# H'snme

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Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No
Name: H'snme

Type: Fusional and Agglutinating

Alignment: Other

Number of genders: Zero

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

# Setting and DescriptionEdit

H'snme is a language where nouns and verbs are simply the same word type; they align the same, both can carry the same suffixes and information and both have the same priority. It has a very regular morphology.

Due to the distinct nature of the orthography in Latin, H'snme texts can be recognised as they are distinct in their orthography.

# Phonology and OrthographyEdit

Orthography and Phonology
Letter Phonology
A/a [a]
E/e

[ɛ]

I/i

[ɨ]

O/o

[ɔ]

U/u

[ʊ]

Æ/æ

[ɞ]

Ā/ā

[æ]

Ō/ō

[ə]

Ū/ū [y]
Ǣ/ǣ

[ɵ]

M/m

[m]
N/n [n]

Ŋ/ŋ

[ŋ]

H/h [h]
H'/h'

[ħ]

K/k [k]
L/l [ll]
Ł/ł

[ɮ]

L'/l' [ l ]
Ł'/ł' [ l ]
T/t [t]
Þ/þ [θ]
D/d [d]
Ñ/ñ [n]
W/w [w]
G/g [g]
G'/g' [ˠ]
S/s [s]
Z/z [z]
Sz/sz

[ʂ]

J/j [j] or [ʝ]
Y/y [ʲ]
F/f

[ɧ]

X/x [x]
Tz/tz [tʂ]
T's/t's [ʈ͡ʂ]
C/c [t͡s]
R/r

[ʁ] or [ʀ]

C'/c' [t']
V/v

[ʋ]

P/p [p]
B/b [mb]
P'/p' [p͡f]
Ps/ps

[p͡s]

Q/q

[ɣ]

﻿

## PhonotacticsEdit

To define the phonotactics of H'snme one needs to divide the phonemes into classes. The following table demonstrates them:

Phoneme Classes
Class Name Letter Members
Vowels V A, E, I, O, U

Æ, Ā, Ō, Ū, Ǣ

Stops C K, T, D, G, Tz

T's, C, C', P, B
P', Ps

Fricatives C H', Ł, Þ, S, Z

Sz, F, X, Q

Approximants A L, L', J, R, V
Nasals N N, M, Ŋ

There are certain constrictions to syllables:

Syllable Structure Limit
Type Structure
Multi-syllable (C/N)(C/N)V/A(C/N)(C/N)(A)
Isolate (C/N)(N)V/A(C/N)(N)

In addition to syllable constrictions, there are a few other rules that are of note:

1. There can't be more than four modifiers per letter.
2. There can't be more than two fricatives or plosives next to each other.
3. One phoneme can't repeat itself unless it is modified differently.

## Sound MutationsEdit

For the language to function properly, three mutation laws are in effect. They are, for purpose of analysis, classified as final, medial and initial.

### Regressive MetaphonyEdit

Regressive Metaphony is a sound change in which central and back vowels inside the root get influenced by frontal [ɛ] and [ɨ] in suffixes. It is caused only by suffixing and is productive.

I will use a simple example root of "faty" (~sky). Using the simplest derivational suffix of "-c'e", we get the new word of "fātyc'e" (heavenly). Here, the vowel [a], under the effect of [ɛ], turned into [æ].

Initial Vowel + Frontal
a (a) æ (ā)
ɔ (o) ə (ō)
ʊ (u) y (ū)
ɞ (æ) ɵ (ǣ)

As you may have noticed, each letter when fronted receives a macron above it (since it is the only common diacritic within the limited set of Latin and Latin-Extended). There exists a limit to regressive metaphony: one frontal can influence only one back vowel, and it happens to the nearest.

The root "łaku" (~time) is a perfect example. The same suffix of "-c'e" makes the word "łakūc'e" (timely), not "łākūc'e". This is due to the amount of vowels in the suffix. This process is called Umlaut in Germanic languages. It bears simmilarity to the inverse of a softer form of vowel harmony.

### Bleeding EffectEdit

Bleeding effect is a sound mutation involving modificators. The bleeding effect occurs when two fundamentally same consonants (nasalised, lateralised, palatalised, aspirated, labialised, voiced or velarised vs. plain), first modified and the second not, come together in the span of two syllables without any C-class phonemes in between.

