fusional, agglutinating
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General informationEdit

Glie (natively alg-Lié /a'ɡɭɜ/) is a fusional and agglutinating language evolving out of a previously isolating one.


/p b t d ʈ ɖ k g q/
/f θ s ʂ x χ/
/m n ŋ ɴ/
/ʋ w r l ɭ ɰ/
/ts ʈʂ dz ɖʐ/

/i ɪ e a ɒ u ʊ o ɜ ə/
/i: e: a: ɒ: u: o: ɜ:/

Stress is phonemic. The long vowels cannot be unstressed except in loans and a few exceptions. The vowels /ɪ ʊ ə/ are stressed only in prefixes and monosyllables. All consonants except /ʋ w r l ɭ ɰ/ can be geminate.


The orthography used to write Glie isn't perfectly suited to its present phonological system. Many letters have multiple phones or phonemes to which they correspond - some combinations correspond only to certain allophones while some can unintuitively represent multiple non-homonymous phonemes or phoneme clusters. Glie has several different graphemes that represent vowels, along with several digraphs and trigraphs.

Vowel(s) Graph(s)
/a/ a
/a:/ à àa àe eo èo
/ɒ/ ą oa ao
/ɒ:/ ą̀ òa ào à aou àou
/ə/ ə e
/ɜ/ ę ea eo eu ie iea iə
/ɜ:/ ę̀ èa èo èu iè ièa iə̀ ə̀
/e/ e ę
/e:/ è èe àe aè èa eà iòu ièu
/o/ o u
/o:/ ò uo uò òo òau
/i/ i ei iu
/i:/ ì èi ìe ìau ìeu ìea
/u/ u ou
/u:/ ù ùu ùo òu où
/ʊ/ o ou ua ui ue
/ɪ/ i ie ia ae
/ai/ ai ei
/ɒi/ oi ąi ąe oe
/au/ au aa
/ɒu/ ąu ąo oą oo
/əɪ/ əi əj əji
/əʊ/ əu əo əuo

Stressed vowels are marked with an acute over the final element used to write them; this doesn't apply to long vowels that are otherwise assumed to be stressed.

The same orthographic confusion applies to consonants.

Consonant(s) Graph(s)
/p/ p
/pp/ pp pb
/b/ b
/bb/ bb bm
/t/ t
/tt/ tt td
/d/ d
/dd/ dd dt db
/ʈ/ tr rt tiV rtiV
/ʈʈ/ ttr rrt rtt ttiV triV
Vittr Virtt
/ɖ/ dr rd diV rdiV
/ɖɖ/ ddr dtr rdd rdt rdtiV
Vidtr Virdt
/k/ k c
/kk/ kk kc ck cc
/g/ g
/gg/ gg gk gc cg
/q/ kr rk rc
/qq/ kkr ckr
(/ɢ/) (gr rg)
(/ɢɢ/) (ggr gkr rgg rgk)
(rgc crg grc cgr)
/f/ f ph
/ff/ ff pf fp
/θ/ ht th
/θθ/ hht tth
/s/ s
/ss/ ss sz zs
/ʂ/ z sr rs
/ʂʂ/ zz zr ssr rrs zs
/x/ h quV
/xx/ hh ch
/χ/ hr chr
/χχ/ hhr ccr ckr
/m/ m
/mm/ mm mn
/n/ n
/nn/ nn nm
/ŋ/ ng gn nc cn gm mg
/ŋŋ/ nnk cng gnk
gmc gmk cmg cmk
/ɴ/ nr rng
/ɴɴ/ gnr rnc ncr
crn grm gmr rmg
/ʋ/ v fv vf
/w/ w
/r/ r wl
/l/ l
/ɭ/ rl rr gl
/ɰ/ w gu gw wg wv gv
/ts/ ts cs
/tts/ tts ccs cts tcs
/ʈʂ/ tz rts
/ʈʈʂ/ ttz rtz trz
/dz/ ds
/ddz/ dz dds ddz dts dtz
/ɖʐ/ dz rds dj
/ɖɖʐ/ ddz rdz rddz
drz dzr dsr
/ɭɖʐV/ lg lj ldj
/gɭ/ lgl ggl gll grr
/tr/ ltw twl
/dr/ ldw dwl
/kr/ lcw cwl kwl
/gr/ lgw gwl



Nouns in Glie decline according to six cases and have two numbers. There are two similar declensional patterns that differ marginally. They can be animate or inanimate and have a definiteness distinction. They can be possessed and their possessors can be in any of the four persons and two numbers that pronouns and verbs inflect for. The categories:

  1. Cases
    1. Nominative
    2. Ergative
    3. Accusative/Dative
    4. Postpositional
    5. Instrumental/Topical
    6. Genitive/Vocative
  2. Numbers
    1. Plurative
    2. Singulative
  3. Gender/Class
    1. Animate
    2. Inanimate
  4. Definiteness
    1. Definite
    2. Indefinite
  5. Possession
    1. Plurative
      1. 1st person
      2. 2nd person
      3. 3rd person proximate
      4. 3rd person distant/obviate
    2. Singulative
      1. 1st person
      2. 2nd person
      3. 3rd person

Case and NumberEdit

The categories of number and case have merged with each other marginally so we cannot talk about one without the other. Kinship terms and basic body parts have their own unique declension patterns. Two example nouns that show declension and the differing patterns are <áglia> /ˈaɭɪ/ (father, ani.) and <èort> /ɜ:ʈ/ (pebble, inan.):

Case Number
Plurative Singulative
Nominative áglia-dt
Ergative d-áglia-dt
Accusative p-áglia-dt
Postpositional n-áglia-rt
Instrumental z-áglia-dt
Genitive áglia-nt-s
Nominative èort
Ergative d-èort
Accusative p-èort
Postpositional n-èort
Instrumental z-èort
Genitive èort-s


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