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Ginden-jaš

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General information​Edit

Ginden-jaš is a native language spoken on a island in North America. It is thought to be a language isolate, given that it bears no resemblance to any other known language, both in vocabulary and in grammar. It is a highly synthetic and agglutinating language, also showing features of polysynthetic languages, such as noun incorporation and massive information on the verb. There is a high number of both suffixes and preffixes, although it prefers postpositions and putting the modifiers before the head. Most locative information is guarded inside the verb, although the noun may receive a suffix denoting location, direction or origin. The word order is flexible. However, the speakers tend to place the most focused word on the begining of the sentence, making the verb generally the first word.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar- Uvular Glotal
Nasal

m [m]

n [n] (n [ŋ])
Plosive

p [p]

b [b]

ph [pʰ]

t [t]

d [d]

th [tʰ]

k [k]

g [g]

kh [kʰ]

q [q]


qh [qʰ]

Affricate

c [t͡s]

dz [d͡z]

č [t͡ʃ]

dž [d͡ʒ]

Fricative


f [f]

v [v]

s [s]

z [z]

š [ʃ]

ž [ʒ]

x [χ]

ǧ [ʁ]

h [h]
Approximant l [l] j [j]
Thrill r [r]

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i [i] y [ɨ] u [u]
Close-mid o [o]
Mid ë [ə]
Open-mid e [ɛ]
Mid á [a] a [ɑ]

StressEdit

Stress in native words is always placed on the last syllable of the word. However, in recent loans, there have been occurences of the stress being put on other syllables.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

NumberEdit

There is a distinction between singular and plural nouns, but this is mostly when there are more than two nouns in the same sentence. When there is only one, the information is already on the verb, so it is unnecessary to turn the noun into plural. There are two forms of the suffix: -ar, used when the word ends in a consonant; and -jar, used when the word ends in a vowel. The plural suffix always comes before the case suffixes.

There is also a sociative suffix: -man. It is attached to names and nouns denoting humans, meaning "the noun and their family/group/friends, etc."

Johnman = John and his friends/family
Smithman = The Smiths

CaseEdit

There are 15 grammatical cases in Ginden-jaš, showing different relations than merely "subject" and "object". These are:

Nominative
Ablative -lan
Accusative -z/-ez/-ëz
Adverbial -ta
Aversive -darke
Benefactive -lak
Comitative -kaj
Comunicative -den
Dative -s/-is
Directional -le
Genitive -n/-en/-ën
Instrumental -jum/-um
Locative -na
Ornative -kar
Philative

-myrna

NominativeEdit

Used for subjects of finite sentences and for many postpositions.

Urbela ond khotez = The man sees the woman.

AblativeEdit

It denotes origin, cause, material that the noun is made of, among others.

Vajume Kanadalan = I come from Canada
Irqhárnok nimedar derlan = My eyes hurt because of the light
Sa pope plastiklan = This doll is made of plastic

AcusativeEdit

Used for direct objects of many verbs and in some time expressions.

Urbela ond khotez = The man sees the woman.
Nidamere čokoladez = I ate chocolate
Nadakve na femez = I know that child
Jaleten vampir lymëz = Vampires drink blood

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