The following example demonstrates:

Initial Word + Suffix
Ortho. tudñ tūdñetsz
IPA [tudn] [tydn.ɛtnʂ]

Here, the root "tudñ" (~action) received the deminutive suffix of "-etsz", becoming "tūdñetsz" (~small action); the bleeding effect morphs the pronounciation without actually doing anything to the latin spelling.

### Consonant HarmonyEdit

Consonant harmony is a sound change in which consonants from prefixes morph into different ones. This happens due to differences in points of articulation. While harmonising, the distinction is made between the main root consonant and the main prefix consonant. The consonant morphed, if there is no corresponding consonant of the same place of the same class (fricative vs. plosive), the class switches.

The following example demonstrates: "sfū" (~start) is the root; adding the corresponding opposite derivation prefix, "ŋł'ep-" makes the root "ŋł'etsfū" (~end). Note that [p] morphed into [t] while in "þwol" (~need) it becomes "ŋł'epþwol" (~needlesness).

The following table demonstrates the morph:

Labial Dental (Post)Alveolar Retroflex Velar Pharyngeal
Labial Labial Labial (P.)Alveolar (P.)Alveolar Velar Velar
Dental Labial Dental (P.)Alveolar Retroflex Velar Velar
(Post)Alveolar Dental (P.)Alveolar (P.)Alveolar Retroflex Velar Velar
Retroflex (P.)Alveolar (P.)Alveolar (P.)Alveolar Retroflex Retroflex Velar
Velar Labial (P.)Alveolar (P.)Alveolar Velar Velar Velar
Pharyngeal Pharyngeal Pharyngeal Pharyngeal Pharyngeal Pharyngeal Pharyngeal

# GrammarEdit

## Morphosyntactic AlignmentEdit

The morphosyntax of H'snme is different from that of most languages. The alignment isn't the classic Subject-Agent-Patient, but based on Priority.
Each major part of speech gets a priority tag, namely -TOP, -AVRG, and -LOW.
The priority system isn't just a fancy way of saying "tripartite", where the S, A, and P parts of speech invariantly get a class of cases, but actually a very fluid system partially based on emphasis, importance, focus and obviously priority.
Essentially, any part of speech can get any of the three priority tags based on how important it is related to the details and the bigger picture. Each simple sentence (a finished thought that has an action, an optional patient and optional modifiers) has priorities.
The priority laws (or rules, if laws sound too harsh) are often the only line dividing the priorities from anarchy. They are a set of boundaries priorities can't break unless it is specified so.
The rules are as listed:

• In every sentence, there must be a -TOP priority, unless the sentence isn't very important, therefore the main priority turns to -AVRG.
• An adjective cannot get tagged higher than the word it modifies, unless the attribute is more important than the word.
• An -AVRG tag can exist almost exclusively if there already are -LOW and -TOP tags.
• In any one simple sentence, there can be at most three tags, therefore no repetition of tags is allowed.

## Morphology and SyntaxEdit

Grammar is divided into two basic categories: Morphology and Syntax.

### MorphologyEdit

Morphology of H'snme is divided into two categories, the Formatives and Modifiers. Formatives are the noun-verb hybrid while modifiers represent something close to an adjective-adverb hybrid.

#### FormativesEdit

The formatives are mostly what IE languages call nouns, verbs and numbers. In cross-language dictionaries, they are marked with a tilde in the target language.

In more-less recent times (~1500) years, nouns and verbs lost their distinction but kept their corresponding features such as tense, case, mood, evidentiality and others. Being unique in that words can take on both cases and tenses, H'snme allows for some interesting combinations.

##### CasesEdit

Cases are a strange feature in the language: they are often combined to make new meanings. The following table lists the cases and their meanings:

##### NumberEdit

Grammatical number in H'snme is fairly regular, with six different numbers. They are as listed:

Number Name Explanation
Singulative Marked One Instance
Dual Unmarked Two Instances
Trial Marked Three Instances
Quatrial Marked Four Instances
Puacal

Marked Small Amount (Larger than Four)

Plural

Marked Big Amount*

*It's usually bigger than six instances.

Note that the base form is the dual (which historically was confused with the plurative).

