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Name: [[]]

Type:

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders:

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

The AlphabetEdit

Y only ever is used with the letters C, D, L, N, R, S and T. When these consonants are followed by J, they create a different sound.

LETTER

NAME

IPA

A

a

[a], unstressed [ɑ]

Á

á or a cyássovan

[aː]

B

[b], but end with [p]

C

[t͡s]

CY

ecy

[ɕ]

D

[d], but end with [t]

DY

edy

[ʝ͡ɟ], but end with [ɟ]

E

e

[ɛ]

É

é or e cyássovan

[eː]

F

[f]

G

[g], but end with [k]

H

hé or eh

[h], but end with [x]

I

i

[i]

Í

í or i cyássovan

[iː]

J

ej

[j]

K

[k]

L

[l], but end with [ʊ]

LY

ely

[ʎ] or [j]

M

[m]

N

[n]

NY

eny

[ɲ]

O

o

[o]

Ó

ó or o cyássovan

[oː]

Ö

ö

[ø]

P

[p]

R

[r]

RY

ery

[rʲ]

S

[s]

SY

esy

[ʂ]

T

[t]

TY

ety

[c͡ç]

U

u

[u]

Ú

ú or u cyássovan

[uː]

Ü

ü

[y]

V

[v] or [ʋ]

Y

joj

[j]

Z

[z]

ZY

ezy

[ʐ]

Other letters, such as Q, W and the use of Y not as a glide are found only in loan words or people's names.



PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal
Plosives p b t d c ɟ k g ʔ
Affricates m n ŋ
Fricatives f v s z ʂ ʐ çʝ x h
Lateral Fricatives
Lateral Affricates
Nasals ɲ
Trills r
Flaps / taps
Glides Approxim. ʋ j
Lateral Appr. l ʎ
Co-art. approx.

VowelsEdit

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close i y u
Near-close ʊ
Close-mid o
Mid e ø
Open-mid ɛ
Near-open
Open a ɑ


PronunciationEdit

Every letter, diphthong, and consonant cluster is read as it is. A few, however, emit different sounds than what they appear to be.

Stress also normally falls on the first syllable.

How are CY, DY, LY, NY, RY, SY, TY and ZY different from CJ, DJ, LJ, NJ, RJ, SJ, TJ and ZJ?Edit

  • CY is about the equivalent to English “CH” in cheese, whilst CJ is like TSJ. For example, the word cjokül (to drip) is pronounced like [ˈt͡sjokyʊ], whilst the word cyet (man) is pronounced like [ɕɛt].
  • DY and GJ are, essentially, the same sounds. They are both represented as [ʝ͡ɟ] — and, depending on location, [ɟ]. DJ, however, has a short stop, and sounds like a D. Take for instance the conjugation of dül (to do, make), dje (it makes, it does). Dje is pronounced like [dʔjɛ], whilst kádyit (decoration) is pronounced like [ˈkaːʝ͡ɟit]. The same goes for the word jegjapa (joined), which is pronounced like [ˈjɛʝ͡ɟɑpɑ].
  • LY and LJ both make the same sound, but only LY is considered a “letter”. They both make a [ʎ] sound, though most speakers in modern times say both these combinations simply as [j]. However, both versions are given in IPA transcriptions. For example, kulyonko (article) is [ˈkuʎonko] or [ˈkujonko] (kuyonko) depending on the speaker. Often the LY sounds as [j] aftet consonants, even by speakers who would normally say it as [ʎ].
  • NY and NJ have the same difference as DY and DJ. The NY is like the Spanish Ñ, and NJ has almost a stop before the next vowel. For example, the word ulagramünjapa (be welcomed) is [ˈulɑˌgramynʔjɑpɑ], but vany (how) is [vɑɲ].
  • RY and RJ also follow this rule. RY is a soft sound, as in the word azyojary (female police officer) [ˈaʐoˌjɑrʲ], unlike in the word orjocy (horse) [ˈorʔjoɕ].
  • SY and SJ, however, have the same difference as CY and CJ — as in, they are two different sounds. Take for example the word basya (saint) [ˈbaʂɑ], in which SY is an "SH" sound, and the word kúsjaga (be bitten) [ˈkuːsʲagɑ].
  • TY and KJ are the same sound, just interpretted in different letters, which can be a common mistake for students learning the language. The IPA for TY and KJ both is [c͡ç], which is somewhat between ty and ky in English (some speakers in rural regions pronounce this as "CH"). So the words tyárva (cow) [ˈc͡çaːvɑ] and sütikjo (advertisement) [ˈsytic͡ço] have the same sounds in them. TJ, though, has a stop like some of the previous combinations mentioned. For example, the word cyítje (it is flowing) [ˈɕi:tʔjɛ].
  • ZY and ZJ are different sounds, as are CY and CJ, and SY and SJ. ZY is similar to the sound in English pleasure and azure, as in the word dezy (neck) [dɛʐ]. But it's a different, softer sound in a word like lazje (it gives birth) [ˈlazʲɛ].

What about double and triple consonant clusters?Edit

You read all of the consonants. For example, the word osyattal (consideration) [ˈoʂattɑʊ], imagine this as "osyat-tal" if you fine that easier. It's like the word bookshelf in English, as we are truly reading this as book-shelf — separately. The same goes for words like bálottsyónka (fortépiano) [ˈbaːlotˌɕɕoːɲkɑ] and bátsyó (piano, keyboard) [ˈbaːɕɕo:], in which it simply is easier to write bálottsyónka and bátsyó for bálotcycyónka and bácycyó, because TSY delivers the same pause as would two CYs back to back. This is a spelling change, as before the reform, a word like bátsyó would have been spelled baaszcsoo.

On the other hand, old forms of names have stuck around without spelling changes, but mostly in the rural country. These are mostly surnames — such as Rjocser, Fikszar, Lëzvesz and Törcsvor, which have been adapted into Orjocyarój [ˈorʔjoˈɕaroːɪ], Foksérój [ˈfokseːroːɪ], Lizvest [ˈlizvɛst] and Törcyarój [ˈtørˌɕaroːɪ] respectfully. You do not have to worry about these, however, as they are rare, and normally an author will write a transliteration for rarer and more unusual names (such rewriting Lëzvesz as Lizvesy [ˈlizvɛʂ] or Laüzvesy [ˈləzvɛʂ]).

What about that ending L?Edit

The L in the last position is sounded as [ʊ]. Think of in English how you say the word "hello". This would in Gorlandish be spelt traditionally as helló [ˈhɛlˌlo:], but technically can also be spelt hellol [ˈhɛlˌloʊ]. The L is mostly only sounded nowadays by people in the rural country, as they speak what is considered more traditional, but youth see it as simply "old".

When various postpositions, the L is dropped entirely in words ending in "-ol". Consider the Gorlandish name Rol [roʊ]. When postpositions are added, Rol changes to Ró-. For example, Rol iton lejje 'Rol is speaking to me', and Rón lejom 'I am speaking to Rol.

ArticlesEdit

Before heading into nouns, I'll go ahead and explain a little about the articles in Gorlandish. We have “the” for both feminine, masculine and plural nouns. We also have “a / an” but it is used less often and does not change.

DefiniteEdit

The definite article is equivalent to “the” in English, and is used in most the same places. It is also used before surnames and before forenames of unfamiliars in formal speech. The definite articles end with vowels. When these articles come before a word which starts with a vowel, they join together, doubling the vowel of the word. For example:

  • Ma is the definite article of feminine nouns.
    • vikja (flower) → ma vikja (the flower)
    • orjasa (mare) → mórjasa (the mare)
  • To is the definite article of masculine nouns.
    • pák (luck) → to pák (the luck)
    • azyojaro (officer) → tázyojaro (the officer)

The definite article of plural nouns works a little differently. It also blends into the word it's defining, but also can morph into the preceding words.

  • I is the definite article of plural nouns.
    • delko (dog) → i delok (the dogs)
    • iska (house) → jísak (the houses)
    • le-j bisya (all the cats)

Le-j is created when le (all) comes before i (the). The i then attaches itself to the previous vowel, but only if the following word does not also start with a vowel.

IndefiniteEdit

The indefinite article is simply the word for “one” — kal. This is placed before nouns without any change. The plural genitive version of this word — kalí — means “some” or “a few”.

· Kal delko (one dog / a dog) → kalí delok (some dogs)

· Kal iska (one house / a house) → kalí isak (some houses)

· Kalí bisya (some cats)

NounsEdit

Gorlandish nouns come in two genders that only affect how the adjectives describe them. Feminine and masculine.

For convenience they are all marked in the dictionary, however their pattern never strays.

  • Feminine nouns end in A and Y.
  • Masculine nouns end in O and consonants.

PluralEdit

Plural nouns have a few simple rules. The nouns that do deviate from these set rules are listed in the dictionary. Nouns that end in:

  • A or O drop the vowel and add I
    • torra → torri (woman/women) [ˈtorˌrɑ] → [ˈtorˌri]
    • bizyaro → bisyari (kitten/kittens) [ˈbiʂɑro] → [ˈbiʂɑri]
  • Y or a consonant, add A
    • bisy → bisya (cat/cats) [biʂ] → [ˈbiʂɑ]
    • linyd → linyda (brother/brothers) [liɲt] → [ˈliɲdɑ]
  • J and a vowel on either side, the end vowel is omitted
    • kasroja → kasroj (phrase/phrases) [ˈkɑsrojɑ] → [ˈkasroɪ]
    • syüja → syüj (war/wars) [ˈʂyjɑ] → [ʂyɪ]
  • J and a vowel, where a consonant precedes the J, it becomes I or YI
    • vikja → viki (flower/flowers) [ˈvic͡çɑ] → [ˈviki]

Some nouns do have root-inflection, and these are listed in the dictionary, following the definition. Some examples are:

  • deklo → delok (dog/dogs)
  • angro → angor (father/fathers or parents)
  • bomva → bomav (battle/battles)

PostpositionsEdit

Gorlandish is composed of mostly postpositions. In English we have words like toward, from, into and more. In Gorlandish these words also exist, but are attached to the ends of words instead of appearing separately. It is still — in theory — possible to write the words separate, but it's found now only in poetry and song. If a person speaks in this manner outside of this artistic context, then he is rarely taken seriously. For example, normally we say To Tyóran to güzínaty dukje 'Tioran is going to the store', but a poet may write this as Aty to güzín dukje to Tyóran.

When postpositions — listed as sfx in the dictionary — are added, some changes take place, which can alter the sound of the word. The suffixes here are shown with a second option (i.e. -áj / -´j). ÁJ is therefore applied without change to words endying in consonants. If a word ends in a vowel then the vowel acquires an accent (i.e. delko → delkój).

