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Haġlsk

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Haġlsk is a constructed language.

GrammarEdit

Haġlsk is an inflected language with four cases: nominative, accusative, dative and genitive. Haġlsk nouns can have one of three grammatical genders, masculine, feminine or neuter. Nouns, adjectives and pronouns are declined in four cases and two numbers, singular and plural.

MorphologyEdit

Nouns are declined for case, number and gender; adjectives for case, number, gender and comparison; and there are two declensions for adjectives, weak and strong. Verbs are conjugated for tense, mood, person, number and voice. There are two voices: active and passive. There are only two simple tenses, past and present, but to make up for that there are a number of auxiliary constructions.

NounsEdit

Haġlsk nouns decline in four cases (nominative, accusative, dative and genitive) and vary in gender (masculine, feminine or neuter) and number (singular and plural). Following are three examples of declension.

number case masculine feminine neuter
singular nom. hatur borga gler
acc. hatun borgun gler
dat. hatum borgum gleru
gen. hatus borgur glerus
plural nom. hætar børgir glörir
acc. hætum børgum glörum
dat. hætum børgum glörum
gen. hætir børgir glörir
  • Masculine nouns often end in -ur or -un.
  • Feminine nouns often end in -a or -ing.
  • Neuter nouns usually have no ending.

ArticlesEdit

Haġlsk does not have an indefinite article (a/an in English), and the definite article (the) is usually joined onto the end of word. The table below shows the different suffix forms for the three genders:

No article Definite article
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
sing. plu. sing. plu. sing. plu. sing. plu. sing. plu. sing. plu.
-ur -ar -a -ir - -ir -urin -arnir -in -irnar -ið -irnar
-ing -ingar -ingin -ingnir

The example below shows three nouns, one for each respective gender, declined in the nominative:

  • masculine: hválur—“(a) whale” becomes hválurin—“the whale”
  • feminine: kluka—“(a) clock” becomes klukin—“the clock”
  • neuter: heimfangstfak—“(an) address” becomes heimfangstfak—“the address”

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

The personal pronouns in Haġlsk are as follows:

case 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
singular nom. æg þú hen hun þæt
acc. mig þig hen huna þæt
dat. már þár hem hunum þív
gen. mín þín hans henar þæs
plural nom. vér hér þér þí þé
acc. os ug þá þær þé
dat. os ug þæm
gen. osar ugar þæra

Haġlsk has separate masculine, feminine and neuter words for they; when talking about a group of mixed gender people or items, the neuter form is used.

Like English, the pronoun usually comes before the verb, as in the example below:

æg heita þurg hemI have the same name like him

But the order of the sentence may be inverted. In this case the pronoun moves to the end of the sentence:

Þurg hem heita ægLike him have the same name I

ReflexiveEdit

Haġlsk possesses a reflexive pronoun, functioning in much the same way as German sich. That is sig.

  • Hen vaskað sig.

In addition, -self could by add, to stress the action.

  • Hen vaskað sigself.

PossessiveEdit

The Haġlsk possessive pronouns for the respective grammatical persons are as follows, where the three columns for each person represent masculine, feminine and neuter genders respectively.

case 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
singular nom. mín mína mít þín þína þít sín sína sít
acc. mínan mína mít þínan þína þít sínan sína sít
dat. mínum mínir mínum þínum þínir þínum sínum sínir sínum
gen. míns mínar míns þíns þínar þíns síns sínar síns
plural nom. mínar mínir mín þínar þínir þín sínsr sínir sín
acc. mínum mínum mín þínum þínum þín sínum sínum sín
dat. mínum þínum sínum
gen. mína þína sína

DemonstrativeEdit

The Haġlsk demonstrative pronouns are as follows, where the three columns for each person represent masculine, feminine and neuter genders respectively.

case This That The other one of two
singular nom. þesi þesi þæta það hín hína hít
acc. þænan þesa þæta þan þá það hínan hína hít
dat. þesum þesari þesu þæm þæri þív hínum hínur hínum
gen. þesa þesarar þesa þes þærar þæs híns hínar híns
plural nom. þesir þesar þesi þær þær þé hínar hínir hín
acc. þesa þesar þesi þá þær þé hínum hínum hín
dat. þesum þæm hínum
gen. þesara þæra hína

