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共通語

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gongtonggo
共通語 / 공통고
Gongtong
Type isolating (nouns)
fusional (verbs)
fusional (adjectives)
Alignment nom acc
Word Order SOV
Head direction final
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Topic-Prominence Yes
Classes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Classification and DialectsEdit

Gongtonggo, translated to common language or lingua franca, is a creole of Japanese and Korean in a near future where both countries have merged to create one nation. Gongtonggo is mostly spoken in terretories that are under japo-korean reign, but are not native korean or japanese. Japanese and korean are both recognised as national languages besides Gongtonggo and it's not obligatory to learn Gongtonggo though most people do learn it as a second language in middle/highschool.

Most of the lexicon of Gongtonggo comes from (sino)japanese, with some words originating from (sino)korean. Most grammatical influences come from the korean language.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar alveolo palatal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g
Fricative [ɸ] s [ɕ] [ç] [h] ɦ
Approximant l j w
Flap or tap [ɾ]
affricate ts [tɕ] dʑ

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i ɯᵝ u
Mid e o
Open a

PhonotacticsEdit

The phonotactics of Gongtonggo are (C)(j)V(C), though j actually can be replaced by w in front of i and a ((C)(w)i/a(C)). Vowels that have a preceeding j are considered iotized.

allophones :

l becomes ɾ intervocally
s becomes ɕ before the vowel i or iotized vowels
ts becomes tɕ before the vowel i or iotized vowels
ɦ becomes ç before i or iotized vowels
ɦ becomes h before any consonant or at the end of a word
ɦ becomes ɸ before ɯᵝ

SoundchangesEdit

Soundchanges can be found here

Writing SystemEdit

hangeulEdit

Letter 1
Sound m n ŋ p b t d k g ɸ
Letter - -
Sound s ɕ ç h ɦ l ɾ j w ts
Letter
Sound i ɯᵝ u e o a wa wi

for ones unfamiliar with hangeul, follow this link.

1 in initial position this graph is a zero consonant (or blanc) consonant, It is only /ŋ/ in final position.

the iotized versions of the vowels (except of /u/ and /i/, which have no iotized versions) are written with two small bars instead of one, like in hangeul. /ja/, /jɯᵝ/, /je/ and /jo/ are written as ㅑ, ㅠ, ㅒ and ㅛ respectively.

geminiate consonants /pp/, /tt/ and /kk/ can be written as ㅃ, ㄸ and ㄲ respectively.

romanizedEdit

Letter m n ng p b t d k g f
Sound m n ŋ p b t d k g ɸ
Letter s sh h h h l l y w ts
Sound s ɕ ç h ɦ l ɾ j w ts
Letter ch j i u eu e o a
Sound i ɯᵝ u e o a

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are isolating, their function in a sentence can be changed by the use of particles, these particles mostly imply case or relation.

particles gongtonggo korean japanese
hangeul romanized hangeul romanized hiragana romanized
topic a 는/은 neun/eun wa
additive bo do mo
object ol 를/을 reul/eul wo
subject ga 가/이 ga/i ga
posession wi ui no
movement/time so 에(게)서 e(ge)seo ni
destination e 에(게) e(ge) he
context ro (으)로 (eu)ro de
and (connecting sentences) na (이)나 (i)na to
and (connecting nounphrases) wa 와/과 wa/gwa to
comitative Bwa 와/과 wa/gwa to

VerbsEdit

verb conjugationEdit

sentence final informal formal humble polite
hangeul romanized hangeul romanized hangeul romanized hangeul romanized
indicative -o -o 오하마 -ohama 오요 -oyo
interrogative 아나 -ana -ya 아야마 -ayama 아나요 -anayo
imperative 오르 -ola 오르 -ola 오라마 -olama 오라요 -olayo
potential 오래로 -olelo 오라로 -olalo 오마하 -omaha 오래요 -oleyo
connective informal formal humble polite
hangeul romanized hangeul romanized hangeul romanized hangeul romanized
cause -o 이새 -ise 이새마 -isema 오새요 -oseyo
contrast 이지만 -ijiman 이만 -iman 이만 -iman 이마요 -imayo
condition 애래마 -elema 이바 -iba 이래마 -ilema 이래마요 -ilemayo

Forming past tenseEdit

To form the past tense, the vowel syllable at the beginning of the suffix is replaced, 오 is replaced by 잍. 이 and 애 by 일. 아 and 야 by 앹.

other functionsEdit

to form a negative, the word 브 (beu) or 블 (beul) (if the verb starts with a vowel) is put before the verb, in very formal texts this may be written as 不.

copulaEdit

sentence final informal formal humble polite
hangeul romanized hangeul romanized hangeul romanized hangeul romanized
indicative 이다 ida 니다 nida 니마 nima 니다요 nidayo
interrogative 니댜 nidya 니다야 nidaya 니야마 niyama 니댜요 nidyayo
imperative 이라 ila 이라 ila 니라마 nilama 이라요 ilayo
potential 일라 illa 이라라 ilala 니마하 nimaha 니래요 nileyo
connective informal formal humble polite
hangeul romanized hangeul romanized hangeul romanized hangeul romanized
cause 니새 nise 니다새 nidase 니다새마 nidasema 니다새요 nidaseyo
contrast 이만 iman 니다만 nidaman 니다만 nidaman 니다마요 nidamayo
condition 이래마 ilema 니다바 nidaba 니다마 nidama 니다바요 nidabayo

To form a negative with the copula, the first i vowel that appears everywhere is replaced by a (written) but might be pronounced more towards e.

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

swadesh listEdit

Pronouns, demonstratives and correlativesEdit

Example textEdit

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