Other changes:

  • Y becomes É
    • bisy + -áj / -´j → biséj [biʂ] → [ˈbise:ɪ]
    • bisy + -ot / -´t → bisét [biʂ] → [ˈbise:t]
  • D becomes T before suffixes starting with T
    • lankad + tan → lankattan [ˈlankɑt] → [ˈlankɑtˌtɑn]

Plural nouns are very easy to create with suffixes. You change the noun just as you would in singular, and only after the suffix is an A added to form a plura. (i.e. cyetvan (what a man) → cyetvana (with men))

Suffix

Meaning

Masculine

Feminine

(see dictionary for more explanations)

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

cyet (man)

cyeta (men)

torra (woman)

torri (women)

bitaro (ram)

bitari (rams)

bisy (cat)

bisya (cats)

-áj / -´j

Of

cyetáj

i cyetáj

torráj

i torráj

Belonging to

bitarój

i bitarój

biséj

i biséj

(Genitive)

-aly / -´ly

On

cyetaly

cyetalya

torrály

torrálya

On top of

bitaróly

bitarólya

bisély

bisélya

-aruj / -´ruj

Onto

cyetaruj

cyetaruja

torráruj

torráruja

bitaróruj

bitaróruja

biséruj

biséruja

-aty / -´ty

To

cyetaty

cyetatya

torráty

torrátya

Toward

bitaróty

bitarótya

biséty

biséyta

-bek

Into

cyetbek

cyetbeka

torrabek

torrabeka

bitarobek

bitarobeka

bisébek

bisébeka

-cyérek

Through

cyettyérek

cyettyéreka

torracyérek

torracyéreka

-/y/jérek (repeats previous consonant)

Between

bitarocyérek

bitarocyéreka

bisécyérek

bisécyéreka

-er / -´r

As (what, whom)

cyeter

cyetera

torrár

torrára

Turn into (in magic)

bitarór

bitaróra

bisér

biséra

-isy / -´sy

Down

cyetisy

cyetisya

torrásy

torrásya

bitarósy

bitarósya

bisésy

bisésya

-izo / -´zo

After

cyetizo

cyetizoja

torrázo

torrázoja

For

bitarózo

bitarózoja

bisézo

bisézoja

-on / -´n

For

cyeton

cyetona

torrán

torrána

(Dative)

bitarón

bitaróna

bisén

biséna

-osoj / -´soj

Off

cyetosoj

cyetosoja

torrásoj

torrásoja

bitarósoj

bitarósoja

bisésoj

bisésoja

-ot / -´t

Object marker

cyetot

cyetota

torrát

torráta

(Accusative)

bitarót

bitaróta

bisét

bisét

-ran

From

cyetran

cyetrana

torraran

torrarana

bitaroran

bitarorana

biséran

bisérana

-tan

About

cyettan

cyettana

torratan

torratana

At

bitarotan

bitarotana

bisétan

bisétana

In

(Locative)

-vjek

Up

cyetvjek

cyetvjeka

torravjek

torravjeka

bitarovjek

bitarovjeka

bisévjek

bisévjeka

-van

With

cyetvan

cyetvana

torravan

torravana

(Instrumental)

bitarovan

bitarovana

bisévan

bisévana

-ven

At

cyetven

cyetvena

torraven

torravena

By

bitaroven

bitarovena

biséven

bisévena

In

ÁJ — Of, About, Belonging To, The Genitive “Case”Edit

This postposition is used in a few different situations, from possession to talking about something.

When the noun it is describing is masculine, it is written -áj, but when the noun is feminine the J is dropped. See the following examples.

PossessionEdit

  • Adé iska? 'Whose house is this?'
    • ady¹ 'who' → adé(j) 'whose / of who'
    • iska 'house'
  • Iska kata Kóklá. 'This is Koukla's house.'
    • kata² 'this'
    • Kókla 'Koukla (a name)' → Kóklá(j) 'Koukla's / of Koukla'
  • Ato deklo ukáj? 'Is this your dog?
    • deklo 'dog'
    • uk 'you' → uká(j) 'your / yours'
  • Nol, deklo kato Avteráj. 'No, this dog is Avter's.'
    • nol 'no'
    • Avter 'Avter (a name)' → Avterá(j) 'Avter's / of Avter'
NotesEdit

1 — ady acquires a K when following a vowel, so on occasion you may see this written as kady.

2 — ata / ato also acquire K when following a vowel, which is why, when asking a question we say ata iska? 'this house?', but answer with iska kata 'this house'.

About, ConcerningEdit

  • Kejá kazyody? 'What are you talking about?'
    • kej 'what' → kejá(j) 'of what'
    • kazyody 'you talk (about) / explain'
  • To msyiká kazyom. 'I am talking about the car.'
    • to 'the'
    • msyik 'car' → msyiká(j) 'car's / of the car'
    • kazyom 'I talk (about) / explain'
  • Kejá kata vajta? 'What is this book about?
    • vajta 'book'
  • Vajta kata-j delkó. 'This book is about dogs.'
    • ata-j¹ 'this the (pl)'
    • i dekló(j) 'dogs' / of dog's'
NotesEdit

1 — Anytime you see J attached to another word by a hyphen, as ata-j here, it means that the article i (the, plural) is there. This letter attaches in sound to the preceding word if it ends with a vowel, and eventually began being incoporated as such. In older texts the i appearing after a vowel may be written ji.

ALY — On, On Top OfEdit

This means not only to physically be on top of an object, but it also refers to the speaking of languages.

PhysicalEdit

  • Mískákrivóly omeny. 'We are on the roof.'
    • mískákrivo¹ (ma iskákrivo) 'the roof' → mískákrivóly (ma iskákrivóly) 'on the roof'
    • omeny 'we are'
  • Túdüvákrásyol to kurzély. 'The chalk is on the ground.'
    • túdüvákrásyol (to udüvákrásyol) 'the chalk'
    • to kurzy 'the ground' → to kurzély 'on the ground'
  • Túküraly om. 'I am on the road (standing).'
    • túkür (to ukür) 'the road' → túküraly (to uküraly) 'on the road'
    • om 'I am'
  • To vekróly om. 'I am on the way (travel).'
    • to vekro 'the road / path / way / route' → to vekróly 'on the way / en route'

In regards to languageEdit

  • Gorunély kéttom. 'I can speak Gorlandish'
    • goruny 'Gorlandish language' → gorunély 'on Gorlandish'
    • kéttom¹ 'I know (how to)'
  • Kalí itáléné kéttom, al ocy espányánély kéttje. 'I know little Italian, but she speaks Spanish.'
    • kalí 'some / few'
    • itáléné 'of (the) Italian language'
    • al 'but'
    • ocy 'he / she'
    • espányány 'Spanish language' → espányánély 'on (the) Spanish language'
    • kéttje 'he / she knows'
NotesEdit

1 — kéttül means “to know”, but in context of abilities, not people and places. This may then replace a lot of lengthy sentences: Tyimvért kenje? Does she know Timver? Inglénély lejom. I am speaking English. Inglénély kéttom. I know English / I can speak English. We don't say Inglénély lejül kéttom, because though it translates to English as “I know how to speak English”, you would literally be saying that you know the ability of speech, and that ability also lies with English.

ARUJ — OntoEdit

This is understood in the physical sense.

  • Mískákrivóruj lastom. 'I'm climbing onto the roof.'

ATY — To, Toward, Locative “Case”Edit

This means that you are physically going to or towards a person, place or thing.

  • Rangastáty ulékom. 'I'm driving to school.'
    • rangasta 'school' → rangastáty 'to school'
  • Vútláty dukom. 'I'm going to Vutla (to Vutla's / to meet Vutla).'
    • Vútla 'Vutla (name)' → Vútláty 'to Vutla's'

BEK — IntoEdit

This is understood physically, as you are going into something.

  • Doladastabek dukje. 'He is going into the hopital.'
    • doladasta 'hospital' → doladastabek 'into the hospital'

CYÉREK — Through, Between, AmongEdit

This all depends on context, but all mean that you are surrounded by something.

  • Syidyi-j veroggjérek duk! 'Don't go through the forest.'
    • syidyi 'do not'
    • i verog 'forest (the trees)' → i veroggjérek 'through the forest'
  • Jísakkjéreka mogodomt. 'I walked between the houses.'
    • jísaka 'the houses' → jísakkjéreka 'between the houses'
    • mogodomt 'I walked'
  • I vikjacyéreka róbje / Zúdaj i viki róbje. 'She sits among the flowers.'
    • i viki 'the flowers' → i vikjacyéreka 'among the flowers'
    • róbje 'she sits'
    • zúdaj 'among'

ER — As, Turn IntoEdit

This may mean that you have turned into something by means of magic, or that you are employed in some expertise.

  • Dyinládezér amt. 'I turned into a giraffe.'
    • dyinládezy 'giraffe' → dyinládezér 'turn into a giraffe'
  • Doladastásyekár butje. 'She works as a nurse.'
    • doladastásyeka 'nurse' → doladastásyekár 'as a nurse'

ISY — Down, DirectionalEdit

This is strictly used when giving directions.

  • Túkürisy duk. 'Walk down the road.'

IZO — After, Behind, ForEdit

This is the postposition, but there is also a preposition that is used nearly as often — cyúzy. This is literally to go after or behind someone, but it is also to mean “for the cause of”.

  • Océzo róbomt / Cyúzy ocy róbomt. 'I sat down after her / I sat down behind her.'
  • Randukje malyarézo / Randukje cyúzy malyary. 'He is getting married.'
  • Randukje marerizo / Randukje cyúzy marer. 'She is getting married.'

ON — For, Dative “Case”Edit

This is used when you give an object to someone, or for someone, and when you are talking with someone.

  • Ati viki Bátonyán. 'These flowers are for Batonia.'
  • Ukon kazyom. 'I am talking to you.'
  • Ma rangastán atát domt. 'I did this for the school.'

OSOJ — Off Of, Out OfEdit

This means to physically come off or out of an object.

  • Ma cyicyicyora ronásoj kalrojet. 'The little bird flew out of the tree.'
    • ma cyicyicyora 'the little bird'
    • rona 'tree' → ronásoj 'from the tree'
    • kalrojet 'it flew'

OT — Object, Accusative “Case”Edit

The accusative marks the object of the sentence. See in the following sentences:

  • To delkót losyom. 'I see the dog.'
    • to delko 'the dog' → to delkót 'the dog (object)'
    • losyom 'I see'
  • Pinlát nurdom. 'I am drinking tea.'
    • pinla 'tea (drink)' → pinlát 'tea (drink) (object)'
    • nurdom 'I drink, smoke'
  • Vajtáta sénélody? 'Do you read books?'
    • vajta 'book' → vajtáta 'books (object)'
    • sénélody 'you read'

RAN — From, Ablative “Case”Edit

The equivalent to the English preposition “from”, but also used when stating that you are simply leaving a location.

  • Ati viki itran. 'These flowers are from me.'
    • it 'I, myself' → itran 'from me'
  • Trámjám Velhékséran. 'My friend is from Belgium.'
    • trámjám 'my friend (female)'
    • Velhéksy 'Belgium' → Velhékséran 'from Belgium'
  • To güzínran randukjet. 'He left the store.'
    • to güzín 'the store' → to güzínran 'from the store'
    • randukjet 'he left'

TAN — About, At, In, NearEdit

Most often used with telling the approximate time, but is also be used to explain directions.

  • Cyóltan to dzyüvelven. 'It is three in the afternoon.'
    • cyól 'three' → cyóltan 'at three'
    • to dzyüvelven 'in the day / afternoon'
  • Lizvane santan to jansipven. 'It is nearly four in the morning.'
    • lizvane 'almost'
    • san 'four' → santan 'at four'
    • to jansipven 'in the morning'
  • Ma vajtástatan om. 'I am near the book store.'

VJEK — Up, DirectionalEdit

It is strictly used when giving directions.

