|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Gatosu /gatosu/ ("ground-thought-sound" meaning "basic language") is a simplistic, oligosynthetic language and my attempt at efficiently conveying information using just 105 (all consonant+vowel pairs of the English alphabet) monosyllabic, diphonemic content-word-only root words. It was inspired by Chinese.
a /a/, b /b/, c /ʔ/, d /d/, e /ɛ/, f /f/, g /g/, h /h/, i /i/, j /ʒ/, k /k/, l /l/, m /m/, n /n/, o /ɔ/, q /ŋ/, p /p/, r /ɾ/, s /s/, t /t/, u /u/, v /v/, w /w/, y /j/, x /ʃ/, z /z/.
BA:back BE:bad BI:big, very BO: BU:box, cube, four CA:two, other, you CE: he, she, it, far CI: CO:one, i, personal, self CU:DA:add, increase, more DE:DI:dirt DO:do DU:FA:fire, energy, hot FE:female, woman, she FI:thing, it FO:front FU:feel GA:ground, land, low, basic GE: GI: GO:GU:good HA:hand, hold, have, five HE:end HI: HO:all HU:human, person, ten JA: JE:JI:JO: JU:one, i, KA:sky, high KE:question KI:KO: KU:LA:life LE:light, fast, bright LI:small LO:LU:MA: ME:male, man, he MI:meat, flesh, body part MO:move MU:much, amount, number NA:lack, no, zero NE:in, be.inside, enter NI:near, almost NO:NU: name, mark, specific PA:part PE:put, place, be.at PI:PO:opposite PU:push, force, need, strong QA:QE:QI:QO:QU:RA:RE: RI:RO:ball, round RU: SA:start, cause SE:side SI:stick, long, long and thin objects SO:stone, pebble, hard, solid, small roundish objects SU:sound, say TA:time TE:TI:TO:thought, mental process TU:tool, use VA:value VE:plant garment VI:VO:VU:see, eye, view, color WA:out, be.outside leave cover garment WE: WI:WO:water, liquid, loose WU:wood, forest, paper XA:XE:shape, quality, way XI:XO:XU YA:YE:air, gas, invisible YI:YO:YU: ZA: dark ZE:center, middle, allow ZI:cold ZO:animal ZU:be
gatosu is entirely composed of nouns, verbs and qualifiers. Word order is crucial. Word morphology is the same as sentence structure. Word boundaries are indicated by stress which always falls on the first syllable.
I co, you ca, he she it ce, he ceme or me, she cefe or fe, it cefi or fi we incl. coca, we excl. coce we all comu you all camu they cemu
Possessives get the radical -ha.
Verbs corresponding to prepositions: Edit
at pe place (be.at) about concerning as.for ro round in.terms.of roxe round-shape above ka sky (unlike 'high' it's transitive) according to casa far-sound (they/it says) across moze move-center after peba(ta) place-back(-time) against po oppose along moni move-near amid among between within ze center around ro like xe shape as (being) zu as (function) doca do-far (someone's action, function=cado) away.from off.of ca far because of sasa start-start (cause that makes something happen) before fo(ta) front(-time) behind ba back below under ga ground beyond outside wa out considering peto place-thought despite although pozu oppose-be during when ta time from wa out to ne in since tasa time-start until tahe place-end instead hape hold-place in inside ne in into mone move-in into (translative) sa<>zu start<>be named entitled nu name near ni near next.to beside se side on gaba ground-back (sit) out of wa out over zeka center-sky (cross over) than hada hold-add (have more) through newa in-out towards fomo front-move (face and move) unlike nani lack-near with (comitative) ni near with (instrumental) tu tool without naha lack-hold
Other grammatical words: Edit
perfective he end progressive si stick (long) passive voice gazu ground-be (undergo) this nico near-me that (pe-)nice (place-)near-them such vuce see-far still nahe lack-end here peni place-near there pece place-far reflexive foco front-one (towards oneself)o if cezu it-be then
important xuva be-value (of valuable existence) flat xega shape-ground low lie niga near-ground underground gaga ground-ground high above peka place.sky down moga move-ground up moka move-sky earth gaho ground-all root vega plant-ground narrow sise stick-side (stick side-to-side-wise) sharp pierce hesi end-stick straight sixe stick-shape tree plant-stick grass siga stick-ground (it's low on ground) flower vele plant-light (colorful plant) fly yemo air-move feather miyemo meat-air-move nose miye meat-air (breathing body part) breathe neye in-air lung mineye meat-in-air food eat fimi thing-meat (thing necessary for they body) house pela place-life sharp seli side-small artificial sahu start-human (man-made) become birth sazu start-be make sa<so>zu start<so>be give sa<so>ha<sth> colour xele shape-light (shape of light waves, their frequency) similar nixe near-shape fast mole move-light sudden lezu light-be (fast start to exist) poo dimi dirt-meat pee wodimi water-dirt-meat tear wovu water-eye sweat womi water-meat horse zole animal-fast dog zogu animal-good thick mucus sure niso near-stone (almost-solid) happen event peta place-time mind brain mito meat-thought speak language suto sound-thought know hato