< Halɵ | Grammar

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Polarity PrefixEdit

If with another prefix, the polarity prefix goes first

Polarity Front Prefix Back Prefix Meaning
Unmarked Affirmative yes
Marked Affirmative za- za- yes*
Negative de- do- no, not
*The marked affirmative refers to an affirmative answer to a negative question, or just to reinforce affirmativity, like the word "indeed".

Voice PrefixEdit

The voice prefix follows the polarity prefix if they are both being used.

Voice Front Prefix Back Prefix Meaning
Passive tan- tan- "was v. by"

Tense SuffixEdit

The tense suffix is used before the aspect suffix.

Tense Front Prefix Back Prefix Meaning
Past -gi -gu
Future -sıra -sɵra "will ..."

Aspect SuffixEdit

The aspect suffix goes after the tense suffix if they are both used.

Tense Front Prefix Back Prefix Meaning
Perfect -naca -naca "has/have", "had", "will have"
Present Progressive -panta -panta "am ...-ing"
Present Perfect Progressive -panaça -panaça "has/have been ...-ing"
Past Progressive -ginta -gunta "was ...-ing"
Past Perfect Progressive -ginaça -gunaça "had been ...-ing"
Future Progressive -sıranta -sɵranta "will be ...-ing"
Future Perfect Progressive -sıranaça      -sɵranaça "will have been ...-ing"

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