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Gloski

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[[]]
'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Gloski (Глоски [ˈgɫoːski]) is a Balto-Slavic conlang.

PhonologyEdit

  • Phonemes in parentheses ( ) are allophones.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m (ɱ) n (ŋ)
Plosive p

b

t

d

k

g

Sibilant Fricative s

z

ʃ

ʒ

Non-sibilant Fricative f

v

θ̠

ð̠

(ç)

(ʝ)

x

ɣ

Affricate t͡s

d͡z

t͡ʃ

d͡ʒ

Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral app. ɫ

(l)

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Close-mid e ɤ o
Open-mid ɛ
Open ɑ

AlphabetEdit

Cyrillic Latin Name IPA Allophones
Аа A a а ɑ
Бб B b бэ b
Вв V v вэ v
Гг G g гэ g
Ѓѓ Ğğ ѓэ ɣ [ʝ] before [i], [ɨ], or [j]
Дд D d дэ d
Ђђ Ź ź ђай ð̠
Ее JE je ет j
Ёё JO jo ёт jo
Єє È è єй e
Жж Ž ž жэ ʒ
Зз Z z зэ z
Ии I i и i
Йй J j йєн j
Кк K k ка k
Лл L l эла ɫ [l] before [i], [ɨ], or [j]
Мм M m эма m [ɱ] before a labio-dental
Нн N n эна n [ŋ] before a velar
Оо O o о o
Пп P p пэ p
Рр R r єр r
Сс S s сэ s
Тт T t тэ t
Ћћ Ś ś ћай θ̠
Уу U u у u
Фф F f эфа f
Хх X x ха x [ç] before [i], [ɨ], or [j]
Цц C c цэ t͡s
Чч Č č чэ t͡ʃ
Шш Š š шэ ʃ
Щщ ŠT št ща ʃt
Ъъ Ù ù ъй ɤ
Ыы Y y ы ɨ
Ээ E e э ɛ
Юю JU ju ют ju
Яя JA ja ят ja

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

Person Number Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive*
First Singular ёс мє мы май
Plural не нє ны най
Second Singular (informal) ти тє ты тай
Singular (formal) вё ву въ вой
Plural ве вє вы вай
Third Singular (masculine) то ту тъ той
Singular (feminine) та
Singular (neuter) тис
Plural те
  • The genitive (possessive) pronouns can also be used as adjectives before the noun it modifies.

NounsEdit

GenderEdit

The gender of a noun in Gloski affects how it is declined. These genders are based on the ending of a noun. The genders in Gloski and their corresponding stem endings are:

  • Masculine: о, ос, ё, ёс, є, єс, п, т, к 
  • Feminine: а, ас, я, яс, э, эс, е, ес, б, д, г
  • Neuter: ы, ыс, ис, ъ, ъс, ь, ьс, any other vowel or consonant

NumberEdit

Nouns in Gloski can be singular, dual, or plural (3 or more). The ending of a noun changes according to the gender when they are declined for number.

Gender Number Suffix

калзєк

tongue

буща

mouth

носы

nose

Masculine Singular калзєк
Dual -цу калзєкцу
Plural калзєки
Feminine Singular буща
Dual -зу бущазу
Plural бущтая
Neuter Singular носы
Dual -дю носыдю
Plural -чи носычи

VerbsEdit

There are three classes of verbs in Gloski which conjugate into 7 primary forms. In combination with auxiliary verbs and the voice suffix, verb formation becomes even more complex. 

Verb ClassesEdit

Infinitive verbs consist of the stem and the ending. When regular verbs are conjugated, the ending will change according to the verb class, followed by the tense suffix. The three classes and their changes are:

  • stem-чыstem--suffix
  • stem-ичыstem-й-suffix
  • stem-єчыstem-эй-suffix

Vowels that follow a й become their respective j-forms:

  • а→я
  • є→єь
  • и→иь
  • о→ё
  • у→ю
  • ъ→ъь
  • ы→и
  • э→е

Non-PastEdit

The non-past tense, when by itself, is equivalent to the present simple tense. Secondary and tertiary forms (like future tense) can be formed by the use of auxiliary verbs. Regular conjugation in the non-past tense (with suffixes and the three classes of verbs) goes as follows:

Person Number Suffix

палисчы

to run

валичы

to clean

калвєчы

to speak

First Singular палисо валё калвэё
Plural -эм палисэм валем калвэем
Second Singular (informal) -ыц палисыц валиц калвэиц
Singular (formal) -от палисот валёт калвэёт
Plural -эт палисэт валет калвэет
Third Singular -оц палисоц валёц калвэёц
Plural -эц палисэц балец калэец

Past SimpleEdit

Past simple tense refers to a single, specific, or general action that happened in the past.