hold-thought learn sato start-thought believe toye thought-air (a mental process involving invisible things) soul yeto air-thought suspect towo thought-water (diluted knowledge) doubt toli thought-small (know little) guess suggest suli sound-small (say what little knowledge you have) memory remember toso thought-stone blood womi water-meat bone somi stone-meat foot mimo meat-ground leg misiga meat-stick-ground bend bow turn mose move-side oil niwo near-water petroleum woso water-stone swim womo water-move juice wove water-plant flow wave mowo move-water glass soye stone-air lightning faye fire-air ghost huye human-air head mika meat-sky (high body part) mouth mine meat-in (body part for putting things into) hole pana part-lack (missing part) tongue misuto meat-sound-thought wide fat bise big-side (big side-wise) vertical kaga sky-ground horizontal level sese side-side general vubi see-big (big view) estimate judge toxe thought-shape (think about what quality something is) measure saxe start-shape (get (start have) sth's shape parameters) just saxegu sound-shape-good describe suxe sound-shape (say what shape something is) compare lece light-other (see the differences) difference different xece shape-other edge pahe part-end arm mise meat-side butt sit gaba ground-back cross moze move-center heart mize meat-center hand mitu meat-tool clean wedi away-dirt remove moce move-far egg seed sola stone-life nature zove animal-plant pass moni move-near smell fuye feel-air taste fune feel-in (in-meat=mouth) want urge fupu feel-push seek puvu push-see (want to see) offer hali hold-small (make have tentatively) carry hamo hold-move car famo fire-move (combustion vehicle) engine fapu fire-push face mifo meat-front stomach mifa meat-fire (digesting) surface cover pawa part-out skin miwa meat-out circle roga round-ground (flat ball) jump puka push-sky mountain roka round-sky (high bump) bump convex rowa round-out pit rone round-in cave naga lack-ground cheek rofo round-front (face bump) empty nane lack-in whole coho one-all full neho in-all body miho meat-all every co ho one all grather collect peco place-one bring hani hold-near (take come) arrive mope move-place (move until be.at) travel bimo big-move touch nini near-near meet movu move-see blend muco many-one (many become one) tangle sico stick-one (long things become one) cling stick attach niha (putting something close makes it hold together) muscle mimo meat-move tooth bite sofo stone-front (face bones) skull soka stone-sky (head bone) gums misofo meat-stone-front gut mine meat-in sweet nefugu in-feel-good bitter nefuba in-feel-bad sour nefuve in-feel-plant spicy nefufa in-feel-fire salty nefuso in-feel-stone salt sonefu stone-in-feel (stone with taste) work dofa do-fire (do something that requires energy) train famosi fire-move-stick fuel (fat) (mi-)wofa (meat-)water-fire bit concise pali part-small short lisi small-stick (small lengthwise) cage bosi box-stick (box made of bars) grow dazu add-be propose dato add-thought lead fosa front-push past taba time-back future tafo time-front help back.up bagu back-good support baca back-far (help from a distance, without real involvent) follow bamo back-move behind peba row sequence queue muba many-back (many things following one another) change mozu move-be manner approach xedo shape-do moon rozi round-cold (cold ball) sun rofa round-fire star role round-light ash fifa thing-fire magic lepu light-push (light that affects the physical world) wand silepu stick-light-push love nifa near-fire (be.near-feel.hot) rose veni plant-near (love plant) pink leni light-near (love (flower) light (quality)) green vuve see-plant brown vuzo see-animal white vule see-light red vufa see-fire blue vuka see-sky black vuza see-dark pipe cylinder sina stick-lack (empty stick) steam fog yefa air-fire stand baka back-sky (one's back gets high) heavy puga push-ground complex pamu part-many develop dapa add-part a.few muli many-small (a little amount) order mugu many-good mess mube many-bad evil tobe thought-bad surround waro out-round (be outside in a circle) penis sime stick-male vagina nafe lack-female (hole=lack part) stay namo lack-move abandon leave.sth omission pemo place.move (put and go away) rest heba end-back (end up behind) focus bico big-one (put a lot in one place) topic roze round-center echo talk.back saba sound-back return ceni far-near reverse moba move-back same xeco shape-one function cado someone/something-action destination hemo end-move throw puce push-far wonder curious interested puto push-thought ultimately hehe end-end cigarette vefa plant-fire crazy nato lack-thought marijuana veto plant-thought (plant that affects brain) being fizu thing-be now tazu time-be any nanu lack-name need puha push-hold (must-have) can hapu hold-push (have what is needed to) ring rona