  • To présyto ma ronavjek roldjet. 'The squirrel ran up the tree.'
    • to présyto 'the squirrel'
    • ma rona 'the tree' → ma ronavjek 'up the tree'
    • roldjet 'it ran'

VAN — With, By Means Of, Instrumental “Case”Edit

This is the same as “with” in English, relating to people and instruments, as in “Drawn with a pencil”.

  • Cyetvan omeny. 'We are with a man.'
    • cyet 'man' → cyetvan 'with a man'

VEN — At, By, InEdit

This means to be physically inside an enclosed space.

  • To güzínven oje. 'She is at the store.'
    • to güzín 'the store' → to güzínven 'at/in the store'
    • oje 'she is'
  • Rangastaven ojedy. 'They are at school.'
    • rangasta 'school' → rangastaven 'at/in school'
    • ojedy 'they are'
  • Vúsyóven om. 'I am at work.'
    • vúsyol 'work' → vúsyóven 'at work'

VerbsEdit

There are two types of verbs: thematic and athematic. Thematic verbs are original Gorlandish verbs, and athematic are those borrowed from other languages, mainly Urlemarian. Thematic verbs end in -ül and -üj whilst athematic verbs end in -öl and -öj.

All the verbs follow a pattern for conjugation.

ThematicEdit

THEMATIC

ATHEMATIC

1st S.

-om / -óm

-öm

2nd S.

-ody / -ódy

-ödy

2nd formal & 3rd S.

-je / -óje

-je

1st Pl.

-omeny / -ómeny

-ömeny

2nd Pl.

-odyin / -ódyin

-ödyin

2nd formal & 3rd Pl.

-jedy / -ójedy

-jedy

Thematic verbs end in -ül and -üj. There is no exception.

If the root of the verb ends in a vowel, an accent is added on the vowel and the rest of the conjugating stem continues: lejül → lejom but butaül → butóm.

Present TenseEdit

The present tense is any action that is presently going on. Both ül and üj endings conjugate the same.

Present Tense (-ül)

LEJ'ÜL (speak)

BUTA'ÜL (work)

D'ÜL (do, create)

1st S.

lejom

butóm

dom

2nd S.

lejody

butódy

dody

2nd formal & 3rd S.

lejje

butóje

dje

1st Pl.

lejomeny

butómeny

domeny

2nd Pl.

lejodyin

butódyin

dodyin

2nd formal & 3rd Pl.

lejojedy

butójedy

dojedy

  • Lejom. 'I'm talking.'
  • Lejody iton? 'Are you speaking to me?'
  • Doladastaven butóje. 'They work at hospital.'
  • Kerven butódyin? 'Where do you (pl) work?'
  • Kejot dojedy? 'What are they doing?'
  • Syikejot syidom. 'I'm not doing anything.'

Simple PastEdit

This is something that just now happened or in general.

Simple Past (-t)

1st S.

lejomt

butómt

domt

2nd S.

lejodét

butódét

dodét

2nd formal & 3rd S.

lejjet

butjet

djet

1st Pl.

lejomenét

butómenét

domenét

2nd Pl.

lejodyint

butódyint

dodyint

2nd formal & 3rd Pl.

lejojedét

butójedét

dojedet

  • Lejomt. 'I talked.'
  • Lejodét iton? 'You spoke you me?'
  • Doladastaven butójet. 'They worked at hospital.'
  • Kerven butódyint? 'Where did you work?'
  • Kejot dojedét? 'What did they do?'
  • Syikejot syidomt. 'I didn't do anything.'

Perfect Past (ve-)Edit

Perfect Past (ve-)

1st S.

velejomt

vebutómt

vedomt

2nd S.

velejodét

vebutódét

vedodét

2nd formal & 3rd S.

velejjet

vebutjet

vedjet

1st Pl.

velejomenét

vebutómenét

vedomenét

2nd Pl.

velejodyint

vebutódyint

vedodyint

2nd formal & 3rd Pl.

velejojedét

vebutójedét

vedojedet

  • Velejomt. 'I have talked / I have spoken.'
  • Velejodét iton? 'Have you spoken to me?'
  • Doladastaven vebutójet. 'They have worked at hospital.'
  • Kerven vebutódyint? 'Where have you worked?'
  • Kejot vedojedét? 'What have they done?'
  • Syikejot syivedomt. 'I have done nothing / I haven't done anything.'

Continuous Past (vecye- + -t)Edit

Continuous Past (vecye- + -t)

1st S.

vecyelejomt

vecyebutómt

vecyedomt

2nd S.

vecyelejodét

vecyebutódét

vecyedodét

2nd formal & 3rd S.

vecyelejjet

vecyebutjet

vecyedjet

1st Pl.

vecyelejomenét

vecyebutómenét

vecyedomenét

2nd Pl.

vecyelejodyint

vecyebutódyint

vecyedodyint

2nd formal & 3rd Pl.

vecyelejojedét

vecyebutójedét

vecyedojedét

  • Vecyelejomt. 'I have been talking.'
  • Vecyelejodét iton? 'Have you been talking to me?'
  • Doladastaven vecyebutójet. 'They have been working at hospital.'
  • Kerven vecyebutódyint? 'Where have you been working?'
  • Kejot vecyedojedét? 'What have they been doing?'
  • Syikejot syivecyedomt. 'I have been doing nothing / I haven't been doing anything.'

Future Tense (cye-)Edit

Future Tense (cye-)

1st S.

cyelejom

cyebutóm

cyedom

2nd S.

cyelejody

cyebutódy

cyedody

2nd formal & 3rd S.

cyelejje

cyebutje

cyedje

1st Pl.

cyelejomeny

cyebutómeny

cyedomeny

2nd Pl.

cyelejodyin

cyebutódyin

cyedodyin

2nd formal & 3rd Pl.

cyelejojedy

cyebutójedy

cyedojedy

  • Cyelejom. 'I will talk.'
  • Cyeleody. 'You will talk to me.'
  • Doladastaven cyebutóje. 'They will work at the hospital.'
  • Kerven cyebutódyin? 'Where will you work?'
  • Kejot cyedojedy? 'What will they do?'
  • Syikejot syicyedom. 'I will do nothing / I won't do anything.'

Conditional Future (vecye-)Edit

Continuous Future (vecye-)

1st S.

vecyelejom

vecyebutóm

vecyedom

2nd S.

vecyelejody

vecyebutódy

vecyedody

2nd formal & 3rd S.

vecyelejje

vecyebutje

vecyedje

1st Pl.

vecyelejomeny

vecyebutómeny

vecyedomeny

2nd Pl.

vecyelejodyin

vecyebutódyin

vecyedodyin

2nd formal & 3rd Pl.

vecyelejojedy

vecyebutójedy

vecyedojedy

  • Vecyelejom. 'I will be talking.'
  • Vecyelejody iton? 'Will you be talking to me?'
  • Doladastaven vecyebutóje. 'They will be working at hospital.'
  • Kerven vecyebutódyin? 'Where will you be working?'
  • Kejot vecyedojedy? 'What will they be doing?'
  • Syikejot syivecyedom. 'I will be doing nothing / I won't be doing anything.'

AdjectivesEdit

Like verbs, there are thematic and athematic adjectives. Thematic, regular, adjectives are much easier to work with as they are very predictable.

Thematic AdjectivesEdit

These end in -aj, and if it's a genitive noun case, then any vowel can come before the J, but the rule is the same.

For feminine nouns the J is dropped, and for masculine nouns the J is intact. For plural nouns the adjective ending is dropped and replaced with I.

Adjectives also follow the noun. They may be placed before the noun for emphasis.

Adjective

Feminine

Masculine

Plural

Examples

Translations

henraj (usual)

henra

henraj

henri

Adzyüvel henraj oje

Today is good/usual

sisyeraj (beautiful)

sisyera

sisyeraj

sisyeri

Ma torru sisyera

The beautiful woman

vanyaj (similar)

vanya

vanyaj

vanyi

Le jórocya vanyi ojedy

All the horses are similar

Here are some more examples:

Rupnaj — means “full”

  • Míska rupna. 'The full house.' (feminine)
  • Míska rupna-j júdó. 'The house is full of people' (feminine)
  • Tórjocy rupnaj. 'The full horse.'
  • Tórjocy man kansjet, a hán rupnaj. 'The house ate a lot, and now it is full.' (masculine)

Cipsaj — means “new, current”

  • Ata rangasta cipsa? 'Is this a new school?'
  • Nol, tój losyanje-so cipsa. 'No, it only looks new.'
  • Ato cipsaj törcyöro. 'This is a new oven.' (masculine)
  • Törcyöro ato cipsaj. 'This oven is new / This new oven.' (masculine)

DictionaryEdit

AEdit

a / ka 1. pron/prfx this; adzyüvel / kadzyüvel today, abomva / kabomva tonight 2 conj and (between consonants) see also ta

abécécy nf alphabet

ady / kady pron who, someone

Afhanistán nm Afganistan

Afrika Gumlam nf South Africa

Afrika nf Africa

Afrikáj Sördáj, Gósyanad nm Central African Republic

ahtül v open

Ahvitana nf Aquitaine

aj / -´j gen/adj/sfx of, belonging to; Bisy Goré. Gor's cat.

ajol (ajó) nm vowel

akrúlyo cyítje phr bleed; Itvan akrúklyo cyítje! I'm bleeding!

akrúlyo nm blood

al conj but, however

Alemanoksy nf Germany

Alvanéksy nf Albania

aly / -´ly prep/sfx on, on top of

Amerika Gumlam nf South America

Amerika nf America

Amerika Ocyen nf North America

amran nm room

amran oválá nm bathroom, restroom, lavatory see also oválámran

ána/o pp/adj was; Iskácven áno (om). I was at her house.

anag / -´nag prep/sfx over

Andóra nf Andora

anévin nm balance, equilibrium

Angól nm Angola

angro nm father: pl angor

Antarktido nf Antarctica

Antihva-ta-Várbud nm Antigua and Barbuda

ara / ar´- or kara / ka´- pron/prfx that; aradzyüvel / karadzyüvel tomorrow

aradzyüvel / karadzyüvel pron/adv tomorrow

Arhentina nf Argentina

Armenéksy nf Armenia

aro / -´ro nm/sfx male person of country or expertise; Amerikáro American man. Orjocéro Horse breeder.

aruj / -´ruj prep/sfx onto

ary / -´ry nf/sfx female person of country or expertise; Amerikáry American woman. Orjocéry Horse breeder (female), or wife of a horse breeder.

aso nm tongue, language; Cyá asóly lejody? What language do you speak?

asósyal nm understanding

asósyanajka/o pp/adj be understood

asósyanül vi be understood: pp/adj asósyanajka/o

asósyül v understand, interpret, feel: pp/adj asósyana/o

asta / -´sta sfx building; rangasta school; Note: This word can be used on its own

ata / kata pron/f this

ati / kati pron/pl these

ato / kato pron/m this

aty prep/sfx toward, to; Doladastáty ekomeny. We're going (driving) to hospital.

aül v become, be, will: pp/adj ána/o; Kött aje. He will be there.

