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Giblu: Guhir

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Giblu: Guhir is a language spoken by Guhir aliens, who have been eliminated by robots they invented.

Guhir Alien and guhir robots

Guhir aliens and guhir robots

Out-of-Universe introduction(very brief)Edit

Giblu: Guhir, the language of Guhir, is an a priori conlang with some semitic-like features.

PhonologyEdit

The Phonology looks uninteresting and similar to that of human languages:

Consonants:

/m n/<m n>
/p b t d k g ʔ/
/ts/<ts>
/(f) (v) s z h (ɣ)/<f v s z h gh>
/w r l j/<w r l y>

/ʔ/ is unwritten when it starts a word

/h/ is pronunced as [h] or [x]

sounds in brackets are results of consonant mutations.

Vowels:

/a i u/<a i u>
/a: i: u:/<a: i: u:>

syllable: CV(C)(C), every syllable must be started with a consonant, every word that seems to start with a vowel actually starts with a glottal stop.

Writing systemEdit

Giblu: Guhir has its own writing system, which is an Abjad.

The alphabets of the Guhir script is shown below:

Guhir script and some examples

GrammarEdit

syntaxEdit

Word orderEdit

  • basic word order: AVI/AIV/VAI(A=nouns with higher animacy, I=nouns with lower animacy)
  • adpositions are prepositions
  • demonstratives and numerals precede the noun they modify, genitive modifiers and relative clauses follow the noun they modify, adjectives can precede or follow the noun they modify

For core arguments in transitive sentences, arguments with higher animacy should always precede arguments with lower animacy.

the relative animacy is listed below:

1st person> 2nd person> 3rd person> proper name> person/sentinent beings> animals> plants(including fungi)/body parts/natural forces> other non-abstract entities> abstract concepts.

proper names and words for people, sentinent beings and animals are considered animate, other nouns are considered inanimate.

For example, the following sentences are grammatical:

  • n'arr saru:g barp - the person killed a fish(barp can also be translated as "sea animal")

but the following sentence is not:

  • barp saru:g n'arr - *a fish killed the person

even both of "arr"("person") and "barp"("fish/sea animal") are animate, the relative animcy of "arr" is higher than "barp", so "arr" must precede "barp"

to express meanings like "a fish killed the person", one needs to use inverse forms of verbs:

  • n'arr saruwu:g barp - a fish killed the person/the person was killed by a fish.

relative clauseEdit

relative clause start with 'nah', when the head noun/antecedent is not the subject or direct object of the relative clause, a resumptive pronoun is used, and the resumptive pronoun agrees with the number and the animacy of the head noun; on the other hand, the relativizer 'nah' doesn't decline, it is invariable.

nominal clauseEdit

nominal clauses start with 'nah'

copulaEdit

there are no copulae.

morphologyEdit

The morphology of Guhir language is nonconcatenative, it applies transfixation and has triconsonantal roots, and there are also some biconsonantal and quadriconsonantal roots.

NounsEdit

Nouns have three numbers and two genders, the three numbers are singular, dual and plural, the two genders are animate and inanimate; also, there are some nons follow the singulative-collective patterns; besides, there are construct states for nouns, the construct state of a noun is used on the possessed noun in genetive construction, when the construct state is not used, one needs to use the preposition pa("of") to indicate possession.

When the possessor is a pronoun, possessive suffixes are used, and the possessed noun is in construct state. Possessive suffixes are listed below:

  • 1st: -mi
  • 2nd: -ti
  • 3rd: -ru
  • 3rd refl: -sa

The the plural forms of most nouns follow nonconcatenative patterns, and different nouns have different patterns, the plural forms of nouns that follow nonconcatenative patterns are called "Broken plural"s. The patterns are listed below:


animate singular - animate plural - animate dual - animate construct state singular - animate construct state plural - animate construct state dual

CuCiC - CiCCi: - CiCCi:k - CiCCu: - CiCCu:yu - CiCCi:gu:

CaCC - CaCi:C - CaCi:Cak - CaCCu: - CaCu:Cu - CaCi:Caku:

CiCC - CiCi:C - CiCi:Cak - CuCCu: - CuCu:Cu - CiCi:Caku:

CuCC - CiCi:C - CiCi:Cak - CuCCu: - CuCu:Cu - CiCi:Caku:

ruCCaC - riCCi:Ca - riCCi:Cak - ruCCu:C - ruCCu:yuC - riCCi:Cagu:

miCCaC - miCCi:Ca - miCCi:Cak - muCCu:C - muCCu:yuC - miCCi:Cagu:

Ca:CiC - Ci:wiCiC - Ci:wiCiCak - Ca:CCu: - Ci:wiCCu: - Ci:wiCiCaku:(singulative: Ci:CCi ; construct state singulative: CuCCu:wu)


inanimate singular - inanimate plural - inanimate dual - inanimate construct state singular - inanimate construct state plural - inanimate construct state dual

CaCiC/CaCC - CaCCa: - CaCCa:k - CaCCu: - CaCCu:wu - CaCCa:gu:

CiCiC/CiCC - CiCCa: - CiCCa:k - CiCCu: - CiCCu:wu - CiCCa:gu:

CuCiC/CuCC - CiCCa: - CiCCa:k - CiCCu: - CiCCu:wu - CuCCa:gu:

CaCC - CaCa:C - CaCa:Cak - CaCCu: - CaCu:Cu - CaCa:Cagu:

CiCC - CiCa:C - CiCa:Cak - CiCCu: - CiCu:Cu - CiCa:Cagu:

CuCC - CiCa:C - CiCa:Cak - CiCCu: - CiCu:Cu - CiCa:Cagu:

CaCi:C - CaCa:C - CaCa:Cak - CaCuwu:C - CaCu:wuC - CaCa:Cagu:

miCCaC - miCCa:Ca - miCCa:Cak - muCCu:C - muCCu:wuC - miCCa:Cagu:

waCCaC - (none) - (none) - waCCu:C - (none) - (none)

Ca:CiC - Ca:waCiC - Ca:waCiCak - Ca:CCu: - Ca:waCCu: - Ca:waCiCagu:(singulative: Ci:CCi ; construct state singulative: CuCCu:wu)(usually collective)

CiCa:C - CiC2C2u:C - CiC2C2u:Cak - CiCa:wuC - CiC2C2u:wuC


quadriliteral nouns:

CaCCa:C - CaCCaCa: - CaCCaCa:k - CaCCaCu: - CaCCaCu:wu - CaCCaCa:gu: - CaCCaCa:gu:(usually collective)

CaCCiC - CaCiCCa: - CaCiCCa:k - CaCiCCu: - CaCiCCu:wu - CaCiCCa:gu:(usually non-collective)

CuCCiC - CiCiCCa: - CiCiCCa:k - CiCiCCu: - CiCiCCu:wu - CiCiCCa:gu:(usually non-collective)

CiCCiC - CiCiCCa: - CiCiCCa:k - CiCiCCu: - CiCiCCu:wu - CiCiCCa:gu:(usually non-collective)


For nouns that don't use broken plurals use suffixes for plural forms, the suffixes are listed below:

  • plural: -i:(animate)/-a:(inanimate)(triggering the consonant mutation of the last consonant)
  • dual: -i:k(animate)/-a:k(inanimate)(triggering the consonant mutation of the last consonant)
  • construct state singular: -u:(triggering the lenition mutation of the last consonant)
  • plural: -i:wu(animate)/-a:wu(inanimate)(triggering the consonant mutation of the last consonant)
  • dual: -i:gu(animate)/-a:gu(inanimate)(triggering the consonant mutation of the last consonant)

VerbsEdit

Verbs agree with persons and numbers of both the subject and the object; also verbs conjugate according to the TAM(Tense-Aspect-Mood).

The patterns are listed below:

Infinitive:

  • 1st.sg infinitive: miCCu:C
  • 1st.pl infinitive: miCaC2C2u:C
  • 2nd.sg infinitive: tiCCu:C
  • 2nd.pl infinitive: tiCaC2C2u:C
  • 3rd.sg infinitive: CaCaC
  • 3rd.pl infinitive: CaC2C2aC
  • 3rd.sg infinitive inverse: CaCu:C
  • 3rd.pl infinitive inverse: CaC2C2u:C

++++

Present:

direct:

  • sg>sg: CCiC(CaCiC when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)
  • sg>pl: CaC2C2iC
  • pl>sg: C1aC1C2iC
  • pl>pl: C1C1aC2C2iC(C1aC1aC2C2iC when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)

inverse:

  • sg>sg: CCiwiC(CaCiwiC when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)
  • sg>pl: CaC2C2iwiC
  • pl>sg: C1aC1C2iwiC
  • pl>pl: C1C1aC2C2iwiC(C1aC1aC2C2iwiC when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)

personal agreement:

  • 1>3: mi-
  • 2>3: ti-
  • 1>2: miti-
  • 3>3: 0-
  • 1.refl: misa-
  • 2.refl: tisa-
  • 3.refl: sa-

---

Past imperfective:

direct:

  • sg>sg: CCa:C(CaCa:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)
  • sg>pl: CaC2C2a:C
  • pl>sg: C1aC1C2a:C
  • pl>pl: C1C1aC2C2a:C(C1aC1aC2C2a:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)

inverse:

  • sg>sg: CCuwa:C(CaCuwa:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)
  • sg>pl: CaC2C2uwa:C
  • pl>sg: C1aC1C2uwa:C
  • pl>pl: C1C1aC2C2uwa:C(C1aC1aC2C2uwa:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)

personal agreement:

  • 1>3: ma-
  • 2>3: ta-
  • 1>2: mita-
  • 3>3: 0-
  • 3>1(=1>3.inv): mu-
  • 3>2(=3>2.inv): tu-
  • 2>1(=1>2.inv): mitu-
  • 1.refl: misa-
  • 2.refl: tisa-
  • 3.refl: sa-

---

Perfective:

direct:

  • sg>sg: CCu:C(CaCu:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)
  • sg>pl: CaC2C2u:C
  • pl>sg: C1aC1C2u:C
  • pl>pl: C1C1aC2C2u:C(C1aC1aC2C2u:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)

inverse:

  • sg>sg: CCuwu:C(CaCuwu:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)
  • sg>pl: CaC2C2uwu:C
  • pl>sg: C1aC1C2uwu:C
  • pl>pl: C1C1aC2C2uwu:C(C1aC1aC2C2uwu:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)

personal agreement:

  • 1>3: ma-
  • 2>3: ta-
  • 1>2: mita-
  • 3>3: 0-
  • 1.refl: misa-
  • 2.refl: tisa-
  • 3.refl: sa-

---

Subjunctive:

direct:

  • sg>sg: CCi:C(CaCi:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)
  • sg>pl: CaC2C2i:C
  • pl>sg: C1aC1C2i:C
  • pl>pl: C1C1aC2C2i:C(C1aC1aC2C2i:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)

inverse:

  • sg>sg: CCiwi:C(CaCiwi:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)
  • sg>pl: CaC2C2iwi:C
  • pl>sg: C1aC1C2iwi:C
  • pl>pl: C1C1aC2C2iwi:C(C1aC1aC2C2iwi:C when the subject and object are both 3rd non-reflexives)

personal agreement:

  • 1>3: ma-
  • 2>3: ta-
  • 1>2: mita-
  • 3>3: 0-
  • 1.refl: misa-
  • 2.refl: tisa-
  • 3.refl: sa-

++++

Present Causative:

direct:

  • sg>sg: raCCiC
  • sg>pl: rCaC2C2iC(raCaC2C2iC when the subject and object are both 3rd persons)
  • pl>sg: rC1aC1C2iC(raC1aC1C2iC when the subject and object are both 3rd persons)
  • pl>pl: raC1C1aC2C2iC

inverse:

  • sg>sg: raCCiwiC
  • sg>pl: rCaC2C2iwiC(raCaC2C2iwiC when the subject and object are both 3rd persons)
  • pl>sg: rC1aC1C2iwiC(raC1aC1C2iwiC when the subject and object are both 3rd persons)
  • pl>pl: raC1C1aC2C2iwiC

personal agreement:

  • 1>3: mi-
  • 2>3: ti-
  • 1>2: miti-
  • 3>3: 0-

---

Past imperfective Causative:

direct:

  • sg>sg: raCCa:C
  • sg>pl: raCaC2C2a:C
  • pl>sg: raC1aC1C2a:C
  • pl>pl: raC1C1aC2C2a:C

inverse:

  • sg>sg: ruCCuwa:C
  • sg>pl: ruCaC2C2uwa:C
  • pl>sg: ruC1aC1C2uwa:C
  • pl>pl: ruC1C1aC2C2uwa:C

personal agreement:

  • 1>3: mi-
  • 2>3: ti-
  • 1>2: mit-
  • 3>3: 0-

---

Perfective Causative:

direct:

  • sg>sg: raCCu:C
  • sg>pl: raCaC2C2u:C
  • pl>sg: raC1aC1C2u:C
  • pl>pl: raC1C1aC2C2u:C

inverse:

  • sg>sg: raCCuwu:C
  • sg>pl: raCaC2C2uwu:C
  • pl>sg: raC1aC1C2uwu:C
  • pl>pl: raC1C1aC2C2uwu:C

personal agreement:

  • 1>3: mi-
  • 2>3: ti-
  • 1>2: mit-
  • 3>3: 0-

---

Subjunctive Causative:

direct:

  • sg>sg: raCCi:C
  • sg>pl: raCaC2C2i:C
  • pl>sg: raC1aC1C2i:C
  • pl>pl: raC1C1aC2C2i:C

inverse:

  • sg>sg: raCCiwi:C
  • sg>pl: raCaC2C2iwi:C
  • pl>sg: raC1aC1C2iwi:C
  • pl>pl: raC1C1aC2C2iwi:C

personal agreement:

  • 1>3: mi-
  • 2>3: ti-
  • 1>2: mit-
  • 3>3: 0-

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives agree with the head noun in number and gender. The patterns are listed below:

animate singular - animate plural - inanimate singular - inanimate plural - adverb

Triliteral:

  • CaCiC/CaCC - CaCCi: - CaCCa: - CaCCa:wa - a:CaCCa
  • CuCiC/CuCC - CiCCi: - CuCCa: - CuCCa:wa - a:CuCCa
  • CiCiC/CiCC - CiCCi: - CiCCa: - CiCCa:wa - a:CiCCa
  • ha:CCiC - ha:CaCCi - ha:CaCCa - haCaCCa:wa - aha:CCiC
  • ya:CCiC - ya:CaCCi - ya:CaCCa - yaCaCCa:wa - aya:CCiC

Quadriliteral:

  • CaCCiC - CaCaCCi: - CaCaCCa: - CaCaCCa:wa - a:CaCaCCa
  • CiCCiC - CiCaCCi: - CiCaCCa: - CiCaCCa:wa - a:CiCaCCa
  • CuCCiC - CiCaCCi: - CuCaCCa: - CuCaCCa:wa - a:CuCaCCa

wordsEdit

pronounsEdit

personal pronouns(mainly used as emphatic pronouns)Edit

  • I/me: watsi
  • you(sg): anta
  • he/she/him/her: ha
  • it: han
  • we/us two: witsi:k
  • you two: intik
  • they/them two: hirik
  • we/us: witsi:
  • you(pl): inti
  • they/them: hiri

interrogative pronouns(always first, guhir language has wh-movement)Edit

who: ki:

what/where/how many/how much: ki:n

how: ki:s

why: ki:p

demonstratives(can be used as pronouns)Edit

this/these: ti(animate)/tin+lenition of the first consonant(inanimate)

that/those: ta(animate)/tan+lenition of the first consonant(inanimate)

definite article: a(animate)/an/nah/n'(inanimate)(in some archaic documents, both 'a/an/na' and 'ta/tan' are used as definite articles)

(such a/an X = X nisti/X nistin)

prepositions(become postpositions after pronouns)Edit

at: na

on: ka

under: rum

in: ni

out: am

from: tup

away: ri

to: a

with(using): su

for, because, in order to: pam

so/therefore: pantan(<pam+tan)

and/accompany with/plus: mi

lacking/without/minus: nam

...folds/...times/multiplying: tib

like/as/similar to: nis

of: pa

numeralsEdit

Like human beings, Guhir aliens have 10 fingers, and they have a base-10 numeral system with a base-5 subbase:

  1. one: yat
  2. two: tsu:
  3. three: ba:r
  4. four: dagir
  5. five: su:
  6. six: su:-yat
  7. seven: su:-tsu:
  8. eight: su:-ba:r
  9. nine: su:-dagir
  10. ten: suk
  • twenty: tsu:s
  • thirty: ba:rs
  • forty: dagris
  • fifty: su:s
  • sixty: su:-yat suk
  • seventy: su:-tsu: suk
  • eighty: su:-ba:r suk
  • ninety: su:-dagir suk
  • hundred: suktil/sutil
  • thousand: sumil

numerals don't decline, they are invariable.

ordinal numeral: -dubb(the -dubb follows the declension of adjective, and the preceding numerals don't change)

distributive numerals are formed by reduplication, with an interfix -mi-: yat-mi-yat = one-by-one/one each; ba:r-mi-ba:r = three-by-three/three each

otherEdit

Negation: na

Question: gi

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