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Gikamlig

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Gikamlig
Beris Zgorig
Type
Varies
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Gikamlig (Known by its native speakers as Beris Zgorig ['beˑɾis 'zgoˑɾiˑg], literally, "Main Speech") is the last living Salvaaic ([sæɫ'veɪ.ɪk]) language whose population equates to roughly 160 000 speakers. It's English rendering comes from the language's word for "friend" or "companion". Due to famine, disease, and a mass genocide of the Salvaaic peoples, its remaining speakers now only live on a remote island in complete isolation from the mainland. High amounts of distrust and overall hostility towards foreigners, combined with an advanced defence system as well as being the the only people familiar with the island's locations, makes any communication, and therefore learning the language, virtually impossible. Knowledge of the language comes from criminals exiled from the island and onto the mainland and then enslaved by nearby kingdoms.

Notice: Gikamlig is not going to be a very naturalistic language featuring aspects such as irregularities or what-not. That was the intentional idea, but I find that many of us do this far more than enough. The point of conlangs, I believe, is to be innovative first and complex second, and that this could be a rather exciting way of testing the possibilities of the human mind. So I am going to be inventing a number of inflections and syntax rules that I have yet to see in any real language and whether or not it is complicated will come later (I have no intention for it to be as infective as Xwarṣa. Seriously, whoever made that thing deserves a bloody medal for most elaborate stress trigger). As a result, Gikamlig will undergo very extensive alterations from time to time as I may get new ideas, but since this is my first language I am not sure if I will be too creative here or not. If that is the case, think of it as a prototype for future "creative-oriented" tongues if I ever start speculating new concepts after this one is completed. That is all.

Second Notice: I changed my mind. This page will be patched up, but not for a while. See the language "Ekoata" for more information.

PhonologyEdit

Gikamlig possesses a relatively simplistic vowel system, just five plus two allophones, balanced by a rich consonantal inventory, with a total of 36 consonants, 40 if allophones are included. Unique in its inventory for a Salvaaic language is the inclusion of ejectives.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal /m/ /n/ /ŋ/*
Plosive /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/
Labio-Plos. /tʷ/ /dʷ/ /kʷ/ /gʷ/
Ejective /p'/ /t'/ /k'/
Fricative /f/ /v/* /ð/* /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /ç/ /x/ /ɣ/* /χ/ /ʁ/
Labio-Fric. /sʷ/ /zʷ/ /ʃʷ/ /ʒʷ/ /çʷ/ /xʷ/ /χʷ/ /ʁʷ/
Approximant /l/
Labio-Appr. /lʷ/
Trill /r/
Flap or tap /ɾ/
  • */v/, /ð/, /ŋ/, and /ɣ/ are allophones of /b/, /d/, /n/, and /g/, respectively.
  • /r/ exists as a vowel only.
  • /m/, /n/, and /l/ may also be used as vowels.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close /i/ /ɨ/* /u/
Close-mid /e/ /o/
Mid /ə/*
Open-mid /ʌ/

*/u/ and /ʌ/ become /ɨ/ and /ə/ after labialized consonants.

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

InflectionsEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions Yes Yes No No No No No No
Article No Yes No No No No No No
Particle Yes Yes No No No No No No

Nouns Edit

Adjectives Edit

Verbs Edit

Tense Edit

Just as the nouns, Gikamlig verbs possess strong and weak variants, the latter of which occurs when nouns or adjectives are treated as verbs [For example: noun: Kalig (the hand) ----> Kariçe (Will hold/will be holding). Weak verbs stemming from adjectives are more predictable in there definitions. For example: ilefuš (better) ----> ilefiçe (Will improve/will be improving)]. Strong verbs are more fusional than their weak counterparts, which are primarily agglutinated.

Technically speaking, Gikamlig has no conjugation that strictly identifies any present tense. Discussing current events requires expressing one of three tenses of day: "morning tense", "noon tense", and "evening tense" (italicized with quotations because these are not their correct names. In fact, I have no idea if there even is one).

Using whichever "day tense", depending on the time of day it is used, could be referring to an action that occurred in the past, present, or future of the day the discussion occurs. For example, if one were to use the noon tense during noon or afternoon, it would be rendered as the present tense; however, if it is used and it is the evening, then it is rendered as an action in the past, specifically the afternoon. Likewise, if it is the afternoon or morning and the evening tense is used, it is rendered as an action that will occur during the evening.

Mood Edit

The following conjugations regard mood, of which Gikamlig inflects for three: subjunctive, imperative, interrogative, the latter of which will be discussed firstly. The interrogative mood for weak verbs is naturally simple: just add the suffix "s" after the appropriate tense. Strong verbs are more colourful in conjugation, although just as straightforward; to conjugate for the interrogative, these verbs switch the positions of the last two vowels.

Following is the imperative mood, which has its own inflections, albeit of a much smaller variety. Just as in English, the imperative can be considered rude or offensive depending on circumstance, and as such a sort of "Interrogative-Imperative" merging occurs (again, I have no idea if there is an actual name for this). The interrogative-imperative turns the imperative into a question, and as a result it inflects exactly as the interrogative.

The subjunctive has by far the simplest conjugation. In fact, it removes any conjugation at all for either strong or weak verbs. For example: "Milwafkis tuķ su karrda" "It was necessary that he build." Literally: "He had necessary build." So the rule is to just drop the infinitive (Tuķes ---> Tuķ); however, if the verb has two consonants before the conjugation, such as "Lostes" (To cut), the infinitive is replaced with -il, turning the verb to "Lostil".

Syntax Edit

Gikamlig's most basic word order is OVS, unless the subject is a pronoun, in which case it is OSV. Sentence structure can be rather flexible. For example, adjectives and adverbs can be found before or after their respective noun or verb, so that "Cute little dog" can be stated as either "Butis lilis zolig", "Zolig butis lilis", "Lilis zolig butis", and etc. 

VocabularyEdit


No. English Gikamlig
1IZeç
2you (singular)Bi
3heSu
4weZiçw (Exclusive), Beçe (Inclusive)
5you (plural)Bez
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisZi
8thatZiç
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Kamlig
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherAmolig
43fatherOzig
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishDuḳig
46birdSforig
47dogZolig
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeEkolig
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitEbga (picked fruit)
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handKarig
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatBaḳes
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieGweles
110killGweles
111fightTames
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowKlata
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireIshafig
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnIshafim
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainGwosa
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearLera
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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