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'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n n
Plosive p b t d c j k g
Fricative ff vv f v s x z
Affricate p
Approximant y
Trill
Flap or tap r
Lateral fric. r
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

"R" is rolled word initial, tapped word central and final.

"N" becomes velar when followed by a velar consonant.

"P" becomes an affricate word final (very uncommon, but it happens).

Not shown in the chart is "w" which is equivalent to the English "w".

VowelsEdit

An asterisk indicates a short sound.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close i*
Close-mid e o/o*
Mid u/a*
Open-mid e*
Near-open
Open a

Vowels are long if they are stressed or are in open syllables. Vowels are short in closed unstressed syllables. 

Diphthongs are pronounced as they appear, unless it is comprised of the same vowel twice in a row. The only vowel pairs that cannot be diphthongs are "ie", "uo" and "ou", and all vowel pairs must be diphthongs (therefore, any of the aforementioned vowel pairs cannot exist). 

When a vowel appears twice in a row, they create unique sounds:

aa - like "a", but begins with a more rounded sound (technically speaking, the open back rounded vowel).

ee - pronounced as "ye".

oo - Pronounced as the English long "o" sound.

"Uu" and "ii" don't exist in Gmoa.

An important note on the "O":

In English, a long "o" starts off in the close-mid position, but gradually turns into a more closed vowel by the end. You can see this if you try to say "oh" slowly. In Gmoa, the "o" (pronounced the same long and short besides a difference in duration) never does this; it stays in the close-mid position for the entire duration of the sound.

AlphabetEdit

The full alphabet shown in order is:

Aa, Bb, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Ii, Jj, Kk, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Rr, Ss, Tt, Uu, Vv, Ww, Xx, Cc, Yy, Zz

PhonotacticsEdit

There aren't any formal limitations on Gmoan phonotactics. Theoretically, any syllable you can imagine can exist - if the term "syllable" can't even be safely used to describe some of the letter clusters used in Gmoa.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns are very simple grammatically speaking. They don't decline - word order and prepositions show purpose and a verbal particle shows number in subjects and objects - the only way to show the number of the indirect objects, owners, etc. besides context is to add a number or a word such as "many, several". The most difficult aspect of nouns is that most of them have two forms: informal and "formal".

Often times, the informal is the shorter form of the two (besides a few exceptions). It's used to talk about objects/activities that you enjoy, and close friends and family. The "formal" is used to talk about people you should show respect to (stranger, boss, etc.) The reason I put it in quotation marks is because of its use with non-sentient nouns; then it describes an object/activity you don't like. This can be sketchy, because it can (rarely) be used to describe people you don't like if said with the wrong tone, so you could seriously offend someone, and even be excluded form certain transactions/relationships (i.e. get fired), if you say it with a bad attitude. Also, if you use the formal to describe a friend, it could be considered hurtful, implying that you guys aren't as close as they thought. So long as your careful in how you speak to others, though, you'll be fine.

Some examples of nouns: 

  • Jmi->Jamiat - walk, stroll, jog
  • Gto->Gestor - vehicle (doesn't have to have an engine, e.x. horse-and-buggy)
  • Arten->As - fruit
  • Ex->Xiat - vegetable
  • Mo->Map - sound
  • Plis->Polisarna - Police officer (Arna - person*)
  • Aliot->Arosarna - Firefighter (A->Aros - fire)
  • Maa->Maartnigta - Politician (Maa->Maart - politics; Nigta->Nwatnde - scholar)^

*Arna is an example of a word without the formal/informal distinction.

^Notice how formal compounds may not consist fully of formal words. It can consist of both formal and informal nouns. This doesn't happen with informal compound words, however (i.e. they can only contain informal nouns).

PronounsEdit

These also have no plural. Read on the verbal particle for more on this.

First person is "e", second "aru", third "to".

AdjectivesEdit

They always come before their noun, even in sentences such as "He is pompous." (Explained with "Oe" in the verb section).

Verbs The most complicated part of speech is the verb. It is conjugated for tense and mood, prefixed to indicate questions, exclamations and unconjugated verbs, and takes a particle which gives the subject and object of a sentence number.

Also - just a side note - regular verbs must always begin with a consonant. This might mean adding an arbitrary consonant word initial when deriving a verb from some other part of speech (e.x. Esi->Elten - food->->Zesi - eat). Verbs are always formed from the informal when derived from nouns.

Tense and Mood

There are three tenses and three moods in Gmoa shown through a suffix. A complete chart:

Jmi (to walk) Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Future Jminen Jmixe --
Present Jmi Jmis Jmo*
Past Jmin Jmisen --




  • If the final vowel of a verb is "i" or "e", then the vowel changes to "o" and "a" respectively. Otherwise, a verb gets a "-(o)y" ending. 

This chart applies to all regular verbs.

Prefixes

All verbs receive prefixes to indicate questions and exclamations (often accompanied by a change in tone). A question receives a "ge-" prefix, unless it's rhetorical - then it gets a "ye-" prefix. If the speaker is surprised, they can prefix it with "sa-".

Also, any verb left in the infinitive form gets a "pagi-" prefix.

Ex.

  • To gejminen ya? - Will he be running?
  • Aru yegas es e? - Do you doubt me?
  • Areel sarete* ya pagizesna! - Ariel wants to abstain from talking! (This may be surprising if the person in question is loquacious.)

*Verbs such as "rete (to want)" and "er (would. . . if)" can only take the subjunctive, since they can only describe a hypothetical scenario which may or may not come true.

The Particle

In Gmoa, there are no number declensions. There is, however, a set of particles placed after the verb (only one at any given time) that indicates number for the subject and object of a sentence. A chart for the subject only particles:

Singular Plural
1st es yes
2nd es ya
3rd ya ago

If there is an object, a suffix is added to the stem. No suffix if the object is singular. If the object is plural, "-ti" indicates a third-person object, "-i" second-person, and "-ye" first-person. These guidelines apply unless both subject and object are third person plurals, in which case we use the particle "agi."

One of these particles must be present any time a verb is present in a sentence (unless the verb is oe).

Irregular Verbs

Er (would. . . if) Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Future -- era --
Present -- er --
Past --- era --

Note: Verbs along the lines of "isko" never appear in the infinitive except for isolated translations.

Rete (to want) Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Future -- rau --
Present -- rete --
Past -- re --

Oe

Oe is highly irregular, in that it is hardly a verb at all. It only inflects for tense and takes no particle. Even stranger than that, it just outright disobeys word order (which should go SVO) by going OSV (O in this case may also refer to an adjective). As a matter of fact, the only reason I call it a verb is becase I don't have a better name for it.

Future tense is "os" and past is "oen."

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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