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Conlang

Halɵ

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Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

If grouped into a language family, it would belong to the hypothetical Ural-Altaic group. It is most similar to Estonian, Turkish, and Mongolian.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m〈m〉 ɱ n〈n〉 ɲ〈ny〉 ŋ
Plosive p〈p〉

t̪〈t〉

d̪〈d〉

k〈k〉

g〈g〉

Fricative v〈v〉

s〈s〉

z〈z〉

ɕ〈ş〉

ʑ〈z̧〉

ç〈hy〉

ʝ〈j〉

x〈h〉

Affricate d̪͡ɮ〈dl〉

t͡ɕ〈ç〉

d͡ʑ〈c〉

c͡ç〈tj〉

ɟ͡ʝ〈dj〉

Approximant

w〈w〉

ɥ〈wy〉

j〈y〉

ɥ〈wy〉

w〈w〉
Trill r〈r〉
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l〈l〉
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close

i〈i〉

iː〈ī̇〉

u〈u〉

uː〈ū〉

Near-close

ʏ〈ı〉

ʏː〈ī〉

Close-mid

e〈e〉

eː〈ē〉

o〈o〉

oː〈ō〉

Mid

ə〈ɵ〉

əː〈ɵ̄〉

Open-mid
Near-open
Open

a〈a〉

aː〈ā〉

AlphabetEdit

Letter Name IPA
A ān a
B b
C d͡ʑ
Ç çā t͡ɕ
D d
E ēn e
F f
G g
H x
İ ī̇n i
I īn ʏ
J ʝ
K k
L lɵ̄ l
M mɵ̄ m
N nɵ̄ n
O ōn o
Ɵ ɵ̄n ə
P p
Q k
R rɵ̄ r
S s
Ş şā ɕ
T t
U ūn u
V v
W w
X ēxa ʃ
Y yī̇ j
Z z
z̧ē ʑ

DigraphsEdit

  • DJ represents [ɟ͡ʝ].
  • DL represents [d̪͡ɮ].
  • HY represents [ç].
  • NY represents [ɲ].
  • TJ represents [c͡ç].
  • WY represents [ɥ].

Vowel HarmonyEdit

Affixes in Halɵ change according to which vowel harmony the stem has.

Front Back
e, ē o, ō
ı, ī ɵ, ɵ̄
i, ī̇ u, ū
a, ā
  • A is the only vowel that is neutral, and can be either.

PhonotacticsEdit

The syllable structure of this language is (C)(G)V(N) where:

  • C is any consonant, not including allophones.
  • G is any glide [w, ɥ, j].
  • V is any vowel, long or short.
  • N is any nasal.

GeminationEdit

Orthographically, consonants are doubled to show that they are geminated. This cannot occur initially or finally. Consonants that can be geminated are〈ç, dl, h, k, l, m, n, ny, p, s, ş, t〉.

GrammarEdit

More details and examples here.

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No No Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns decline according to case and number. There are no irregular nouns.

The declesion of a noun is determined by suffixes.

VerbsEdit

Verbs conjugate according to tense, voice, polarity, and aspect. There is only one irregular verb: "va" (to be).

Conjugations are determined by affixes to the verb. These change depending on whether the word is front or back.

SyntaxEdit

Sentences in Halɵ are generally VSO.

VocabularyEdit

Swadesh List here.

Example textEdit

Tandlōma isamnim kɵnson çelēn ja tontjū haişī̇nde ja ugudonum. Peka-toguçoma tani nedenlı ja vilinçelı tanɵnuşama, ja tani viviriniyam sınşede vondlusɵson.

[t̪and̪͡ɮo:ma isamnim kənson t͡ɕele:n ʝa t̪onc͡çu: haiɕi:nd̪e ʝa ugud̪onum. peka t̪ogut͡ɕoma t̪ani ned̪enlʏ ʝa vilint͡ɕelʏ t̪anənuɕama, ʝa t̪ani vivirinijam sʏnɕed̪e vond̪͡ɮusəson]

Tandlōma isam-nim kɵn-son çelēn ja tontjū haişī̇n-de ja ugu-do-num. Peka - toguçoma tani neden-lı ja vilinçe-lı tanɵnuşama, ja tani vivirini-yam sınşe-de vondlusɵ-son.

 PAS-birth human-PL all-GEN free and equal dignity-LOC and right-LOC-PL. should - act 3-PL reason-INCL and conscience-INCL PAS-endow, and 3-PL another-DAT spirit-LOC brotherhood-GEN.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

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