IndefiniteEdit

There are around fifteen to twenty of these, depending on who is counting. engin (nobody) is given below. It is inflected thus:

nobody case Masculine Feminine Neuter
singular nom. engin engína æki
acc. engan enga æki
dat. engum engum engum
gen. engus engur engus
plural nom. engar engir engin
acc. engan engar engin
dat. engum
gen. enga

NumeralsEdit

The words for one to four are declined for the respective cases and genders:

one masculine feminine neuter
nominative ein eina eit
accusative einan eina eit
dative einum einum einum
genitive eins einar eins
two masculine feminine neuter
nominative tvær tvær tvöt
accusative tvo tvær tvöt
dative tvæmur
genitive tvædja
three masculine feminine neuter
nominative þrér þrár þrúr
accusative þrár þrár þrúr
dative þrémur
genitive þrédja
four masculine feminine neuter
nominative férar fjórar fjör
accusative férna fjórar fjör
dative férum
genitive fjödja

Other numbers are as follows and not declined:

fivefymnineteenníttán
sixsætstwentytweintjú
sevensjöftwenty-onetweintjú og ein
eightátthirtyþrúrtjú
ninenjønfortyfjörtjú
tentánfiftyfymtjú
eleveneiliðsixtysætstjú
twelvetjöliðseventysjöftjú
thirteenþrúrtáneightyáttjú
fourteenfjörtánninetynjøntjú
fifteenfymtánhundredhundráð
sixteensætstánthousandþúsund
seventeensjöftánmillionþúsundtjú
eighteenáttánzeronjaħt

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives themselves must agree with the gender and number of the nouns that they describe. For example, the word gamalt (old) agrees as follows:

Old (strong) case Masculine FeminineNeuter
singular nom. gamalur gamal gamalt
acc. gamalan gamala gamalt
dat. gamaldum gamaldi gamaldu
gen. gamals gamalar gamals
plural nom. gamalar gamalir gamal
acc. gamalar gamalir gamal
dat. gamaldum
gen. gamals

In strong declension, for example:

Æg bya it gamaldu húsI live in an old house

Both gamaldu and hús are dative singular. In this case it is the preposition it which governs the case. (it can also take the accusative, but the distinction belongs to the syntax.) This is an example of strong declension of adjectives. If an adjective is modified by the article, or most pronouns, weak declension is used, for gamal it would be:

Old (weak) case Masculine FeminineNeuter
singular nom. gamaldi gamalda gamalt
acc., dat. gamalda gamaldu gamalt
gen. gamals
plural All cases gamaldu

An example of weak declension:

Æg sjándi veikdu kvéninI saw the sick woman

Veikdu is the weak declension of veikt (sick) in the accusative singular. Kvéna is also accusative singular, but with the definite article attached (-in), and the article forces the adjective to be weak. Here the verb governs the case.

Of course adjectives also have comparison. Here are some examples.

  • Positive Degree (fágt, beautiful)
  • Comparative Degree:
    • Of superiority (fágart þæn, more beautiful than)
    • Of equality (us fágt hví, as beautiful as)
    • Of inferiority (unfágart þæn, less beautiful than)
  • Superlative Degree:
    • Relative Superlative
      • Of superiority (fágstt, the most beautiful)
      • Of inferiority (unfágstt, the least beautiful)
    • Absolute Superlative (fágurt, very beautiful)

VerbsEdit

As with most inflected languages, the verbs in Haġlsk determine (or govern) the case of the subsequent nouns, pronouns and adjectives of a sentence. For example:

  • Safna ('to collect' or 'to save') governs the dative case.
Æg ema að safna pæningum til geta til budja jólgöfta handa móðira.
I am saving money to be able to buy a Christmas gift for mother. (Pæningum is the dative plural form of pæningur (coin))
  • Sakna ('to miss') governs the genitive case
Æg sakna þín
I miss you

In the infinitive, most Haġlsk verbs end in -a. Some exceptions are munu and skulu, these two auxiliaries are important, since they turn up in various places to make up for the poverty of simple tenses. Following is the present tense of a regular verb, tala (to talk):

Number Singular Plural
Person æg
I
þú
you
hen/hun/þæt
he/she/it
vér
we
hér
you
þér/þí/þé
they
tala
to talk
tala
talk
talist
talk
talið
talks
talum
talk
talið
talk
talint
talk