Avstráléksy nf Australia

Avstréksy nf Austria

Avter name/m Avter: dim Avtery Avter, Avteryko Avterko

Azérbajzyán nm Azerbaijan

AZS (abécécy zúdázúttá sörcé) nf IPA, international phonetic alphabet

azyaj adj every

azyoj nm eye

azyojaro nm seer, police, officer: nf azyojary

BEdit

ba adv already, hardly, barely, yet

bálottsyónka nf fortepiano see also bátsyó

Barvadi nm/pl Barbados

basya nf saint

Basya-Kítsáj-a-Nevisáj, Cyeksúral nm Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis

Basya-Lusya nf Saint Lucia

Basya-Vinc-a-j-Hranádini n Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Bátony name/m Baton: f Bátonya Batonia see also Váton

batsyidöl vi turn around

bátsyó nm piano

batsyöl v turn

bazunaj adj equal

bek prep/sfx into

béncyöl vt include

Benesvelya nf Venezuela

Bisko name/m Bisko

bissyisy nf kitten

bisy nf cat, male cat: nf bisya

bit nm sheep: nf bitary

bitaro nm male sheep, ram

Bitrog name/m Bitrog see also Vikroh

bítsyil adj alone

bittisy nf lamb

boána/o pp/adj travelled

bobajil adj popular, common

bócyákida/o pp/adj fought, battled

bócyákidöl vi fight self, overcome drug: pp/adj bócyákjapa/o

bócyákipo nm fight, war, battle

bócyákjapa/o pp/adj fought self, overcame drug

bócyáköl v fight, war, battle: pp/adj bócyákida/o

bócyákro nm fighter: nf bócyákra

bojal nm travel, tour, journey, voyage

bojaro nm traveller, tourist: nf bojary

bojül v travel, tour, visit: pp/adj boána/o

bomva nf night: pl bomav

bony nf world

Bótyág name/m Botiag: dim Bócyo see also Vókjág

Bratol [Brató] name/m Bratou: dim Bratsyi

bukol [bukó] nm letter (alphabet): pl bukla

bunida/o pp/adj followed

bunidöl vi become followed: pp/adj bunjapa/o

bunipo nm following

bunjapa/o pp/adj be followed

bunöl vt abide, follow: pp/adj bunida/o; Ma rangastáty ocyót bunéjömt. I followed him to the school.

búntil adj aggressive

butaül v work

CEdit

cipsaj adj new, current

cjokül v drip

clikida/o pp/adj written

clikidöl vi be written about: pp/adj clikjapa/o

clikipo nm writing, text

clikjapa/o pp/adj be written about

cliköl v write: pp/adj clikida/o

Codyik name/m Tsodik

colykjajla/o pp/adj cost, did cost

colyküj vi cost: pp/adj colykjajla/o

Cúkra name/f Tsukra: dim Cyulya

curó conj however

curók conj though

cyá pron which, what

cyájróköss nm bone (of the body) see also köss cyájrój

cyájrol [cyájró] nm body, torso

cyán pron why

cyásso / cyássok nm accent (vowel)

cye- / cy´- adv/prfx soon, future; Cyúsaóm. I will help.

cyecyar nm young man, youth see also cyetora

Cyéha nf Czech Republic

cyekjal nm death

cyekjana/o pp/adj dead

cyekjüj vi die: pp/adj cyekjana/o

cyeksúral nm federation

cyeksúraláj adj federal

cyeksúrüj v federate

cyéla nf butter

cyéptar nm theme: pl cyéptra

cyéptaraj adj thematic

cyérek / kjérek prep/sfx across, through, between; Syidyi i verogcyérek duk! Don't go through the forest! Jísakkjérek mogodomt. I walked between the houses.

cyet nm man

cyetora nm young man, youth see also cyecyar

cyicyicyora nf baby bird, birdie

cyicyik nm bird

cyikán nm ivory

Cyiléj nm Chile

cyimal nm excuse, pardon, forgiveness

cyimanajka/o pp/adj be excused, be pardon

cyimanül vi be excused, be pardoned: pp/adj cyimanajka/o

cyimül v excuse, pardon, forgive: pp/adj cyimana/o

cyirig nm pattern, form

cyítal nm flow (of water)

cyítaláj adj flowing, fluid

cyítana/o pp/adj flowed

cyítül v flow: pp/adj cyítana/o

cyokal nm stop, block

cyokana/o pp/adj stopped

cyokanajka/o pp/adj be stopped

cyokanül vi become stopped: pp/adj cyonanajka/o

cyokül v stop, desist: pp/adj cyokana/o

cyól adj three

cyólasy num thirty

cyólasycyól num thirty-three

cyólasydúv num thirty-two

cyólasyéhta num thirty-eight

cyólasyínyól num thirty-nine

cyólasykal num thirty-one

cyólasykin num thirty-five

cyólasysan num thirty-four

cyólasysyól num thirty-six

cyólasyzev num thirty-seven

cyólój num three

cyólsíja nf March

cyórraj adj original

cyórró nm origin

cyúly adv quite

cyúzékösnajal nm postposition see also kösnajal cyúzéven

cyúzy adv after

DEdit

dadyi aux must, should

Danmarko nm Denmark

Dányor name/m Danior: dim Dányko Danko see also Zyándór

de conj that

dejasy nf bitch, female dog

delko nm dog: pl delok

delkomisy nf puppy

destin 1. adj actual, true, factual 2. adv truly, actually

déváljajla/o pp/adj designed

déválól nm design

déválüj v design: pp/adj déváljajla/o

dezy nf neck

dolad nm illness, disease

doladasta nf hospital

doladastasyeka nf nurse see also syeka doladastá

dolaj adj sick, ill

dolanajka/o 1. pp/adj be sick 2. nm/f patient;

dolanül vi become sick: pp/adj dolanajka/o

Dominika nf Dominica

Dominikáj, Gósyanad nm Dominican Republic

dómöl vt use

dördöral nm beating, hit, punch

dördörana/o pp/adj hit, beaten, punched

dördöranajka/o pp/adj fought, beaten up

dördöranül vi have a fight: pp/adj dördöranajka/o

dördörödana/o pp/adj beaten up

dördörödanajka/o pp/adj fought, beaten up

dördörödanül vi fight: pp/adj dördörödanajka/o

dördörödül vt punch, beat up: pp/adj dördörödana/o

dördöröl nm blow

dördörül v hit, beat, punch: pp/adj dördörana/o

Dorn name/m Dorn: f Doryana

Dörülo name/m Derulo: dim Dólo

drávlad nm right

'drávlaj adj right (opp. of 'wrong)

dukalt dül v walk, stroll; Cyérek i verog dukalt domt. I took a stroll through the woods.

dukül v go

dül vt make, do: pp/adj dana/o; Note: when used with certain nouns it creates a new meaning: ilét dje it is snowing; martot dje it is raining; syukota dom I am talking

duprün nm rule, law

dúv adj two; Dúv orjocy. Two horses.

dúvasy num twenty

dúvasycyól num twenty-three

dúvasydúv num twenty-two

dúvasyéhta num twenty-eight

dúvasyínyól num twenty-nine

dúvasykal num twenty-one

dúvasykin num twenty-five

dúvasysan num twenty-four

dúvasysyól num twenty-six

dúvasyzev num twenty-seven

dúvhaj adj latter

dúvipo nm half

dúvój num two

dúvsíja nf February

dyá adv yes

dyi aux may; Vitom dyi dukül. I want to go. Dyi cyékomeny! Let's go (ride)!

dyinlad nm length

dyinládezy nf giraffe

dyinlaj adj long

dyöcyásta nf bar, pub

dzyek nm gold, jewellery

dzyekáj adj golden, of gold

dzyüvel nm day

EEdit

éhta adj eight

éhtalyój num eight

éhtasíja nf August

éhtásy num eighty

éhtásycyól num eighty-three

éhtásydúv num eighty-two

éhtásyéhta num eighty-eight

éhtásyínyól num eighty-nine

éhtásykal num eighty-one

éhtásykin num eighty-five

éhtásysan num eighty-four

éhtásysyól num eighty-six

éhtásyzev num eighty-seven

Ehvádoro nm Ecuador

ék conj than

ekül v ride

elty nf grass

éncyol [éncyó] nm agreement

éncyoldana/o pp/adj agreed

éncyoldanajka/o pp/adj be in an agreement

éncyoldanül vi come to an agreement: pp/adj éncyoldanakja/o

éncyoldül v agree: pp/adj éncyoldana/o

er / -´r sfx as, turn into; Doladastásyekár butje. She works as a nurse.

erson nm skin, thin layer (outer), shell

erson ronáj nm bark, tree bark see also ronájrson

Erütrá nf Eritrea

és adj/prfx older generation; éspénangro great-grandfather

ésdzyüvel pron/adv yesterday

ésel nm isle, hallway

éselora nf wedding isle

eslam nm/adj east

Eslás nm Alsace

Ésólláksy nf Iceland

Espánya nf Spain

Éstonéksy nf Estonia

éstyál nm breath

ésya nf area, place; Ésyaven... In place of/In lieu of...

ésyavenhazyaro nm lieutenant: nf ésyavenhazyary

étsyaül v breathe

everana/o pp/adj united; I-Tesi-Everani-Amerikí The United States of America

everanajka/o pp/adj be united

everanül vi become united: pp/adj everanajka/o

everül vt unite: pp/adj everana/o

Évropa nf Europe

Évropóséksy nf Eurasia

FEdit

favad nm sorriness, sadness

favaj adj sorry, sad, upset

favanajka/o pp/adj saddened

favanül vi be sorry, be sad: pp/adj favanakja/o

Filipini nm/pl Philippines

Finnoksy nf Finland

Fizya nf Fiji

flagol [flagó] nm graphic, graphics

foksy nf land, country

fordül v mean, intend

Fránca nf France

Fröjö name/m Frey see also Vrök: dim Fröjöra

fud nm fire, flame

fütán adv ever

GEdit

Gájti nm Haiti

gálra nf leg: pl gálar

gálráköss nm leg bone see also köss gálráj

Gáná nf Ghana

gany nf water

genéjuzko nm eel, serpent see also uzko ganyá

Gernséj nm Guernsey (Channel Islands)

Gíjana nf French Guiana, Guyana

gócyaval nm start

gócyavül vt begin, start, commence

goraj adj Gorlandish

Goroksy nm Gorland

gororo nm Gorlandish man: nf gorary

goruny nf Gorlandish language

Gory name/m Gor see also Tyóran; Note: This name is older and thus less popular.

gósyan nm population

gósyanad nm republic

gramünida/o pp/adj got, acquired, received

gramünidöl vi be acquired: pp/adj gramünjapa/o

gramünjapa/o pp/adj be acquired

gramünöl vt get, acquire, receive: pp/adj gramünida/o

grasso nm argument

grassodana/o pp/adj argued

grassodanajka/o pp/adj be argued over/about

grassodanül vi become argued: pp/adj grassodanajka/o

grassodül v argue: pp/adj grassodana/o

gumlam nm/adj south

güréna nf animal

güzín nm store, boutique

HEdit

Habon nm Gabon

hádil adj happy

hagro nm equator

haj! adv/phr okay!, good!;

hán adv now

hanár nm canvas

Hány / Gány name/m Han, Gan: dim Kányi: nf Hánya / Gánya Hania, Gania: dim Kánya

hany adv when, at what time, while, whilst

hany prep/sfx by means of

haskaj adj masculine

hasyaj adj feminine

hazyaro nm holder, tenant: nf hazyary

hazyjaga/o pp/adj be held

hazyjajla/o pp/adj held

hazyjüj vi become held: pp/adj hazyjaga/o

hazyól nm hold, holding, grasp

hazyüj v hold: pp/adj hazyjajla/o

Heláda nf Greece

Hénéj Cipsaj, Papva nm Papua New Guinea

Hénéj Hagró nm Equatorial Guinea

Hénéj nm Guinea

Hénéj-Bissao nm Guinea-Bissau

henrad nm normalcy, order; Henradven ojedy! Okay/Everything's in order.

