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Name: Melanian

Type: Agglutinative Synthetic

Alignment: Nominative-accusative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

The Genovian language (Spanish: Guenoviense, Portuguese: Guenoviênse, French: Genovien, Genovian: pasa Genovia) was a language used by international/intercontinental traders to make communication easier when trading, and has become the official language of the Genovian people.


Features

- Genovian is an agglutinative language.
- First person and second person pronouns depend on gender and age.
- There are 20 noun cases.
- The only irregular verb in Genovian is the verb to be (sea).
- Influences include Finnish; Latin; and Austro-Asiatic, Nordic, and Germanic languages.

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SoundsEdit

PhonologyEdit

AlphabetEdit

ConsonantsEdit

BilabialLabiodentalDentalAlveolarPostalveolarRetroflexPalatalVelarUvularPharyngealGlottal
Plosive [p]
[pʰ]
[b]
[t]
[tʰ]
[d]
[k]
[kʰ]
[g]
Nasal [m] [n] [ɲ] [ŋ]
Trill [ɾ]
Tap or Flap
Affricate [t͡s]
[d͡z]
[ʤ]
[t͡ʃ]
[t͡ʃʰ]
Fricative [f]
[v]
[s]
[z]
[ʃ] [h]
Lateral fricative
Approximant [j]
Lateral approximant [l]

Coarticulated Consonants

[/w/]

is represented by the letter W.


Single Consonants

[/p/]

is represented by the letter P.

[/pʰ/]

is represented by the letter Б.

[/b/]

is represented by the letter B.

[/t/]

is represented by the letter T.

[/tʰ/]

is represented by the letter Ŧ.

[/d/]

is represented by the letter D.

[/k/]

is represented by the letter K.

[/kʰ/]

is represented by the letter Ǩ.

[/g/]

is represented by the letter G.

[/m/]

is represented by the letter M.

[/n/]

is represented by the letter N.

[/ɾ/]

is represented by the letter R.

[/t͡s/]

is represented by the letter Ź.

[/d͡z/]

is represented by the letter Đ.

[/t͡ʃ/]

is represented by the letter C.

[/t͡ʃʰ/]

is represented by the letter Ć.

[/f/]

is represented by the letter F.

[/v/]

is represented by the letter V.

[/s/]

is represented by the letter S.

[/z/]

is represented by the letter Z.

[/h/]

is represented by the letter H.

[/j/]

is represented by the letter J.

[/l/]

is represented by the letter L.


Consonant Clusters

[/dz/]

is represented by the letters DZ.

[/ʃ/]

is represented by the letters CH.

[/ʤ/]

is represented by the letters DČ.

[/ɲ/]

is represented by the letters NJ.

[/ŋ/]

is represented by the letters NG.

VowelsEdit

There are eleven vowels in Melanian: A, Ä, E, Ę, I, O, Õ, Ô, Ö, U, and Y.

A : [/ɑ/]


Ä : [/æ/]


E : [/e/]


Ę : [/ɯ/]


I : [/i/]


O : [/o/]


Õ : [/ɤ/]


Ô : [/ɔ/]


Ö : [/ø/]


U : [/u/]


Y : [/y/]


The vowel harmony rule is utilized in the Melanian language. This means that back vowels and front vowels cannot appear in the same word, with the exception of compound words. Neutral vowels, however, are allowed to appear in words with either vowel group.


Back vowels: A, Ę, O, Õ, Ô, U
Front vowels: Ä, Ö, Y
Neutral vowels: E, I

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllable C (C) V (V) (C) (C)


1. Plosives

  1. Before/after a vowel
  2. Before a trill
  3. Before approximants and lateral approximants

2. Nasals

  1. Before/after a vowel
  2. Before affricates
  3. After fricatives
  4. Before approximants

3. Trills

  1. Before/after a vowel
  2. After plosives
  3. Before/after fricatives
  4. Before an approximant

4. Affricates

  1. Before/after a vowel
  2. After nasals
  3. After trills

5. Fricatives

  1. Before/after a vowel
  2. Before a trill (except glottal fricatives)
  3. Before approximants and lateral approximants (except glottal fricatives)

6. Approximant

  1. Before/after a vowel
  2. After plosives
  3. After nasals
  4. After a trill
  5. After fricatives

7. Lateral Approximant

  1. Before/after a vowel
  2. After plosives
  3. After fricatives
  4. Before an approximant

8. W

  1. Before/after a vowel
  2. After plosives
  3. After fricatives

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Melanian nouns have no gender, and are declined using noun cases (which change according to vowel harmony). Because of this, preposition use is very limited, and it may be confusing to determine the way a noun functions in a sentence if more than one noun is involved. There are also no articles.

Noun CasesEdit

Case Suffix English Preposition Example Translation
Grammatical
Nominative Misa e gran. The table is big.
Genitive -(e)n of, 's Mei toljan tonam kazan. Nisi e Karenen misa. I don't like the colour of the house. This is Karen’s<b> table.
Accusative -(i)m - (object, whole) Pintuna misam. I will paint the house (the whole house).
Partitive -(t)a or -(t)ä - (object, incomplete/uncountable) Pintun misata. I'm painting the house (I didn't finish painting the whole house yet).
Locative
Ablative -(i)lta or -(i)ltä from (away from a place) Venen kazaan ulkolta. Han voltet <b>bangilta. I come into the house from outside. He returns from the bathroom.
Adessive -(i)lla or -(i)llä on / on top of / at Kaneta et misalla. Pitture et muralla. Sen ekolella. The pen is on (top of) the table. The picture is on the wall. I am at school.
Allative -(i)lle to (outside), onto Kan chegasa kazalle? When will you be arriving to the house (outside of the house)?
Apudessive -(i)pu or -(i)py next to Kaneta et misapu. The pen is next to the table.
Comitative -(i)to or -(i)tö with Kaneta et käjetö. The pen is with the notebook.
Elative -(i)sta or -(i)stä from (inside), out of Sai kazastanin! Get out of my house!
Essive -(i)na or -(i)nä as narkina as a child
Exessive -(i)nta or -(i)ntä from (away from a state) Hun välite banta kängrängiksi. She went from crazy to healthy.
Illative -an, -en, -in, etc. into (mostly associated with motion) Pan kazaan. Pan ekoleen. Pan бagitin. I go into the house. I go into the school. I go into the closet.
Inessive -(i)ssa or -(i)ssä in, inside (situated) Mieskan kazassa. I live in the house.
Instrumental -(i)no or -(i)nö by means/way of, with (use of) Kiroden kanetano. I write with a pen.
Intrative -(i)llu or -(i)lly amidst, in between Misa et noillu. The table is between us.
Subessive -(i)pou or -(i)pöy under, below Sen misapou. I am under the table.
Superessive and Superlative -(i)me over (not touching) Chandeliiri et misame. Pasao vote chevimenin. The chandelier is over the table. The bird flew over my head.
Translative -(i)ksi becoming X, changing to X Hun välite banta kängrängiksi. She went from crazy to healthy.
Adpositional
Dative -(h)o (give) to Gini misam Kareno. I gave the table to Karen.

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