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Gelota

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I'm translating pages from the French conlang wiki (Ideopedia). This page isn't finished now, and you'll maybe find some French sentences. Do not hesitate to correct my English (or to translate my French ^^). Thank you!

Gelota
Type Gabaritic
Alignment Accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Male, female, neuter, indeterminate
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 81%
Statistics
Nouns 96%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 64%
Syntax 82%
Words 100 of 1500
Creator Tamanulo

Gelota (/gɛˈlota/, word which signify "language") is a conlang created in 2013. It is based upon triliteral roots which carry the sense of the word, whereas the vowel choice carries the grammar.

For example, we can take the name of the language. GLT is the root, which carries the general sense of language. The vowels specify that this word is a noun (e) of indefinite gender (o) in the nominative case (a); GeLoTa.

The majority of the documentation about Gelota is in French. If you want to know more, you can see this list of French pages.

Alphabet Edit

The alphabet of Gelota is in fact a kind of abjad. It contains 25 letters, only consonants, which are completed in real words by diacritics, which represents vowels.

The difference with a true abjad, like Hebrew, is that the vowels are necessary for understand words.

In order to write it with our computers, and to read it without learn a new alphabet, a system of transcription was created. But some letters are also diacrited[1], and some computers can't write or even read it. So, a replacement system was created too:

  • for the consonants, we add an "H" (for example, Ð = DH; Ḟ = FH; Ĥ = HH);
  • for the vowels, we can replace the macron ( ̄ ) by a circumflex ( ̂ ), easier to obtain (ō = ô); and if even the circumflex is too difficult to obtain, the "ō" can become "oi", the "ā" "ai" and the "ē" "eu".

This system of transcription may seem illogical, as I use sometimes circumflex (Ĥ), sometimes points (Ḟ) and even a rare letter (Ð). The reason is that I seek to use only Unicode precomposed letters, and for example, F with a circumflex does not exist.

Consonants Edit

Letter[2] Transcription IPA Example (in English) Numerical value
(septenary system)
B /b/ but 0
C /t͡s/ tsunami 1
Ĉ /t͡ʃ/ chair 2
D /d/ odd 3
Ð /ð/ the 4
F /f/ fool 5
/p͡f/ pfennig 6
G /ɡ/ go 10
Ĝ /d͡ʒ/ gin 20
H /h/ at the beginning of a word;
/ʔ/ elsewhere
home;
uh-oh
30
Ĥ /x/ loch (Scottish) 40
J /ʒ/ beige 50
K /k/ cat 60
L /l/ let 100
M /m/ man 200
N /n/ no 300
P /p/ pen 400
R /r/ curd (trilled as in some Scottish dialects) 500
/ʁ/ red (only in some dialects[3].) 600
S /s/ pass 1000
Ŝ /ʃ/ she 2000
T /t/ bet 3000
V /v/ voice 4000
Z /z/ zoo 5000
/d͡z/ does not exist; like "dz"[4] 6000

Vowels Edit

Diacritic Transcription IPA Example (in English)
a /a/ cat (often in received pronunciation, Welsh dialect)
e /ɛ/ bed
i /i/ city
o /o/ talk
u /u/ you (e.g. in Irish dialect)
ō /ɔ̃/ does not exist in English[5]
ā /ɛ̃/ does not exist in English[6]
ē /ø/ bird (South African and Geordie dialects)

Phonology Edit

Consonants Edit

Manner Place
Labial Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Bilabial Lab.-dent. Dental Alveol. Post-alv. Velar Uvular
Nasal m n
Stop p b t d k g ʔ
Affricate p͡f t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Fricative f v ð s z ʃ ʒ x ʁ h
Trill r
Lat. approximant l

Vowels Edit

Front Back
Close /i/
i
/u/
u
Close-mid /ø/
ē
/o/
o
Open-mid /ɛ/
e
/ɛ̃/
ā
/ɔ̃/
ō
Open /a/
a

Morphology Edit

Grammatical category Edit

First vowel.

Category used letter
Verb a
Noune e
Adjective i
Adverb o

Noun, adjective, and adverb Edit

Gender Edit

Second vowel.

Gender Letter used Usage
Male a
Female e
Neuter i For things with more than one gender.
Indeterminate o For the sex is unknown or when it's an asexual object.

Declination Edit

Third vowel.

Case Letter used Main usage
Singular Plural
Nominative a u Subject
Accusative e ō Direct object
Genitive i ā Noun's complement
Dative o ē Indirect object

Verbs Edit

Conjugation Edit

Tense Edit

Second vowel.

Tense Vowel used Main usage
Present a Action in progress at the moment of the statement.
Aorist e Action finished at the moment of the statement.
Perfect i Past action unfinished or having effect at the moment of the statement.
Future o Action débutant après le moment de l’énonciation.
Amplifiant u In a subordinate, this tense describe an action earlier than the principal verb if it is in a tense of the past, or later if it is in the future tense.
Infinitive ō Lemma. Infinitive proposal.
Participles ā Genitive absolute[7].
Subjonctive ē Description of fact and action fictitious or expected.
Persons Edit

Third vowel.

Person Vowel used Notes
Singular Plural
P1 a o
P2 e u
P3 i ō The third person, preceded by the pronoun ŝa in the singular form and ŝu in the plural, is also the polite form ("vous" in French, "Sie" in German, "Lei" in Italian...[8]).
Volition ā ē These vowels takes place of the imperative mood. So, in Gelota, we can have a present volition, an aorist volition, future volition, ... The use of pronoun is highly recommended with the volitive.
The participles and the infinitive aren't conjugated; consequently they aren't subjected to this table.

Morphosyntax Edit

Subordinates propositions Edit

Prefixes Edit

Correlatives Edit

Syntax Edit

Notes Edit

  1. To make it more simple, the eth (Ð) is considered as a diacritic, even if it's an actual letter.
  2. The original alphabet of the Gelota isn't finished.
  3. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_uvular_fricative#Occurrence
  4. See for examples http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_alveolar_affricate#Voiced_alveolar_sibilant_affricate
  5. It's a nasalized "o", like in the French "biberon".
  6. It's a nasalized "e", like in the French "temps".
  7. The participles aren't entirely described.
  8. Cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%E2%80%93V_distinction.

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