And compare with the verb væra (‘to be’), an irregular verb, but useful for comparison:

væra
to be
ema
am
ærst
are (art)
ærð
is
erum
are
erið
are
erint
are

And finally vælja (‘to choose’), which is an -ja verb:

vælja
to choose
væl
choose
vælust
choose
væluð
chooses
væljum
choose
væljuð
choose
væljunt
choose

Some Haġlsk infinitives end with the -ja suffix. The suffix is lost in the first person singular. When conjugating -ja verbs, the single ‘j’ must also be removed, so singja (‘to sing’) would become æg sing (‘I sing’) in the first person singular and not æg singj. Note, however, that the j in itself is not a reliable indicator. Examples could be tratja (‘to demolish’), which belongs to one class (singular, first person, æg tratja, past tense æg tratjaði) versus tælja (‘count’), belonging to another class, (æg tæl, past tense æg tældi).

TensesEdit

Strictly speaking, there are only two simple tenses in Haġlsk, simple present and simple past. All other tenses are formed using auxiliary constructions.

personal pronoun + væra + að + infinitive verb
æg ema að læra
I am learning

An overview of the complete conjugation follows:

Number Singular Plural
Person æg þú hen/hun/þæt vér hér þér/þí/þé
Indicative active Present tala talist talið talum talið talint
Past taldi taldist taldi taldum taldi taldum
Future Use the indicative present tense of skulu plus the weak infinitive
Conditional Use the indicative past tense of skulu plus the weak infinitive
Indicative passive Present Use the indicative present tense of væsa plus the past particle
Past Use the indicative past tense of væsa plus the past particle
Future Use the indicative present tense of skulu plus the væsa plus the past particle
Conditional Use the indicative past tense of skulu plus the væsa plus the past particle
Continuous active Present Use the indicative present tense of væra plus plus the weak infinitive
Past Use the indicative past tense of væra plus plus the weak infinitive
Future Use the indicative present tense of skulu plus væra plus plus the weak infinitive
Conditional Use the indicative past tense of skulu plus væra plus plus the weak infinitive
Subjunctive active Present talar talar talar talum talum talum
Past taldar taldar taldar taldum taldum taldum
Future Use the subjunctive present tense of skulu plus the weak infinitive
Conditional Use the subjunctive past tense of skulu plus the weak infinitive
Subjunctive passive Present Use the subjunctive present tense of væsa plus the past particle
Past Use the subjunctive past tense of væsa plus the past particle
Future Use the subjunctive present tense of skulu plus the væsa plus the past particle
Conditional Use the subjunctive past tense of skulu plus the væsa plus the past particle
Person þú hér
Imperative Present tal! talið!
Future tala! taliða!
Infinitive Weak tala
Strong til tala
Particles Present talandi
Past Weak: talð Strong: ġatalð
Supine talt
  • Very few verbs take -að where normally -ið is used.

See alsoEdit

Adverbs Edit

Compared to other lexical categories, Haġlsk adverbs are relatively simple, and are not declined, except in some cases for comparison, and can be constructed easily from adjectives, nouns and verbs. These derived adverbs often end in -leg:

nytnewnytlegalately (lit. newly)

Note: The adverbs ending in -lega can be declined for comparison:

hætadangerhætulegahætulegarhætulegst, i.e. dangerouslymore dangerouslymost dangerously.

This is a regular way to form adverbs. Another way is to take the neutral nominative singular of an adjective and turn it into an adverb:

blítgentleblítgently, cf. hun sløpið blíttshe sleeps gently

Another way is takingan adjective and add an a:

iltbadiltabadly, cf. hun hágið sig iltashe behaves badly (ilt never takes the -leg surfix).

Many adverbs of time don't take any suffix:

bráðumsoon
now
oftoften
straksright away

The basic adverbs of direction include, among others:

østaeast
norðanorth
suðasouth
væstawest
iin
inanfrom within
útout
útanfrom outside

Other word classesEdit

PrepositionsEdit

In Haġlsk, prepositions determine the case of the following noun. Some examples are given below:

accusative dative genitive acc. or dat. depending on context
um—about að—at, with til—to á—on
geġnum—through áf—off án—without æftir—after
umfram—in addition frá—from meðal—amongst førir—before
kringum—around hjá—with miðli—between i—in
umhværfis—around úr—out of sökum—due to með—with
anðpænis—opposite veġna—because undir—under
ásamt—along handan—beyond við—by
gaġnvart—towards inan—inside øfir—over
geġn—through útan—outside
geġnt—vis-à-vis ofan—above
handa—for neðan—below
meðfram—along
móti—opposite, against
undan—from under
  • i and á are inflected.

