fetea
  • Samoan: ateatelautele
henwa /he.nʷa/ \\ *fenua < PP

n. earth, land, country, dirt, ground, soil

  • Hawaiian: honua
  • Māori: whenua
  • Samoan: fanua
hēle /he:.le/ \\ *sa‘ele < PP

vtr. general movement verb; add postpositions to indicate movement in said direction

  • Hawaiian: hele
  • Māori: haēri
  • Samoan: sau
  • Marquesan: tihe
hoa /ho.a/ \\ **

n. friend, companion

adj. friendly

  • Hawaiian: hoa
  • Māori: hoa
hoki /

vi. to return, to come back [from a trip], to rebound [from a drug or a relationship]

n. a return, a come back [of a famous person]

  • Hawaiian: ho‘i
  • Māori: hoki
horohorona / \\ 

n. animal

adj. feral, animalistic, wild, uncontrolled 

  • Hawaiian: holoholona
  • Māori: karekarehe
ika /i.ka/ \\ *ika < PP

n. fish

adj. slick, sly, nimble

  • Hawaiian: i‘a
  • Māori: ika
  • Marquesan: ika
  • Samoan: i‘a
i‘i /i.ʔi/ \\ 

n. (used with indefinite article) [someone] small [in size], [someone] not tall; (similar to ri‘i)

adj. small [in size], not tall; (very similar, sometimes synonymous, to ri‘i, unimportant)

  • Hawaiian: iki
  • Māori: iti
  • Marquesan: iki
  • Samoan: itiiti
kaka /ka.ka/ \\ 

vi. to burn, to set [it] ablaze, to set on fire, to light [it] up

n. a lightbulb

  • Hawaiian: ‘a‘āpuhi
  • Māori: , pāhunu
  • Marquesan: tutu
  • Samoan: mu
kakō /ka.ko:/ \\ 

refl. to clothe oneself, to get dressed

n. clothes, clothing

  • Hawaiian: ‘a‘ahu
  • Māori: kākahu
/ko:/ \\ *kau < PP

vi. swim

n. a swim, a bath, the act of swimming/floating

  • Hawaiian: ‘au
  • Māori: kaukau
  • Marquesan: kau
kōrero / 

v. to speak, say

n. speech, language

  • Hawaiian: ‘ōlelo
  • Māori: kōrero
  • Marquesan: teaotekaoa
  • Samoan: lalautautala
kurī /kʉ.ri:/ \\ *kulī < PP

n. dog

  • Hawaiian: ‘īlio
  • Māori: kurī
  • Marquesan: nuhepeho
  • Samoan: ‘ulī

kwane /kʷ \\ 

v. to sing, to be empassioned

n. soul, spirit, life essence

  • Hawaiian: ‘uhane
  • Māori: wairua
manu /ma.nʉ/ \\ *manu < PP

n. bird

  • Hawaiian: manu
  • Māori: manu
  • Marquesan: manu
  • Samoan: manu
ma‘āku /ma.ʔa:.kʉ/ \\ **Ø

vi. to be afraid

n. fear, anxiety

  • Hawaiian: maka‘u
  • Māori: mataku
  • Marquesan: meta‘u
  • Samoan: mata‘u
ma‘wa /ma.ʔʷa/ \\ *matu‘a < PP

n. parent, elder, senior

adj. elder, olden, parent, old, ancestral 

  • Hawaiian: makuakāne - father (makuahine - mother)
  • Māori: matua - parent
  • Marquesan: motua - father
  • Samoan: matua - parent   
nahasi /na.ha.ʃi/ \\ *נָחָשׁ nakhásh < heb

n. snake

  • Hawaiian: naheka
  • Māori: neke
  • Marquesan: puhi henua
rākō /ra:.ko:/ \\

n. timber, lumber, stick, branch

  • Hawaiian: lā‘au - tree, plant, wood, timber, forest, stick, pole, rod, splinter, thicket, club
  • Māori: rākau - tree, stick, timber, wood, spar, mast, plant
  • Marquesan: akau - stick
  • Samoan: la‘au - tree (lā‘au - stick)
ri‘i /ri.ʔi/ \\ 

n. [someone] unimportant, [someone] insignificant, [someone who is a] nusance

adj. unimportant, small, insignificant, not big, minute (very similar, sometimes synonymous, to i‘i, small [in size])

  • Hawaiian: li‘i
  • Māori: riki

roa /ro.a/ \\ *loa PP

adj. big

  • Hawaiian: loa
  • Māori roa
vasine /va.ʃ \\ *fafine < PP

n. woman, wife (with possessive), female

adj. specifies the head noun is a female

  • Hawaiian: wahine
  • Māori: wahine
  • Marquesan: vehine
  • Samoan: fafine
‘ama /ʔ \\ *tama < PP

n. child

  • Hawaiian: kama
  • Māori: tama - son (taitamaiti - child)
  • Marquesan: tama
  • Samoan: tamaitīti
‘aya‘a /ʔa.ja.ʔa/ \\ *taŋata < PP

n. human being, person, human, human race

  • Hawaiian: kanaka
  • Māori: tangata
  • Marquesan: ‘enata, kenana
  • Samoan: tagata
‘āne /ʔ \\ *ta(‘/h)ane < PP

n. man, male

adj. specifies the head noun as male

  • Hawaiian: kāne
  • Māori: tāne
  • Marquesan: tane
  • Samoan: tāne
‘oke /ʔ \\ *toke < PP
  • Hawaiian: ko'e
  • Māori: tokenoke
  • Marquesan: tokenoke
  • Samoan: 'anufe


Idiom/Phrase ListEdit

hoaoa o e ariki / \\ lit. friends of the chief

n. community, society

hoaoa o e ariki a rākōko ma'wa /ʔʷa/ \\ lit. friends of the chief's elder branches \\ collo. arikirakoma

n. forest (colloquially, arikirakoma)

rākōko ma'wa /ʔʷa/ \\ lit. elder branches

n. tree (specifically, it refers to a full grown tree, esp. one a very old one; others, like new trees, fallen logs, and thin trees are lumped together under rākō, which can mean "lumber" as well)

vasine ma‘wa /va.ʃʔʷa/ \\ lit. woman parent \\ collo. vasima

n. mother 

note: the word ma'wa is used for both genders, meaning "parent," and is more commonly used than the gendered forms (this one, vasine ma'wa, and 'āne ma'wa

‘āne ma‘wa /ʔʔʷa/ \\ lit. man parent \\ collo. 'ānema

n. father

note: the word ma'wa is used for both genders, meaning "parent," and is more commonly used than the gendered forms (this one, 'āne ma'wa, and vasine ma'wa

Swadesh ListEdit

Note that an asterisk in the Proto-Polynesian section means a direct derivation and those marked with a double asterisk are words that I am subbing into Proto-Polynesian from reconstructed Hawaiian. In the Gambese section, french loans are indicated by an italicized fr. next to the pronunciation and words whose ancestors are reconstructed from analyzing Hawaiian, Māori, and Samoan words are indicated by an italicized haw.



Marquesan Hawaiian Māori PP

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