henraj adj normal, usual

henranajka/o pp/adj normal, usual

henranül vi become normal: pp/adj henranajka/o

Hondura nf Honduras

Hony-Kony nf Hong Kong

hórlam nm/adj west

hot nm year

Hranadá, Isyla nf State of Grenada; Hranada

hresto nm crystal

hrestój adj crystal

Hrínoksy nf Greenland see aso Zyekáfoksy

húla nf spirit, soul

hulálinyd nm brotherhood

hulanyol [hulanyó] nm adventure

Hürvacka nf Croatia

Hvátemala nf Guatemala

IEdit

i / j´- def/pl the; I minyisy. The money. Júkra. The white (female objects).

ilét dje v snow see also dül

ily nf snow

Imáráta Járabékséj Evereni nm/pl United Arab Emirates

Indéksy nf India

Indonesya nf Indonesia

Ingléksy nf England

inglény nf English language

ingléro nm Englishman: nf ingléry

inser adv long (time)

Inskol [Inskó] name/m Inskou: dim Insyok

inyól adj nine

ínyólasy num ninety

ínyólasycyól num ninety-three

ínyólasydúv num ninety-two

ínyólasyéhta num ninety-eight

ínyólasyínyól num ninety-nine

ínyólasykal num ninety-one

ínyólasykin num ninety-five

ínyólasysan num ninety-four

ínyólasysyól num ninety-six

ínyólasyzev num ninety-seven

inyólój num nine

inyólsíja nf September

ipérotida/o pp/adj loaded, burdened

ipérotidöl vi burden oneself: pp/adj ipérotjapa/o

ipérotipo nm load, burden

ipérotjapa/o pp/adj burdened self

ipérotöl v load, upload: pp/adj ipérotida/o

Iráko nm Iraq

Iráno nm Iran

Íroksy nf Ireland

Íroksy Ocyen nf North Ireland

iska karoló nf kingdom see also karolójska

iska nf house: pl isak

iskákrivo nm roof see also krivo iskáj

iskora nf home

Isrájlo nm Israel

isy / -´sy dir/sfx down; Note: This word can be used on its own; Túkürisy dukom. I'm walking down the road. Isy losy. Look down.

isyla nf state

it pron I, myself: gen -im / -´m

Itáléksy nf Italy

itya pron we: gen -imja / -´mja

Ityopéksy nf Ethiopia

izo / -´zo adv/sfx after, for

JEdit

Jamájka nf Jamaica

Jaman nm Yemen

Jámeriki nf/pl The Americas

jansip nm morning

Japón nm Japan

Jazájr nm Algeria

jegida/o pp/adj added, joined, fused

jegidöl vi add to self, join to self: pp/adj jegjapa/o

jegipo nm addition, joining

jegipodal nm combination

jegjapa/o pp/adj joined, fused

jegöl vt add, join, fuse: pp/adj jegida/o

Jerséj nm Jersey (Channel Islands)

Jézusy Hristá name/m Jesus Christ (biblical figure) see also sim Rónojá see also Rónojásim

Jordan nm Jordan

Jösásyo name/m Yesasho: dim Josyaro

júdol [júdó] nm person: pl júdój

jujal nm drawing

jujana/o pp/adj drawn

jujanajka/o pp/adj be drawn

jujanül vi be drawn: pp/adj jujanajka/o

julül v draw picture, draw curtains: pp/adj jujana/o

KEdit

ka / kaj a / an

kádyit nm decoration, ornament

kal adj one

kalada/o adj singular

kalgaj adj former

kalí adj some, few

kalój num one

kalrül v fly

kalsíja nf January

Kamerón nm Cameroon

Kamvodéksy nf Cambodia

Kanada nf Canada

kansaj adj edible; na kansaj good to eat, delicious

kansal nm food

kansana/o pp/adj eaten, devoured, destroyed

kansanajka/o pp/adj be eaten, be destroyed

kansanül vi eat, destroy: pp/adj kansanajka/o

kansül vt eat: pp/adj kansana/o

karir nm fly

Karja name/f Caria (of Dolawish Khâria)

karloróra nf prince: nf karlaréra

karolo nm king: nf karlary

Karolójska Everena nf United Kingdom

karolójska nf kingdom see also iska karoló

kasroja nf phrase, sentence

kasy nf cup

Kátyár nm Qatar

Kazáhstán nm Kazakhstan

kazyal nm speech, telling

kazyana/o pp/adj spoken, told

kazyül v say, tell: pp/adj kazyana/o

kej pron what

kemül v dance

Kénsyaso Cyikánáj nm Ivory Coast

Kénsyaso nm Congo

kenül v know (person): pp/adj kenana/o; Syekát Dányká kenody? Do you know Danko's sister?

Kenya nf Kenya

ker pron where

Kerno nm Cornwall

kéttül v know (how), have (ability): pp/adj kéttana/o; Kéttom kemül. I know how to dance/I can dance.

kibka nf poem, poetry: pl kibak

kicyran adv from, from here

kimaj adj kind, fine, sweet, gentle

kin adj five

kinasy num fifty

kinasycyól num fifty-three

kinasydúv num fifty-two

kinasyéhta num fifty-eight

kinasyínyól num fifty-nine

kinasykal num fifty-one

kinasykin num fifty-five

kinasysan num fifty-four

kinasysyól num fifty-six

kinasyzev num fifty-seven

kinój num five

kinsíja nf May

kinyo nm baby, infant: nf kinya

Kiriváty nf Kiribati

kis / cyis adv var also

kitt n/adv here

kjapcyaro nm alien

kjellal nm playing, game

kjellül v play

Kjimbó name/m Kimbo: f Kjimlya see also Tyimvér; Note: This name is older and thus less popular.

ko / k´- prfx again, re-

köcyran adv from, from there

Kókla name/f Koukla: dim Kóklya

kokösnajül vt replace

Kolomvéksy nf Colombia

kölya nf verb

Komoró nm Comoros

komval nm goat: pl komvla

komvjora nf kid, baby goat

komvlaro nm male goat, ram

komvlary nf nanny goat

koncal nm pregnancy

koncana/o pp/adj pregnant, impregnated

koncanajka/o pp/adj be pregnant

koncanül vi become pregnant: koncanajka/o

koncya adv at least, at the least

koncyül vt impregnate: pp/adj koncana/o

kopöl v shoot

kós adv again

kösna nf area, place see also ésya

kösnajal cyúzéven nm postposition

kösnajal nm placement, position

kösnajal syönkipój nm suffix see also zyönkipókösnajal

kösnajül vt place, put

köss nm solid stick/pole

köss ronáj nm tree branch see also ronáköss

Kosta-Riko nm Costa Rico

Kosyan nm Korea

Kóta name/f Kouta: dim Kósya

Kótaty name/m Koutat: dim Kótsyi: nf Kótatya Koutatia

kött n/adv there

kózlaro nm adjective, descriptor

kózlól nm show, description

kózlüj vt show, describe: pp/adj kózlyaga/o

kózlyaga/o pp/adj shown, described

kózyóg nm example

krásyol [krásyó] nm crayon

krásyol udüvaj nm chalk see also udüvákrásyol

krivo iskáj nm roof see also iskákrivo

krivo lisyaréj nm lampshade see also lisyarékrivo

krivo lóváj nm hat see also lóvora, lóvákrivo

krivo nm cover, hat

krüvka nf cow: pl krüvak

krüvocy nm bull, steer: pl krüvcsa

ksikolek nm computer

Kúbáj nm Cuba; Kúba

Kulyéna name/f Kuliena: dim Kulya

kulyonko nm article

Kümro nm Wales

Küpro nm Cypros

Kürhüzytán nm Kyrgyzstan

kurzy nf soil, ground, earth

kúsjaga/o pp/adj be bitten

kúsjajla/o pp/adj bitten

kúsjüj vi become bitten: pp/adj kúsjaga/o

kústó nm bit, piece, part

kúsüj v bite: pp/adj kúsjajla/o

Kuvat nm Kuwait

LEdit

lábóvanyjaga/o pp/adj be tended to, received attention

lábóvanyjajla/o pp/adj attended, tended to

lábóvanyjól nm attention

lábóvanyjüj vi become tended to, receive attention: pp/adj lábóvanyjaga/o

lábóvony nf event

lábóvonyüj v attend, tend (to): pp/adj lábóvonyjajla/o

lacyal nm shout, cry

lacyana/o pp/adj shouted

lacyanajka/o pp/adj weeped

lacyanül vi shout at yourself, cry, weep: pp/adj lacyanajka/o

lacyül v shout, cry: pp/adj lacyana/o

lády kál ésyavan adj together

lády pron everyone, all

lagól nm pay, payment

lagüj vt pay

laj adj dear, sweet, beloved

lajkaj adj sudden

lám nm abbey

lámaro nm abbot: nf lámary

lámódana/o pp/adj married

lámódanajka/o pp/adj be married

lámódanül vi get married: pp/adj lámódanajka/o

lámódül v marry: pp/adj lámódana/o

lámol [lámó] nm wedding, marriage, wedding reception/party

Lámtya name/f Lamtia: dim Jámsya

Lanhédok-Rússijón nm Languedoc-Roussillon

lankad nm light (weight), ease

lankaj adj light (weight)

lanke adv easy

lánya nf mother

Láol nm Laos

lastül v climb

Latvéksy nf Latvia

lavtal nm practice (of religion)

lavtana/o pp/adj practiced (religion)

lavtül v practice (religion): pp/adj lavtana/o

Láz name/m Laz see also Rüláz: dim Lazyo

lazal nm birth

lazana/o pp/adj born

lazanajka/o pp/adj be born

lazanül vi be born: pp/adj lazanajka/o

lazül vt birth, give birth: pp/adj lazana/o

le n/adj all, everything

lejal nm speech, talk

lejjana/o pp/adj spoken of, talked about

lejjanajka/o pp/adj be spoken about

lejjanül vi speak about self: pp/adj lejjanajka/o

lejül v talk, speak, say: pp/adj lejjana/o

lél nm rest, entire

lemany nf dignity

lemicy adv always see also soj

lenyil adj bad, evil

Lesóto nm Lesotho

lév nm sky, heaven

Levanon nm Lebannon

lezuójto nm universe

lezuótjój adj universal

li / lik conj or

Liberéksy nf Liberia

licyájal nm care

licyájana/o pp/adj cared for, care about

licyájanajka/o pp/adj taken care of (by yourself)

licyájanül vi care for yourself: pp/adj licyájanajka/o

licyájül v/vt care, care for, care about: pp/adj licyájana/o

licyerdy nf stallion

ligen nm coffee

lihátal nm hearing

lihátana/o pp/adj heard

lihátanajka/o pp/adj be heard

lihátanül vi become heard: pp/adj lihátanajka/o

lihátipo nm audio

lihátül v hear: pp/adj lihátana/o

Líhtensyén nm Liechtenstein

liny num/adj million

linyd nm brother

lisy nf light (illumination)

