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Hanian

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Hanisian
Hannäsåg
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Head direction
Final
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Hanisian -- also known as "Hannä," or more properly as "Hannäsåg" -- is a language of North Germanic, with several undefined influences. Many trace these particular non-Germanicisms back to the influence of Slavic, Thracian, and Dacian languages. Despite these anomalous appearances, Hanian is classified as a North Germanic language.

Hanisian is spoken among a diverse population across a wide geographical distribution, ranging from southern Sweden all the way over to parts of Poland.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Below are all of the sounds contained within the Hanisian language, with the exception of [ɧ] (voiceless coarticulated velar and palatoalveolar fricative), for which there was no appropriate place.

VowelsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t̪d̪ k g
Fricative f v s h
Approximant j
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i ʉ u
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid e ø o
Mid
Open-mid ɛ
Near-open æ
Open ɑ

AlphabetEdit

The alphabet is actually pretty simple.

Letter Letter Name Sound
A a A [ɑ]
B b Be [b]
D d De [d̪]
E e E [e/ɛ]
F f Äf [f]
G g Ge [g]
H h Ho [h]
I i I

[i/ɪ]

J j Jo [j]
K k Ke [k]
L l Äl [l]
M m Äm [m]
N n Än [n/ɲ]
O o O [ʊ/o]
P p Pe [p]
R r Ar [ɾ/r]
S s Äs [s]
T t Te [t̪]
U u U [ʉ/u]
V v Ve [v]
X x Yx [ks]
Y y Yl [ɪ]
Ä ä Ä [ɛ]
Æ æ Æn [æ]
Å å Å [o]
Ö ö Ö [ø]
Sj <not a letter> [ɧ]
Ng <not a letter> [ŋ]

All of the nouns have a "long" and "short" form. For those with two listed pronunciations, the first is the "long form". The general rule of thumb is to use the long form for all stressed vowels, unless there's a double consonant following it, or a consonant cluster.

Long Short

Mar [mɑ:r] ("music")

Marr [mɑr] ("trout")

Fet [fe:t] ("fate") Fett [fɛt] ("lowly")
Tim [ti:m] ("hour") Timt [tɪmt] ("dull")
Fot [f'ʊ:t] ("foot") Foll [fol] ("small hill")
Ful [f'ʉ:l] ("ugly") Full [ful] ("drunk")
Sät [sɛ:t] ("group")

Sätt [sɛt] ("mode")

Læm [læ:m] ("sheep")

Læmm [læm]*("barley")

[fo:] ("get/find") Fålt [folt] ("sulphur")
Sjön [ɧø:n] ("lake") Sjönn [ɧøn] ("kin")
  • In some dialects, the short Æn makes an Ä sound.

As you can see, it's not always easy to distinguish between two words that differ only by vowel quality. The pitch accent makes that much easier, as long and short vowels are also differentiated by their pitch. (see Pitch Accent)

The double consonant appears quite often in Hanian, and it is realized differently, depending on where in the word it is. Most of the time, you pronounce it longer. If it's at the end of a word, it's dormant, only being pronounced longer if there is a suffix added on after it.

PhonotacticsEdit

The basic phonotactic structure demands only that there be at least one vowel. There can be up to three consonants preceeding and following the vowel nucleus. Therefore, the phonotactic structure can be writting with the following formula:

(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C).

An example of this is the one-syllable word "strömst" [strømst̪], meaning "noisiest"

Pitch Accent ("Melodi")Edit

Stressed syllables differentiate two "pitch accents". They are called pitches 1 and 2 -- pitch 1, in monosyllabic words, is (˥˧); pitch 2 is pronounced without a tone.

(Ex. "mat" [mɑ:t˥˧] ("snack-food") v.s. "matt" [m'ɑt] ("lost"))

In polysyllabic words, pitch 1 starts high and falls (˥˧˩), while pitch 2 starts in the middle, falls, then starts high and falls again (˧˩˥˩)/

(Ex. "sjöne" ['ɧø:˥˧˩] ("kinsmen") v.s. "sjönne" ['ɧø˧˩˥˩] ("to accept someone"))

You use pitch 1 if the stressed syllable is a long vowel. You use pitch 2 if it's a short vowel.

Irregularities:

If the word is a single vowel (i.e. a, e, i, å), you use tone 2.

If the word is more than two syllables, you use no tone except on stressed syllable if it is a long vowel.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes No No No No No No No
Participles Yes No No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle Yes No No No No No No No
A fish In fysk
A cup Ät bærer

All nouns have four basic forms: singular indefinite, singular definite, plural indefinite, and plural definite. The way you form these changes depending on gender. For "in" words:

Singular (-Ø) Plural (-e(r))*
Indefinite (-Ø) fysk, lus, seng fyske, luse, senge
Definite (-än) fyskän, lusän, sengän

fyskerän, luserän, sengerän

  • You only add an R if the last letter of the noun is a vowel.

For "ät" words, it becomes:

Singular (-Ø) Plural (-ar)
Indefinite (-Ø) bærer, hår, haje bærerar, hårar, hajar
Definite (-ät) bærerät, hårät, hajät bærerarät, hårarät, hajarät

Adjectives are also changed to match gender and number. For instance, here is the word "green" ("grön") applied to both genders and numbers:

Neuter Mutual
Single Ät grönt söm In grön pil
Plural Grönta sömar Gröne pile

Many adjectives end in D. When the neuter -T is added, it makes a very challenging consonant cluster. In these cases, only the T is pronounced. (Ex. L'und [lund] > L'undt [lunt] "heavy")


VocabularyEdit


No. English Hanisian
1Ija
2you (singular)du
3hehän
4wevij
5you (plural)di
6theysi
7thisdän
8thatden
9herehär
10theredär
11whoti
12whatva
13whereunea
14whenuneanår
15howejår
16notej
17allælt
18manymån
19somenålän
20fewsul
21otherandra
22onein
23twoto
24threesai
25fourfia
26fivefer
27bigståm
28longvaig
29wideur
30thickständ
31heavyfus
32smallsmål
33shortskund
34narrowharean
35thinlön
36womanlina
37man (adult male)mæn
38man (human being)männäske
39childlitän
40wifelina
41husbandmæn
42motherma
43fatherfar
44animaljer
45fishfysk
46birdpasara
47doghund
48lousebrynt
49snakevår
50wormbriavår
51treetre
52forestgiria
53sticktresarm
54fruitkym
55seedsjäm
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki

Most of the vocabulary is of Germanic/Norse decent. However, there are many words which have been retained from the Dacian and Thracian substrata. These have, however, gone through a lot of phonological change to acclimate to the Germanic vocabulary.

Example textEdit

"Ælt å männäskenna är födt frie, a lige i verdihett a rättihetter. Si är klarvesteret med mansvit a hötanke, a skal lejandere med inandene i in bråskabännas ånd."

[ælt̪ o: 'mɛnːɛskɛnːɑ ɛ:r føt̪ frie ɑ: lige i: 'vɛrdɪhɛt̪ ɑ: 'rɛt̪ːɪˌhɛt̪ːɛr. Si: ɛ:r klɑr'vɛst̪ɛrɛt̪ me:d̪ 'mɑnsvit̪ ɑ: 'hø:t̪ɑnke ɑ: skɑ:l lejɑ'd̪e:rɛ me:d̪ in'ɑnd̪enɛ i: i:n 'broskɑbɛnːɑs ond̪.]

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."

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