Type Fusional-Agglutinative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 0%
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Ashuzise

Classification and DialectsEdit



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Non-retracted alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p; b t; d k; g h
Fricative f, v s; z
Affricate ts; dz
Approximant w j
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l
  • /r̝/ is realized as a Raised Voiced Alveolar Fricative Trill


Front Unrounded Oral Back Rounded
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a ɒ
  • The mid vowels /e̞/ and /o̞/ only occur when respectively, the vowels /ɛ/ and /o̞/ are unstressed.
  • Some speaker might pronounce the open back rounded vowel /ɒ/ as a near-open back rounded vowel /ɔ̞/.


  1. (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)
  2. Onset is optional.
  3. Onset can be all consonants, but /r̝/ and /ŋ/.
  4. Nucleus is obligatory.
  5. Necleus can be all vowels.
  6. Nucleus cannot be any consonant.
  7. Coda is optional.
  8. Coda can be all consonants, but /h/.
  9. No geminates.
  10. No affricatives in complex onset.
  11. The first consonant in a complex onset must be an obstruent
  12. The second consonant in a complex onset must not be a voiced obstruent
  13. If the first consonant in a complex onset is not an /s/, the second must be a liquid or a glide
  14. The third consonant in a compex onset must be a liquid or a glide.
  15. The first consonant in a complex coda must be a liquid or a glide.
  16. The second consonant in a complex coda must be an obstruent.
  17. The diphthongs are (C)(V) or (V)(C) structures.
  18. The triphthongs are (C)(V)(C) structures.
  19. If the second consonant in a complex coda is voiced, so is the first.
  20. Non--alveolar nasals must be homorganic with the next segment.

Writing SystemEdit



Pronouns: Edit

The pronouns in Gurnoshian are inflected much in the same way that their referent nouns are:

Personal Pronouns: Edit

English Gurnoshian
You (sing)
He/She/It Va
We Ayr
You (plu) Gër
They Var

Demonstrative Pronouns: Edit

English Gurnoshian
This(near speaker) Ëto
This(near listener) Ëro
That (away from both) Ënro
These (near speaker) Ëtor
These (near listener) Ëror
Those (away from both Ënror

Interrogative Pronouns: Edit

English Gurnoshian
Who Táz
What Tazén
Which Tázur
Why Touz
When Teze
Where Tazaz
How Tazia
How much Tazinz
How many Tazizen

Relative Pronouns: Edit

English Gurnoshian
That Uz
Whom Azé
Which Ézët

Reflexive Pronoun: Edit

English Gurnoshian
-self dzu

Indefinite Pronouns: Edit

English Gurnoshian
Every Sikas
Some Tikas
One As
No Tav
Any Tóv
Everybody Sikasun
Everyone Sikasas
Everything Sikasav
Somebody Tikasun
Someone Tikasas
Something Tikasav
Anybody Tóvhun
Anyone Tóvsás
Anything Tóvháv
Nobody Tavin
No one Tavas
Nothing Tavav





Example textEdit

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