round-lack (lacks middle) button tupu tool-push parent husa human-start (they start everything for you, they're the first person you know) god saka start-sky (heavely creator) sibling huni human-near brother meni male-near uncle menisa male-near-start (parent's brother) child huli human-small midget huga human-ground crawl gamo ground-move snake simoga stick-move-ground cane simo stick-move new young nisa near-start the USA gasa ground-start continent gabi ground-big America gabisa ground-big-start day tale time-light night taza time-dark today lezu light-be (day that is) yesterday leba light-back last night zaba dark-back tomorrow lefo light-front noon zele center-light midnight zeza center-dark sunrise sale start-light sunset saza start-dark north pezele place-center-light south pezeza place-center-dark east pesale place-start-light west pesaza place-start-dark direction way fomo front-move (face something and move there) summer tafa time-fire winter tazi time-cold spring tave time-plant autumn tawo time-water hour tapa time-part minute moment tali time-small second taso time-stone (pebble) month (ta-)rozi (time-)round-cold year tabi time-big coal sofa stone-fire desert pena place-lack (north/south) pole pezi(le/za) place-cold(-light/dark) rule suso sound-stone (say-establish, solid statement) burn hafa hold-fire gun tuba tool-bad (for hurting) hurt fuba feel-bad please fugu feel-good order command susa sound-start (say-make.do) repeat again dodo do-do bright xele shape-light build create compose hasa hold-start must task pudo pudo (required action) half paze part-center profit hagu hold-good loss heha end-hold may do true real xezu shape-be false lie pozu oppose-be sentence sisa stick-sound (long utterance) word pasa part-sound clothes fiwa thing-out wear hawa hold-out hat waka out-sky (high garment) shirt waze out-center jacket wafa out-fire (warm) pants waga out-ground shoes wamo out-move underwear wani out-near armour waso out-stone blind navu lack-see active domu do-many write sanu start-name (make mark) music sugu sound-good sing voice sune sound-in (mouth sound) whisper suga sound-ground cry suwo sound-water scream shout suka sound-sky break pupa push-part divide sapa start-part TV vufa see-fire (electric vision) phone sufa sound-fire watch tuta tool-time calendar wuta wood-time free napu lack-push metal soso stone-stone (hard stone) sword sibe stick-bad arrow sipu stick-push bullet sobe stone-bad defend puba push-back attack fopu front-push fight popu oppose-push should puli push-small space fipe thing-place area zone pepa place-part prepare fosa front-start ready hasa hold-start (have what's needed to start) example pattern lexe see-shape compare vuni see-near (see similarities) curse sube sound-bad like nigu near-good happy togu thought-good sad toga thought-ground confident haso hold-stone aim fovu front-see yes zuce no poce agree toco thought-one rather dagu add-good already bado back-do even muce much-that really zumu be-much neutral nase lack-side just foli front-small various xemu shape-many emphasize danu add-name intensify dapu add-push strong xepu shape-push progress mofo move-front trait paxe part-shape lake woga water-ground island gawo ground-water type xeco shape-one talk susu sound-sound letter wuco wood-one (personal paper) each other coca one-other understand sane start-in allow napo lack-oppose wall seso side-stone roof firmament kaso sky-stone floor gaso ground-stone road path moso move-stone read book wuvu wood-see hope foye front-air (wishful future) regret babe back-bad conservative zuba be-back discuss nice near-far context penu place-name horn sopu stone-push (bone-attack) tail siba stick-back nail claw tuso tool-stone milk wofe water-female actually zuzu be-be (truth is) cause fisa thing-start sand dust sowo stone-water smell xeye shape-air cloud fika thing-sky rain woka water-sky ice sozi stone-cold dry nawo lack-water soon nifo near-front sleep doza do-dark marriage mefe male-female husband mela male-life wife fela female-life friend hugu human-good snow woza water-cold laugh gusa good-sound leaf tuve tool-plant sea wobi water-big river wosi water-stick fish zowo animal-water old labi life-big (lived a lot) vomit wami out-meat wind moye move-air idea concept abstract fito thing-thought door tune tool-in number numu name-much dance mogu move-good pig zose animal-side (fat) cat zoco animal-one (solitary) cow zobi animal-big basis soga stone-ground steal gaha ground-hold (crawl-take stamp punu push-name mark meaning finu thing-name invention tosa thought-start (think-make) view fivu thing-view bicycle roll romo round-move wash woce water-far drop woli water-small neck (mi)sika (meat-)stick-sky hit punch kick pumo push-move bread vene plant-in monkey ape zohu animal-human insect bug zoli animal-small plank board wubo wood-box