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Name: Gishfut (Гышфут)

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Head-Final

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: No

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


This is a language which takes the idea of Nokanevesino'a/Nounless and does it differently. Unlike the former, it uses affixes, and unlike the latter, it exists.

Consonants

Front Central Back
Light Heavy Light Heavy Light Heavy
Stop [t̪] ⟨ht⟩ [c] ⟨hq⟩ [t] ⟨t⟩ [k] ⟨q⟩ [t̠] ⟨wt⟩ [q] ⟨wq⟩
Fricative [θ] ⟨hf⟩ [ç] ⟨hk⟩ [θ̠ ] ⟨f⟩ [x] ⟨k⟩ [ɹ̠̊˔] ⟨wf⟩ [χ] ⟨wk⟩
[ð] ⟨hv⟩ [ʝ] ⟨hg⟩ [ð̠] ⟨v⟩ [ɣ] ⟨g⟩ [ɹ̠˔] ⟨wv⟩ [ʁ] ⟨wg⟩
[s̪] ⟨hs⟩ [ʃ͇] ⟨hc⟩ [s] ⟨s⟩ [ʃ] ⟨c⟩ [s̠] ⟨ws⟩ [ʂ] ⟨wc⟩
[z̪] ⟨hz⟩ [ʒ͇] ⟨hj⟩ [z] ⟨z⟩ [ʒ] ⟨j⟩ [z̠] ⟨wz⟩ [ʐ] ⟨wj⟩
Nasal [n̪] ⟨hn⟩ [ɲ] ⟨hm⟩ [n] ⟨n⟩ [ŋ] ⟨m⟩ [n̠] ⟨wn⟩ [ɴ] ⟨wm⟩
Approximant [l̪] ⟨hl⟩ [ʎ] ⟨hr⟩ [l] ⟨l⟩ [ʟ] ⟨r⟩ [l̠] ⟨wl⟩ [ʟ̠] ⟨wr⟩

Vowels

Front Central Back
High [i] ⟨hi⟩ [ɨ] ⟨i⟩ [u] ⟨u⟩
(Close-)Mid [e] ⟨e⟩ [ə] ⟨y⟩ [o] ⟨o⟩
Low [a]~[ɑ] ⟨a⟩

Phonotactics

The syllable structure is (C)(C)V(V)(C)(C).

The order of articulations in a consonant onset is stop -> nasal -> fricative <-> approximant. What I am trying to imply with the arrows is that fricatives and approximants can alternate places, but everything else has to follow that order. The order in a coda is fricative <-> approximant-> nasal -> stop.

There can only be one stop and/or nasal in a consonant cluster.

Stops become voiced between vowels. When two non-stop, non-nasal consonants of the same general articulation (front/back) are beside one another, they will have the same articulation. Only one digraph letter (h/w) will be written.

After a velar or uvular sound, a is [ɑ], and anywhere else, it is [a].

GrammarEdit

The main part of the grammar is how it conjugates for person.

Person Infix Subject Infix Object Prefix Object
1st Ka Ke Keu
2nd Fa Fe Tue
3rd Za Ze Zai
4th La Lo Lui
Indefinite No Re Nru

Words

kahssan - to act habitually
kysahc - to repeat
hzihcat - to begin working
hzesak - to be made to begin working
tomkan - to act normal
mahksen - to have yet to act
hsakit - to eat
pustohs - to writhe
sinvihs - to ring
kanak - to dance
rohnsak - to create music
hsokken - to have already done
hsehlek - be unwilling
ganom - to do
sihstyk - to slide
kihmiwns - to cool
munneht - to arrange (a meeting, an occasion)
tkuwltaq - to warm
liwkrut - to invent
hfarqal - to scold
scatrihc - to refine
hmunnek - to arrange (physical set)
hfermur - to turn to metal/to make a statue of
totrut - to decipher

SentencesEdit

I am cold. Kihmkikainsw.

Even though you are weak now, I know that you will fight nobly alongside us.