##### PersonEdit

H'snme follows a less-than-generic pattern of person. Even though the first three persons are as in most languages (I, you, him), the fourth person is even more distant (someone). The following table explains this properly:

Person Description
First The Speaker
Second

The Person

Spoken to

Third

The Person

Fourth Distant Person
##### TensesEdit

In H'snme, tenses are divided into five tenses. They are: "Present", "Future", "Past", "Non-Future" and "Ancestral". Each is explained in the following text.

###### Present TenseEdit

The present tense refers to an action happening now, at this moment. The action is done during speech, or shortly before or afterwards. The fully marked present is very detailed in the explanation of how, why, where etc. of the action.

###### Future TenseEdit

The future tense refers to an action whose bulk is in the future. It might or might not be taking place in the present. It has unique relationships with aspects (along with all the tenses, for that matter) and the marked form provides detailed information on who will do it, when will it happen, what is the expected result etc.

###### Past TenseEdit

The past tense refers to an action whose bulk was in the past. Some or all of it might or might not have carried over to the present. Fully marked, it shows the presumed relationships with various elements of speech. It should not be confused with the Non-Future tense or the Ancestral tense.

###### Non-Future TenseEdit

The non-future tense is the general tense marking for any action that has not yet taken place. Fully marked, it shows how the action happened and similar details.

###### Ancestral TenseEdit

The ancestral tense denotes a very distant past, simmilar to the phrase "time immemorial". The ancestral tense is very distinct from the past tense, but the aspects have simmilar effect on both.

##### AspectsEdit

In H'snme, aspects describe the temporal how of the verb. Aspects are embedded in agreement suffixes and are not inherent. There are five different, contrasting aspects; they are "Perfective", "Progressive", "Telic", "Atelic" and "Inchoative".

###### Perfective AspectEdit

The perfective aspect refers to an action that is instantaneous and doesn't last. It contrasts with progressive and can be combined with telic/atelic aspects and the inchoative aspect.

###### Progressive AspectEdit

The progressive aspect refers to an action that lasts and is slightly continuous. It contrasts with the perfective aspect and can be combined with telic/atelic aspects and the inchoative aspect.

###### Telic AspectEdit

The telic aspect refers to an action whose goal is achieved. It contrasts with the atelic aspect and can be combined with perfective/progressive aspects and the inchoative aspect.

###### Atelic AspectEdit

The atelic aspect refers to an action whose goal was either not achieved or we don't have information about it. It contrasts with the telic aspect and can be combined with perfective/progressive aspects and the inchoative aspect.

###### Inchoative AspectEdit

The inchoative aspect, also known in H'snme as the neutral aspect, refers to an action that marks the beggining of a state or rarely, an action. It is known as "neutral" because of its noncontrastive nature and the ability to combine with both the perfective/progressive aspects and the telic/atelic aspects.

##### MoodsEdit

Moods are different formations on verbs that indicate modality. There are a total of nine moods and they are as follows: indicative, declarative, conditional, alethic, imperative, commisive, volitive, hypothetical and the permissive.

###### Indicative MoodEdit

The indicative mood is the default mood in most languages (most commonly used) and indicates facts and factual events. It is presumed to be present in all languages.

###### Declarative MoodEdit

The declarative mood argues that the statement is true with rare evidentiality. It is used to argue that something is true without backing it with evidence. It's often used in convincing.

###### Conditional MoodEdit

The conditional tense argues that something will or would happen if the conditions are right. It's used very rarely with the ancestral tense.

###### Alethic MoodEdit

The alethic mood which indicates logical necessity, possibility or impossibility. It is used to specify a logical viewpoint or course of action. It can also be used with evidentiality to express how the speaker came to the conclusion.

###### Imperative MoodEdit

The Imperative mood indicates direct command or desire for something to get done. It is used for ordering people.

###### Commisive MoodEdit

The commisive mood shows the subject's commitment to do something, like a promise or threat. It's used for promises most oftenly.

###### Volitive MoodEdit

Volitive mood indicates subject's the desires, wishes or fears. Evidentiality is marked on all persons (the first rarely so) and is used to show how the subject came to desire. The volitive mood is used rarely with the nonfuture tense although uses exist.

###### Hypothetical MoodEdit

The hypothetical mood indocates that, which indicates that while a statement might not be actually true, it could be.

###### Permissive MoodEdit

The permissive mood that indicates that the action is permitted by the subject. It is growingly rare in the language.