SyntaxEdit

Haġlsk word order is SVO (subject-verb-object), generally speaking, with the subject and verb inverted in questions and when a sentence begins with an adverb. However, the inflectional system allows for considerable freedom in word order.

Despite this, there are certain rules of syntax which are relatively inflexible. For example, the main verb must always be the second lexical unit of the sentence (this is a feature known as V2 word order, as is common to many Germanic languages). Take the example below (subject in yellow, verb in blue, object in red):

Manfjøð var 1.500The population was 1,500

Here the element var (the past tense third person singular form of the verb væra, ‘to be’, i.e. ‘was’) is the second lexical unit of the sentence. If we change the sentence, however:

Árið 2000 var manfjøð 1.500In 2000, the population was 1,500 (lit. The year 2000 was the population 1,500)

Here, var is still the second lexical unit of the sentence, despite the fact that it is not the second word in the sentence. The prepositional phrase árið 2000 (highlighted in green) counts as one lexical unit, and so in order for the verb to be the second lexical unit it must come after 2000 and not after árið. The subject and object of the verb then follow. An exception to this rule arises when forming questions by inversion:

Hen ærð svangtHe is hungry

and when turned into a question:

Ærð hen svangt?Is he hungry?

Here the subject and verb have been inverted to form a question, meaning the verb is the first lexical unit in the sentence as opposed to the second. This method of forming questions is used in many languages, including English.

QuestionsEdit

As we have seen, questions can be easily formed by rearranging the order of the sentence from subject-verb-object to verb-subject-object. For example:

Þú talist haġlsk.You speak Haġlsk.

can be made into a question as follows:

Talist þú haġlsk?Do you speak Haġlsk? (lit. Speak you Haġlsk?)

The inversion rule still applies when interrogatives are involved, which are simply added to the front of the sentence. The interrogatives in Haġlsk are:

  • hvað?what/how?
    • Hvað ærð þú að gøra?—What are you doing? (lit. What are you to do?)
  • hvaða?what?
    • Hvaða hundur?—What dog?
  • hvær?who?
    • Hvær ærð þú?—Who are you?
  • hvernig?how?
    • Hvernig hefast þú þæt?—How are you? (lit. How have you it?)
  • hvar/hvært/hvaðan?where/whence?
    • Hvar ærð þú?—Where are you?
    • Hvært ærð þú að fara—Where are you going? (lit. Where are you to go?)
    • Hvaðan kømist þú?—Where do you come from? (lit. Whence come you?)
  • hvenær?when?
    • Hvenær kømist þú?—When do you come? (lit. When come you?)
  • hvers væġna/hví?why?
    • Hvers væġna hen?—Why him?
    • Hví æki?—Why not?
  • hvorð?whether/which?
    • Hvorð hen kømið, veitja æg æki.—I don’t know whether he’s coming or not. (lit. Whether he comes, know I not.)
    • Hvorð vilt þú?—Which do you want? (lit. Which want you?, implying a choice between two alternatives.)

AblautEdit

Ablaut are very often used to create plurals for nouns. The following ablauts occur:

aæ
áe
eö
éi
iö
íø
oö
óø
uy
úý
yå
ýå

PhonologyEdit

The Haġlsk language has both monophthongs and diphthongs, and many consonants can be voiced or unvoiced. Additionally, length is contrastive for consonants, but not vowels. In Haġlsk, the main stress is always on the first syllable.

ConsonantsEdit

Consonant phonemes
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m   n       ɲ ŋ  
Plosive p(ʰ) b(ʰ)   t(ʰ) d(ʰ)       c(ʰ) k(ʰ) g(ʰ) ʔ
Fricative   f v θ ð s z ʃ
ʧ
ʒ
ʤ
j x ɣ h
Approximant       l     w    
Trill       r          

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