lisyarékrivo nm lampshade see also krivo lisyaréj

lisyary nf lamp, light

Lítvanéksy nf Lithuania

Lívjá nf Libya

liz dir near

lizvane adv almost, nearly

Lizvesy name/f Lizvesh: dim Lizvesya Lizvesha, Lizvesyora Lizveshora

logal nm calling

logana/o pp/adj called

loganajka/o pp/adj be called

loganül vi call self: pp/adj loganajka/o

logü vt call: pp/adj logana/o

Lol [Ló] name/m Lou: dim Losyo

loliha nm audiovisual, video see also losyallihátipo

losyal nm sight, appearance

losyaláj adj visual

losyallihátipo nm audiovisual, video see also loliha

losyana/o pp/adj seen, met

losyanajka/o pp/adj be seen, be met, seemed

losyanül vi be seen, be met, seem: pp/adj losyanajka/o

losyül v see, look, meet: pp/adj losyana/o

lóv nm head

lóvákrivo nm hat see also lóvora, krivo lováj

lóvákrivóro nm hat maker see also lóvoráro: nf lóvákrivóry

lóvaro syönéj nm sunhat see also syönélóvaro

lóvora nm hat see also lóvákrivo, krivo lováj

lóvoráro nm hat maker see also lóvákrivóro: nf lóvoráry

Luksemvórho nm Luxembourg

lumkil adj clean

lyira nm air

lyissújida/o pp/adj sent

lyissújidöl vi be sent: pp/adj lyissújjapa/o

lyissújjapa/o pp/adj be sent

lyissújöl vt send: pp/adj lyissújida/o

lyubaül vt fix, repair

MEdit

ma / m´- def/f the

Madahaskro nm Madagascar

Madyarosky nf Hungary

Ma-Hamvéksy nf The Gambia

maj adj small, little, few

Majnéséksy nf Micronesia

Majövlo name/m Mayevlo: dim Majlo

majsye adv good, well, all right

majül vt make small, shrink: pp/adj mána/o

Makavo nm Macau

Makedonésky nf Macedonia

mál nm smallness, few

Malaj nm Malawi

Malaséksy nf Malaysia

Maldivi nm/pl Maldives

Malta nf Malta

Malya nf Mali

malyary nf wife, woman; Randukje malyarézo. He is getting married. Randukje cyúzy malyary. He is getting married.

man adj/adv many, much, very, most

mana nf small room, bedroom

mána/o pp/adj shrunk

manad nm plurality

mánajka/o pp/adj be shrunk

maner adv how much, amount

manog nm consonant: pl i manog

manóra nf closet, cupboard

mánül vi shrink, lose weight: pp/adj mánajka/o

Manyiko name/m Maniko: dim Manyisy

manyol [manyó] nm bread

Maoritó nm Mauritius

marer nm husband, man; Randukje marerizo. She is getting married. Randukje cyúzy marer. She is getting married.

Marók name/m Marok: dim Masyko

Mársa name/f Marsa: dim Mársya, Mársja

mart nm rain; martot dje v rain see also dül

Masgol [Masgó] name/m Masgou: dim Masyo

másta nf village, small town

Másyin name/m Mashin: dim Másyaro

matlam nm/adj western

matraj adj holy

matral nm blessing

matralaro nm priest: nf matralary priestess

matrana/o pp/adj blessed

matranajka/o pp/adj be blessed

matranül vi become blessed: pp/adj matranajka/o

matrül vt bless: pp/adj matrana/o

máty nf ball

meg adj next

Meksiká nf Mexico; I-Tesi-Everani-Meksikí The United States of Mexico

mér nm coast

Messenzy name/m Messenzh see also Metsyko

Mésyor nm Egypt

Metysko name/m Metchko see also Messenzy

mikacyana/o pp/adj directed

mikacyül v direct: pp/adj mikacyana/o

mikar nm time, weather: pl mikra

minyisy pl/nf money

mira nf bear

misy / -(c)isy sfx infant, young; Note: attached to the end of names of animals to denote that it is offspring, such as delko → dog, delkomisy → puppy

mogodül v walk, stroll

möjasyöl vi worry

Moldavéksy nf Moldova

Monako nm Monaco

Monholéksy nf Mongolia

Montenehro nm Montenegro

Moróko nm Morocco

Mórtánéksy nf Mauritania

Mozamviko nm Mozambique

msyik nm car

müjlal nm developement

mujlana/o pp/adj developed

mujlül v develope: pp/adj mujlana/o

NEdit

nád nm goodness

nádaly phr please

naj adj good, well, fine

Namvéksy nf Namibia

Naoró nm Nauru

narósyor nm account, narrative, report

narósyordana/o pp/adj accounted, narrated, reported

narósyordanajka/o pp/adj be accounted for

narósyordanül vi become accounted for: pp/adj narósyordanajka/o

narósyordül v give an account, narrate, report: pp/adj narósyordana/o

nasy aux cannot, unable

Nederéksya / Ollóksy nf/pl Netherlands, Holland

Neklácy name/m Neklach

Népal nm Nepal

Nikarahva nf Nicaragua

Nizyer nm Niger

Nizyeréksy nf Nigeria

Nórha nf Norway

nurdül v drink, smoke: pp/adj nurdana/o

OEdit

o / ko pron/prfx that; odzyüvel / kodzyüvel that day, another day

öbjág nm alcohol

öbjágasta nf bar, pub see also dyöcyásta

ocy pron he, she, you (s.f): gen -oc / -´c

ocya pron they, you (pl.f): gen -oca / -´ca

ocyen nm/adj north

ody vi you are (sg)

odyin vi you are (pl)

odzyent nm edge, border, limit

Óhanda nf Uganda

oje vi he/she is, you are (s,f)

ojedy vi they are, you are (pl,f)

ojva nf type, kind, variant

ok prep/prfx away, from

okrivöl vt keep away, stay away

okroldal nm escape, flee see also ranroldül

okroldül v run away, escape, flee see also ranroldül

oksy / -´ksy nm/sfx country

Óküsol [Óküsó] name/m Oksou: dim Küsyi

ólspávadana/o pp/adj answered

ólspávadanajka/o pp/adj be answered

ólspávadanül vi become answered: pp/adj ólspávadanajka/o

ólspávo nm answer

ólspávodül v answer: pp/adj ólspávadana/o

om vi I am

Oman nm Oman

omeny vi we are

on / -´n prep/sfx for

önyópana/o pp/adj attacked, assaulted

önyópanajka/o pp/adj be attacked, be assaulted

önyópanül vi become attacked, become assaulted: pp/adj önyópanajka/o

önyópül v attack, assault: pp/adj önyópana/o

opady / -´pady prep/sfx under

ór nm mister, Mr.: nf óry

ora / -´ra sfx small, diminutive; Röman. Table. Römanora. Desk.

óren adj enough

orjasa nf mare

orjasora nf foal, filly

orjocy nm horse, gelding

orjocyaro nm horse keeper, breeder: nf orjocyary

orjocyora nf foal, colt

Óséksy nf Asia

osoj / -´soj prep/sfx off (of)

Ósvekistán nm Uzbekistan

osyattal nm consideration

osyattana/o pp/adj thought (to be), considered

osyattanajka/o pp/adj be considered

osyattanül vi become considered: pp/adj osyattanajka/o

osyattül v think, consider: pp/adj osyattana/o

ot / -´t prep/sfx accusative case

ota / kota pron/f that

oti / koti pron/pl those

oto / koto pron/m that

ovál nm wash, washing

oválámran nm bathroom, restroom, lavatory see also amran oválá

ovánajka/o pp/adj bathed, washed

ovánül vi bathe: pp/adj ovánajka/o

ovaül v wash: pp/adj ována/o

ovtérajaga/o pp/adj be authorised

ovtérajajla/o pp/adj authorised

ovtérajüj vi become authorised: pp/adj ovtérajaga/o

ovtéraro nm authority

ovtéraüj v authorise: pp/adj ovtérajajla/o

Óvurundya nf Burundi

PEdit

pacyor adv against

Pajslol [Pajsló] name/m Paislou: dim Páso

pák nm luck, good luck

Pakistán nm Pakistan

Palao nm Palau

Palestino nm Palestine

pamtül v catch, hunt

Panama nf Panama

Parahva nf Paraguay

paral nm gender

Pasya Máná nf Isle of Mann

pasya nf island

Pasyi Farí nf/pl Faroe Islands

Pasyi Marsyálí nf/pl Marshall Islands

Pasyi Solomoní nf/pl Solomon Islands

pavrarida/o pp/adj broken, snapped, cracked

pavraridjapa/o pp/adj be broken, snapped, cracked

pavraridöl vi become broken, become snapped, become cracked: pp/adj pavraridjapa/o

pavraripo nm break, snap, crack

pavraripój adj breakable

pavraröl v break, snap, crack: pp/adj pavrarida/o; Océt galráköss pavradido oje. His leg is broken.

pénangro nm grandfather: pl pénangor

pénsya nf appetite

Peró nm Peru

pésyto nm squirrel

pinla nf tea

plasaj adj slow

plase adv slowly

pocy num six

pocyüvel nm Saturday

Poléksy nf Poland

polyáról nm attraction

polyjaga/o pp/adj be pulled, drawn, attracted

polyjajla/o pp/adj pulled, drawn, attracted

polyjüj vi become pulled, drawn, attracted: pp/adj polyjaga/p

polyüj v pull, draw, attract: pp/adj polyjajla/o

Portuhalo nm Portugal

pósytjajla/o pp/adj burst, popped

pósytól nm burst, pop

pósytüj vi burst, pop: pp/adj pósytjajla/o

prádyida/o pp/adj tried, attempted

prádyipo nm attempt, try

prádyöl v try, attempt: pp/adj prádyida/o

prélyog nm act

prélyogdana/o pp/adj acted

prélyogdül v act: pp/adj prélyogdana/o

présy adv/adj before

présyil adj preceding, previous

présyipo nm aim

présyvöl v aim

Provenca nf Provence

psyál nm sleep

psyaül v sleep

pülendukül v go forward, continue

püler prep forward

púrad nm toilet; pl púrda

püran nm conscience

REdit

ran prep/sfx from

rancyítal nm leak

rancyítaláj adj leaking, leaky

rancyítana/o pp/adj leaked

rancyítül v/vi leak: pp/adj rancyítana/o

randukal nm leave, absence

randukül v leave

rangal nm teaching, education

rangana/o pp/adj taught

ranganajka/o pp/adj be taught

ranganajko nm student: nf ranganajka

ranganül vi teach self, learn: pp/adj ranganajka/o

rangaro nm teacher: nf rangary

rangasta nf school

rangasta ulyulalá nf art school, art college see also ulyulalárangasta

rangül v teach: pp/adj rangana/o

ranroldal nm escape, flee see also okroldal

ranroldül v run away, escape, flee see also okroldül

Rékém name/m Rekem

rivida/o pp/adj kept

rividipo nm stay, visit

rividöl vi stay: pp/adj rivjapa/o

rivipo nm keep

rivjapa/o pp/adj stayed

rivöl vt keep: pp/adj rivida/o

róbal nm residence

róbana/o pp/adj lived in

róblora nf chair

róbül v sit, reside: pp/adj róbana/o

rók nm hand, trust

rókdal nm commitment

rókdana/o pp/adj commited, consigned

rókdanajka/o pp/adj be committed

rókdanül vi commit oneself: pp/adj rókdanajka/o

rókdül v commit, consign: pp/adj rókdana/o

Rol [Ró] name/m Rou: dim Rósyi, Rólyi

roldal nm run

roldül v run

röman nm table

römanora nf desk

rona nf tree, wood

ronájrson nm bark, tree bark see also erson ronáj

ronáköss nm tree branch see also köss ronáj

ronáson nm root see also son ronáj

Rónoj nm God (Christian God)