##### EvidentialityEdit

Evidentiality is the indication of the nature of evidence for a given statement, whether evidence exists for the statement and what kind of evidence exists. H'snme uses evidentiality very widely and marking for evidentiality is obligatory.

Direct:

Participation
Unmirative:
Reported:
Reliable
Unreliable
Irrelevant
Quotative:
Primary
Secondary
Sensory:
Visual
Auditory
Other
Mirative:
Reported:
Reliable
Unreliable
Irrelevant
Quotative:
Reliable
Unreliable
Sensory:
Visual
Auditory
Other

Indirect:

Inference:
Potential:
Direct
General
Experienced
Dubitative:
Direct
General
Experience
Speculative:
Direct
General
Experience
Hypothetical:
Direct
General
Experience
Intuition:
Deep
Surface

Evidentiality is mostly agglutinated onto the formative via prefixes, though some have already been incorporated into the suffixes.

##### DefinitivenessEdit

H'snme has a simple three-way distinction of definitiveness, the definite marked, indefinite marked and an unmarked, general form. Depending on dialect, either the indefinite marked or the general unmarked form is getting increasingly rare.

The three forms are incorporated directly into the suffixes.

"Verb" Forms

The so-called "verb" forms are forms that classically apply to verbs and are replacements for true markers.

##### InfinitivesEdit

Infinitives are one of the two citational forms of every formative (the other being the root). They lack grammatical information and are devoid of all but the infinitive categories. There are three infinitives.

First Infinitive - Bare infinitive. In glosses, it is shortened to "1inf". The first, or the "bare" infinitive, is one of the basic citational form of any formative. It carries only root information + first infinitive suffix. There are three suffixes, based on what type of sound the root ends. The following table explains:

Type of Ending 1st Inf. Suffix
Vowel -khñer
Approximant -cser
Consonant -izer

The first infinitive serves no practical purpose in formations except in citation and passive formation.

Second Infinitive - Infinitive of puropose. In glosses, it is shortened to "2inf". The second, or the "purpose" infinitive is the closest thing in H'snme to a noun. In English, it would be very simmilar to "-ing", and it is closest to the Finnish third infinitive. There is only one suffix, "-ŋāe". It is very rare.

Third Infinitive - Inactive infinitive. In glosses, it is shortened to "3inf". This infinitive form is the inactive form of any formative. It is innately distinct from the other two infinitives. The inactive form is used in forming various inactive forms. There are two suffixes, based on what type of sound the root ends. The following table explains:

Type of Ending 3rd Inf. Suffix
Vowel -rwur
Non-Vowel -lyur

The third infinitive is used in forming various inactive forms and (rarely) in telic passives.

##### AgreementEdit

Each formative can carry much information in prefixes. Sometimes the modifiers in the prefixes bleed out to previous words.

Name Sing. Dual Trial Tetrial Puacal Plural
Top

$\varnothing$-

$\varnothing$- dwe- r- rs- ece-
Medium ok- aŋ- twu- tzā- spu- kā-
Low l'am- twu- scō- ał- moc'- rb-
Adessive la- il'- ŋeth- ih'- c'ca- lūk-
Apudessive sma- gudy- ūsi- ekl- sno- gñsz-
Intrative skp- ekc'- ka- ekwl'- dak- kang'-
Subessive
Pertingent
Ablative
Delative
Elative
Perlative
Prolative
Vialis
Translative
Essive
Lamvative
Subdirective
Dative
Genitive
Distributive
Possessive
Privative
Sociative
Partitive
Vocative
Qualitative
Orientative
Subelative
Allative/Illative
Instrumental/Comitative
Egressive/Initiative

# TerminologyEdit

sng - Singular
dua - Dual
tri - Trial
qua - Quatrial
plu - Plural
1st - 1st. Person
2nd - 2nd. Person
3rd - 3rd. Person
4th - 4th. Person
pres - Present Tense
past - Past Tense
futr - Future Tense
nonfutr - Non-Future Tense
ancs - Ancestral Tense
1inf - 1st. Infinitive
2inf - 2nd. Infinitive
3inf - 3rd. Infinitive
perf - Perfective Aspect
prog - Progressive Aspect
tel - Telic Aspect
atel - Atelic Aspect
inch - Inchoative Aspect