Person Number Suffix

палисчы

to run

валичы

to clean

калвєчы

to speak

First Singular -ох палисох валёх калвэёх
Plural -ахмэ палисахмэ валяхмэ калвэяхмэ
Second Singular (informal) -ашы палисашы валяшы калвэяшы
Singular (formal) -ато палисато валято калвэято
Plural -ахтэ палисахтэ валяхтэ калвэяхтэ
Third Singular -ашо палисашо валяшо калвэяшо
Plural -ашэ палисашэ баляшэ калэяшэ

Past IterativeEdit

Also called Past Frequentative, this tense refers to an act happening repeatedly in the past.

Person Number Suffix

палисчы

to run

валичы

to clean

калвєчы

to speak

First Singular -отавох палисотавох валётавох калвэётавох
Plural -этавахмэ палисэтавахмэ валетавахмэ калвэетавахмэ
Second Singular (informal) -ытавашы палисытавашы валитавашы калвэитавашы
Singular (formal) -отавато палисотавато валётавато калвэётавато
Plural -этавахтэ палисэтавахтэ валетавахтэ калвэетавахтэ
Third Singular -отавашо палисотавашо валётавашо калвэётавашо
Plural -этавашэ палисэтавашэ балетавашэ калэетавашэ

ConditionalEdit

The conditional form of a verb in Gloski refers to the possbility of an action occurring based on a stated condition. It is like saying "If I had studied, I would have passed the exam."

Person Number Suffix

палисчы

to run

валичы

to clean

калвєчы

to speak

First Singular -ъчау палисъчау валъьчау калвэъьчау
Plural -ъчуме палисъчуме валъьчуме калвэъьчуме
Second Singular (informal) -ъчум палисъчум валъьчум калвэъьчум
Singular (formal) -ъчуто палисъчуто валъьчуто калвэъьчуто
Plural -ъчутэ палисъчутэ валъьчутэ калвэъьчутэ
Third Singular -ъчумо палисъчумо валъьчумо калвэъьчумо
Plural -ъчумэ палисъчумэ балъьчумэ калэъьчумэ

ImperativeEdit

This verb form acts as a command, telling somebody to do something. It does not conjugate in the first person.

Person Number Suffix

палисчы

to run

валичы

to clean

калвєчы

to speak

Second Singular (informal) -ис палисис валиьс калвэиьс
Singular (formal) -исалё палисисалё валиьсалё калвэиьсалё
Plural -исале палисисале валиьсале калвэиьсале
Third Singular -исо палисисо валиьсо калвэиьсо
Plural -исэ палисисэ балиьсэ калэиьсэ

GerundEdit

The gerund form of a verb can perform two funtions:

  • Follow the copula to form the progressive aspect; "I am studying."
  • Act as a noun by itself; "I like studying."

This form is the same for all persons.

Person Number Suffix

палисчы

to run

валичы

to clean

калвєчы

to speak

-эщ палисэщ валещ калвэещ

AuxiliaryEdit

There are three major auxiliar verbs. They can all be used in combination, and the order in which they are used is not specific, as long as they are before the verb

  • ща forms the future tense when used with the non-past from of a verb.
  • сым forms the perfect aspect of a verb.
  • ше forms the passive voice.

CopulaEdit

The Gloski copula verb, meaning "to be", is irregular.

Person Number Non-Past

Past Simple

Past Iterative Conditional Imperative Gerund Infinitive
First Singular сом бё бувёс бутувос бещ бичы
Plural смє бе бувес бутувєс
Second Singular (informal) си бит бувит бутубит буки
Singular (formal) сто бёт бувёт бутувот букимє
Plural стє бет бувет бутубєт букє
Third Singular (masculine) со бя бувяс бутуво
Singular (feminine)
Plural

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit

Example textEdit

фћички човэки ше раждимэц бєжплани и рыѓыси ви достойнство и ви прави. Ше надарайкэц съ пришиста и съђещис, и ща дъѓжец към квенас ви двъх ыш бротщо.

fśički čoveki šje raždimec bèžplani i ryğysi vi dostojnstvo i vi pravi. Šje nadarajkec sù prišista i sùźještis, i šta dùğžjec kùm kvjenas vi dvùx yš brotšto.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

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