Rónojasim nm son of God, Jesus Christ see also sim Rónojá see also Jézusy Hristá

Rósa name/f Rousa: dim Rosya

rossaj adj strong, powerful

rossal n strength

Rüláz name/m Rulaz see also Láz: dim Lazyo

Rúlyin name/m Rulin: dim Rújjo

Rümánéksy nf Romania

rupnaj adj full

Ruséksy nf Russia

rusuny nf Russian language

rusúro nm Russian: nf rusúry

Rüvanda nf Rwanda

SEdit

Sadürabéksy nf Saudi Arabia

sáero nm boy, child: nf sáery

Sahara Matlamá nf Western Sahara

salam nm peace, calm

salmaj adj peaceful, calm

Salyho name/m Salho: dim Salyi

samil adj other, another

Sámól nm Samoa

san adj four

sanasy num forty

sanasycyól num forty-three

sanasydúv num forty-two

sanasyéhta num forty-eight

sanasyínyól num forty-nine

sanasykal num forty-one

sanasykin num forty-five

sanasysan num forty-four

sanasysyól num forty-six

sanasyzev num forty-seven

San-Marino nm San Marino

sanój num four

sansíja nf April

Sao-Tome-ta-Prinsipo nm Sao Tome and Principe

sarad nm bigness, importance

saraj adj big, large, important, great

sastad nm health

sastaj adj healthy

sastanajka/o pp/adj be healthy

sastanül vi become healthy: pp/adj sastanajka/o

sé / séj adv if see also si

sendal nm belief

sendana/o pp/adj believed

sendanajka/o pp/adj be believed

sendanül vi be believed: pp/adj sendanajka/o

sendül v think, believe: pp/adj sendana/o

sénélül v read

Senyehal nm Senegal

sés adv such

Sésyeli nm/pl Seychelles

si / sij adv if see also

síja nf moon, month

Sijéra-Léon nm Sierra Leone

sim nm son

sim Rónojá nm son of God, Jesus Christ see also Rónojasim see also Jézusy Hristá

Sinyapor nm Singapore

sisyarr nm handsome man: nf sisyarry

sisyarraj adj beautiful, handsome

sisyer nm handsome young man: nf sisyary

sisyeraj adj beautiful, pretty, wonderful

skicy nf thing, apparatus

slöd nm door, gateway, portal

slödaro nm door-maker: nf slödary

Slovakéksy nf Slovakia

Slovenéksy nf Slovenia

slúkana/o pp/adj happened, in the past

slúkól nm happening, event

slúküj v happen, occur: pp/adj slúkana/o

slyino nm back (body)

slyinóköss nm spine, back bone see also köss slyinój

so / s´- prfx to completion; Sokúsjedét itot! They bit me all up!

so pron self (s)

sody pron self (pl)

soj adv always

Somáléksy nf Somalia

son nm foot, base

son ronáj nm root, tree root

sörcédana/o pp/adj sounded

sörcédül vi sound: pp/adj sörcédana/o

sörcy nf sound

sörda nf centre, middle

sördaj adj central

sórtad nm fun, amusement, enjoyment

sótaj adj fun, likeable

sótanül vi enjoyable; Rangasta iton sótanje. I like school.

spékida/o pp/adj asked, inquired

spékidöl vi be asked: pp/adj spékjapa/o

spékipo nm question, inquiry

spéköl v ask, inquire: pp/adj spékida/o

Südan nm Sudan

süja / syüja nf army

Süjlan nm Sri Lanka

Sükovlyin name/m Skovlin: dim Kovjo

supid dir far

supillosyal nm television

Sürbéksy nf Serbia

Süréksy nf Syria

sütikjo nm advertisement, commercial

sütikjodana/o pp/adj advertised

sütikjodanajka/o pp/adj be advertised

sütikjodanül vi become advertised: pp/adj sütikjodanajka/o

sütikjodül v advertise: pp/adj sütikjodana/o

Svázyóksy nf Swaziland

Svéda nf Sweden

Sviceróksy nf Switzerland

syákül v decide

syalisköl vi wink (eye), flirt; Le-j toryarévana syaliskéjöm. I flirt with all the girls.

syary nf daughter

syasto nm number, digit

syatt nm thought

syéj adv still

syeka doladastá nf nurse see also doladastasyeka

syeka nf sister

Syépsa name/f Shepsa: dim Syipa

syétíhal nm whisper

syétíhana/o pp/adj whispered

syétíhül v whisper: pp/adj syétíhana/o

syi- / sy´- adv/prfx un-, non-, without-

syi adv no, not

syibobajil adj unpopular, uncommon

syicyéptaraj adj athematic

syidrávlaj adj wrong

syihádil adj unhappy

syihenrad nm abnormality, strangeness

syihenraj adj abnormal, strange, unusual

syihenranül vi become strange, deviate, go astray, stray

syily nf family

syilyad nm relation

syilyaj adj related

syipák nm badluck, misfortune

syipavraripój adj unbreakable, stirdy, solid

syiskicy nf nothing

syisoj adv never

Syitájo nm China

syitrobal nm independency

syitrobana/o pp/adj independent

syivaj adj off

syivlinól nm exception

syól adj six

syólasy num sixty

syólasycyól num sixty-three

syólasydúv num sixty-two

syólasyéhta num sixty-eight

syólasyínyól num sixty-nine

syólasykal num sixty-one

syólasykin num sixty-five

syólasysan num sixty-four

syólasysyól num sixty-six

syólasyzev num sixty-seven

syólój num six

syólsíja nf June

syön adv/nm out, outside

syönélóvaro nm sunhat see also lóvaro syönéj

syönévikja nf sunflower see also vikja syönya

syöny nf sun

syopada/o pp/adj forgotten

syopanül vi forget

syopöl v forget: pp/adj syopada/o

sytuka nf noun

syuk nm word; syukota dül v talk see dül

syukávajta nf dictionary see also vajta syuká

syupatól nm change, adjustment

syupatüj vi change: pp/adj syupatjaga/o

syuráj adj lovely

syural nm love

syurana/o pp/adj loved

syuranajka/o pp/adj be loved

syuranül vi become loved: pp/adj syuranajka/o

Syurnám nm Suriname

syuro nm lover: nf syury

syurül v love: pp/adj syurana/o

Syuvta name/f Shuvta: dim Syulya

TEdit

ta conj and see also a

Tájoksy nf Thailand

tákis / táksyi adv also see also kis

tal nm name, title

tan adv/sfx about, to, at

tána/o pp/adj named, titled

tánajka/o pp/adj be called, be named

tansendül vt think of

tánül vi be named, be called: pp/adj tánajka/o

Tanzanéksy nf Tanzania

tásésíja nf October

tásy adj ten

tásyasy num hundred

Tasyát nm Chad

tásyócyól num thirteen

tásyódúv nf December

tásyódúv num twelve

tásyój num ten

tásyójhta num eighteen

tásyójnyól num nineteen

tásyókal num eleven

tásyokalsíja nf November

tásyókin num fifteen

tásyósan num fourteen

tásyósyól num sixteen

tásyózev num seventeen

taül vt name, title, call: pp/adj tána/o

Távano nm Taiwan

témer adv late, then

terül v spend, lose

teso nm state, province

Tev nm God; Dyi zalje to Tev. May God grant it.

tevmud nm person of the nomadic tribe, known otherwise as Boyans: nf tevmudary

ticyal nm thanks; Ticya ukaty! Thank you! Man ticya ukaty! Thank you very much!

ticyül v thank: pp/adj ticyana/o

to / t´- def/m the

Tógó nm Togo

tój / tóly adv because

tól adv only, simply, just

Tonya nf Tonga

törcyida nf cake, pie

törcyida/o pp/adj baked

törcyidöl vi be baked: pp/adj törcyjapa/o

törcyipo nm baking

törcyjapa/o pp/adj be baked

törcyöl vt bake: pp/adj törcyida/o

törcyöro nm baker, oven: nf törcyöry

torra nf woman

torrora nf young woman, lady, girl

toryara nf unwed woman, girl

To-Salvador nm El Salvador

Tozyikistán nm Tajikistan

trámo nm friend: nf trámja

Trinidado-ta-Tovaho nm Trinidad and Tobago

trobal nm dependency

trobana/o pp/adj dependent

trobül v depend on: pp/adj trobana/o

Túnisy nf Tunisia

Türkéksy nf Turkey

Turkmenistán nm Turkmenistan

tusy adv/adj need

Tuvaló nm Tuvalu

tyárva nf cow

tyárvo / tyárvok nm bull, steer

tyárvomisy nf calf

Tyimo name/m Timo: dim Cyimko

Tyimor Eslam nm East Timor

Tyimvér name/m Timver: f Tyimvja see also Kjimbó

Tyóran name/m Tioran see also Gory

tyuv nm smile

tyuvöl v smile

UEdit

udüvaj adj dry

udüvákrásyol nm chalk see also krásyol udüvaj

uhána/o pp/adj found, located

uhánajka/o pp/adj be found

uhánül vi be found: pp/adj uhánajka/o

uhol [uhó] nm find, discovery

uhoül vt find, locate, discover: pp/adj uhána/o

uj adv so, very, too

uk pron you (s): gen -uj / -új

uka pron you (pl): gen -uja / -úja

ukloj nm option, plan

ukraj adj white, pale, pure

Ukrájnéksy nf Ukraine

ukrána/o pp/adj whitened, purified

ukránajka/o pp/adj be whitened, purified

ukránül vi be whitened, purified: pp/adj ukránajka/o

ukrány nf Ukrainian language

ukráro nm Ukrainian: nf ukráry

ukraül vt whiten, make white, purify: pp/adj ukrána/o

ukür nm road

ula / ul´- adv/prfx act done to something else; Vikját uloróbomt. I planted the flower.

ulacliköl vt write down

ulacyokana/o pp/adj stopped (by an outside force)

ulacyokanajka/o pp/adj be stopped (by an outside force)

ulacyokanül vi become stopped (by an outside force): pp/adj ulacyokanaka/o

ulacyokül vt stop so/smth: pp/adj ulacyokana/o

uladördöröl nm stress (word)

uladül vt affect

ulafavanajka/o pp/adj made sad

ulafavanül vt make sad: pp/adj ulafavanajka/o

ulafuddal nm burn

ulafuddaláj adj aflame, burning

ulafuddana/o pp/adj burnt

ulafuddül vt burn, set fire (to so.): pp/adj ulafuddana/o

ulagramünida/o pp/adj be welcomed, be received

ulagramünidöl vi be welcomed: pp/adj ulagramünjapa/o

ulagramünjapa/o pp/adj be welcomed

ulagramünöl vt welcome someone, receive someone: pp/adj ulagramünida/o; Iskorábek ulagramünéjedét. I was welcomed/received into the home.

Ülaha name/f Ulaha see also Vülaha: dim Ulya

ulajegöl vt add to, join to

ulakazyal nm declaration

ulakazyül vt declare

ulakenal nm information

ulakösnajül vt put away

ulalagüj vt pay for

ulalyissújida/o pp/adj sent away, sent off

ulalyissújidöl vi be sent away, be sent off: pp/adj ulalyissújjapa/o pp/adj be sent away, be sent off

ulalyissújöl vt send away, send off: pp/adj ulalyissújida/o

ulamogodana/o pp/adj taken for a walk, taken for a stroll; To delok ulamogodano. The dog was walked.

ulamogodül vt take for a walk, take for a stroll: pp/adj ulamogodana/o

ulapósytjajla/o pp/adj be burst, be popped

ulapósytüj vt burst, pop: pp/adj ulapósytjajla/o

ularandukül vt leave, abandon

ularividöl vt keep (in certain way), take care of: pp/adj ularivjapa/o

ularivjapa/o pp/adj kept, taken care of

ulasastanajka/o 1. pp/adj healed 2. healer, doctor

ulasastanül vt heal, make better, treat: pp/adj ulasastanajka/o; Doladastaven to dolanajko ulasastanajko. The patient was made better in the hospital.

ulaslúkana/o pp/adj caused, stirred, disturbed

ulaslúkól nm cause, stir, disturbance

ulaslúküj vt cause, stirs, disturb: pp/adj ulaslúkana/o; Psyáloc ulaslúkano ojet. His sleep was disturbed.

ulasyilanajka/o pp/adj been related

ulasyilyanül vt relate: pp/adj ulasyilanajka/o

ulasyupatüj vt change

ulavalanül pp/adj wait on someone

ulavalaro nm waiter, servant: nf ulavary

ulazalal nm approval

ulazyaröl vt age

ulékül vt drive (machine, car)

ulíperotöl vt load up, load onto

ulönyópana/o pp/adj harassed

ulönyópanajka/o pp/adj be harassed

ulönyópanül vi become harassed: pp/adj ulönyópanajka/o

ulönyópül vt harass: pp/adj ulönyópana/o

uloróbül vt plant, sit smth down

ulóvánajka/o pp/adj be washed by so. else

ulóvánül vi be washed by so. else: pp/adj ulóvánajka/o

ulóvaül vt wash so./smth.

ulóvaül vt wash: pp/adj ulóvána/o

ulyulal nm drawing (picture), painting, artwork, art

ulyulalárangasta nf art school, art college see also rangasta ulyulalá

ulyulana/o pp/adj drawn, painted

ulyulanajka/o pp/adj be drawn, be painted

ulyulanül vi be drawn, be painted: pp/adj ulyulanajka/o

ulyulül vt draw so., paint so.: pp/adj ulyulana/o

uny / -´ny nf/sfx language; inglény English. rusuny Russian. ukrány Ukrainian. alemanuny German.

Urhvá nf Uruguay

usáj adj helpful; rok usáj a helping hand

usál nm help, assistance

üsátad nm height

üsátaj adj tall, high

üsátrangaro nm professor: nf üsatrangary

usaül v help, assist: pp/adj usána/o

ustik nm clothing, clothes

ustikána/o pp/adj dressed

ustikánajka/o pp/adj be dressed

ustikánül vi become dressed, wear clothing: pp/adj ustikánajka/o

ustikaül vt dress: pp/adj ustikána/o

uzko ganyá nm eel, serpent see also ganéjuzko

uzko nm snake

VEdit

Vahami nf/pl Bahamas

Vahrajn nm Bahrain

vajta nf book

vajta syuká nf dictionary

vajtásta nf book store

valal nm wait, pause

valana/o pp/adj waited

valanajka/o pp/adj waited on

valanül vi be waited on: pp/adj valanajka/o

valítaróra nf brass (instrument)

valíto nm brass

valül v wait: pp/adj valana/o

van prep/sfx with; Cyetvan omeny. We are with a man.

vanékazyal nm pronunciation

Vanvató nm Vanuatu

vany adv how

vanyaj adj similar, alike

Ványládésy nf Bangladesh

var adj/pron any

varady pron anyone, someone

varatal nm hit, slap, smack

varatana/o pp/adj hit, slapped, smacked

varatanajka/o pp/adj be hit, be slapped, be smacked

varatanül vi be hit, be slapped, be smacked: pp/adj varatanajka/o

varatül v hit, slap, smack: pp/adj varatana/o

varkej pron anything, something

varto nm evening

vasya nf city

Vasya Vatikaná nf Vatican City

Váton name/m Vaton: f Vátya see also Bátony; Note: This name is older and thus less popular.

vavaj adj on

ve- / v´- adv/prfx in the past; Vekansomt. I have eaten. Iskámven vódét. You had been my house.

vecye- / vecy´- adv/prfx continuous future/past tense; Vecyekansomt. I would have eaten. Vecyekansom. I will have eaten.

vekro nm path, way, route

Velhéksy nf Belgium

Velíz nm Belize

ven prep/sfx at, by, in

vendukül v enter, come, come in

Vénin nm Benin

venslyino adv/dir back, behind, rear

Verdo nm Cape Verde

verog nm forest, woods: pl verog

Vertána nf Brittany

Vijetnám nm Vietnam

vikja nf flower

vikja syönya nf sunflower see also syönévikja

Vikroh name/m Vikroh see also Bitrog; Note: This name is older and thus less popular.

vinuzyül v hope

vital nm wish, desire

vitana/o pp/adj wished, desired

vitanajka/o pp/adj be desired, be sought after

vitanül vi be desired: pp/adj vitanajka/o

vitül v want, wish, desire: pp/adj vitana/o

vjek dir/sfx up; Note: This word can be used on its own

Vjelarusy nf Belarus

vlinjaga/o pp/adj taken

vlinjajla/o pp/adj be taken

vlinjüj vi be taken: pp/adj vlinjajla/o

vlinól nm take, lead

vlinüj vt take: pp/adj vlinjaga/o

Vocvana nf Botswana

Vókjág name/m Vokiag: dim Bócyo see also Bótyág; Note: This name is older and thus less popular.

Völharéksy nf Bulgaria

Volivéksy nm Bolivia

vonad nm red (colour), blush

vonaj adj red

voral nm product, good, purchase

vorana/o pp/adj bought, purchased

voranajka/o pp/adj be bought, be purchased

voranül vi be bought, be purchased: pp/adj voranajka/o

vorül vt buy, purchase: pp/adj vorana/o

Vosna-ta-Hercehovina nf Bosnia and Herzegovina

vosujjajla/o pp/adj behaved

vosujól nm behaviour

vosujüj vi behave: pp/adj vosujjajla/o

Vrasil nm Brazil

Vráskén name/m Vrasken: dim Vraso

Vrátog name/m Vratog: dim Ratyi

Vrök name/m Vrok see also Fröjö: dim Vröcyora; Note: This name is older and thus less popular.

Vrunéj-Darussalam nm Brunei Darussalam

vüdal nm life

vüdana/o pp/adj lived

vüdül v live: pp/adj vüdana/o

Vülaha name/f Vuhala see also Ülaha: dim Ulya

Vüretany name/m Bretan: nf Vüretanya Bretania

Vurkina-Faso nm Burkina Faso

Vúrma nf Burma, Myanmar

vúsyáj adj busy

vúsyódül v work

vúsyol nm work

vúsyolájaról nm business

Vútán nm Bhutan

Vútla name/f Vutla: dim Vusya

vúzyaj adj rich

vúzyok nm wealth

ZEdit

za adv until, till

zalal nm giving, grant, permission

zalana/o pp/adj granted

zalanajka/o pp/adj be granted, be allowed

zalanül vi become granted, become allowed: pp/adj zalanajka/o

zalül v give, grant, allow, let, release: pp/adj zalana/o

Zambéksy nf Zambia

zavluna nf tradition

zérto nm heart

zev adj seven

zevasy num seventy

zevasycyól num seventy-three

zevasydúv num seventy-two

zevasyéhta num seventy-eight

zevasyínyól num seventy-nine

zevasykal num seventy-one

zevasykin num seventy-five

zevasysan num seventy-four

zevasysyól num seventy-six

zevasyzev num seventy-seven

zevój num seven

zevsíja nf July

Zíjoksy Cipsa nf New Zealand

Zimbavéj nm Zimbabwe

zuák nm case

zúdaj adv between, among

zúdázúttój adj international

zuójto nm space, cosmos

zútto nm nation

Zuvrol [Zuvró] name/m Zuvrou: dim Zyuvaro

Zyándor name/m Jandor: f Zyántya see also Dányor

zyar nm age

zyaridöl vi age: pp/adj zyarjapa/o

zyarjapa/o pp/adj aged, old, rustic, archaic

zyáva nf buttocks, butt, bum, rear-end

Zyavlol [Zyavló] name/m Javlou: dim Zyavora

Zyekáfoksy nf Greenland see also Hrínoksy

zyekaj adj green

zyi adv even, so, thus

Zyibóty nf Djibouti

zyilagóláj adj free (cost)

zyizanaj adj free

zyo / zy´- prf equiv. English con/com in complete

zyofoksy nf continent

zyojékkonal nm conjugation

zyojékkonüj vt conjugate: pp/adj zyojékkonjaga/o

Zyókla name/f Jokla: dim Zyolya

zyönkida/o pp/adj ended, finished, completed, complete

zyönkidól vi end: pp/adj zyönkjapa/o

zyönkipo nm end, finish, completion

zyönkipókösnajal nm suffix see also kösnajal syönkipój

zyönkjapa/o pp/adj be ended

zyönköl vt end, finish, complete: pp/adj zyönkida/o

Zyordyo nm Georgia (country)

Example TextsEdit

Ma syüján randukomEdit

Ma syüján randukom Orjocémot ulípérotejöm,
Hany malyarém lacyje ittan:
Nádaly, losy csúzy sót,
Syidyi syopéj itot, syuróm.

Aj, ma syüján randukom,
Ta iskaréty syibatsyidéjöm.

Batsyidéjöm ta syaliskéjöm,
Dom tyuvipót ta kazyom:
Syidyi möjasyéj, syurém,
Soj syurom ocyát adzyüvelran.

Aj, ma syüján randukom,
Ta iskaréty syibatsyidéjöm.

IPA /mɑ ˈʂyjaːn ˈuliːˌpɛroteːjøm/
/hɑɲ ˈmaʎɑreːm ˈlaɕjɛ ˈiton/
/ˈnaːdɑʎ loʂ ɕuːʐ soːt/
/ˈʂiɟ͡ʝi ˈʂopeːɪ ˈitot ˈʂuroːm/
/ɑɪ mɑ ˈʂyjaːn ˈrandukom/
/tɑ ˈjiskareːc͡ç ˈʂibaˌɕɕideːjøm/
/dom ˈc͡çuvipoːt tɑ ˈkaʐom/
/ˈʂiɟ͡ʝi ˈmøjɑʂe:ɪ ˈʂureːm/
/ˈsoɪ ˈʂurom ˈoɕaːt ˈad͡ʑyvelrɑn/
/ɑɪ mɑ ˈʂyjaːn ˈrandukom/
/tɑ ˈjiskareːc͡ç ˈʂibaˌɕɕideːjøm/

I’m leaving for the army I load up my horse,
When my wife shouts to me:
Please, take care of yourself,
And don’t forget about me, my love.

I’m leaving for the army,
And I won’t be coming home.

I turn around and wink at her,
I smile and say:
Don’t worry, my love,
I’ll always be loving you from this day on

I’m leaving for the army,
And I won’t be coming home.

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