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Conlang

Hard

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General informationEdit

Hard is a very hard language

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Floor of mouth Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n nj ń
Plosive p b p' t d ṭ ḍ c j k g q G '
Fricative f v t́ d́ s z ś ź ṣ ẓ c(v)h j(v)h x gx x́ ǵ h
Affricate
Approximant w y ɯ
Trill ŕ
Flap or tap r
Lateral fric. ł ɬ ł̣ ɬ̣
Lateral app. l
Click bp td tj ṭḍ cj
Fricate click pv tz

The floor tap only occurs intervocalically

All consonants except h may be aspirated, this may be marked by an h.

All consonants except palatal consonants, dental consonants, non-nasal sonorant consonants and retroflex consonants may be palatalized, this is marked by a y

All consonants except labials may be labialized

All consonants may be prenasalized)

All consonants may occur in a cluster with a glottal stop. When a glottal stop comes into contact with a stop the resulting combination is an ejective stop of the same row as the original stop, with the glottal stop disappearing.

The maximum syllable structure is (fricative)-(prenasalization)(any consonant)-(sonorant {unless preceding consonant is sonorant})(secondary articulation)(vowel {never diphthong})(Fricative or sonorant)(stop)

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close ei oi ou
Close-mid
Mid e oe o
Open-mid
Near-open ẹ oẹ
Open a

All vowels may be either short or long.

There are no diphthongs.

A vowel may carry one of four tones

low tone: a, aa

high tone: á, áá

rising tone: aá (long vowels only)

falling tone: áa (long vowels only)

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Class 3-r verbsEdit

3-r verbs are all intransitive or semi-transitive and form their plural stems by nasalising the first consonant of the verb stem and prefixing a copy of the radical vowel and a click consonant from the same row as the root of the verb. This verb class is most commonly used to form the nominalizations of tools, for example, ksud "paint" to nksuud: I paint.

pij-u, bpinpij-u:

to swim (front crawl)

Present indicative Momentous

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
First person npiij npijaw bpyonpiijman bpyonpijmaa
12 (Inclusive) - p'ijaw bpyenp'iijman bpyenpijmaa
Second person p'iij p'iijmiń bpyenp'iij bpyenp'iijmiń
Third person m pec pijo bpinpij bpinpijaa
Third person f pijin pijnuy bpinpiji bpinpijee
Third person n pecoɯ pecuga bpinpijug bpinpijuga
Third person obviate m opiij opijo bpiinpiij bpiinpijọọn
Third person obviate f opijin opijin bpiinpiji bpinpijoon
Third person obviate n opiju opijwa bpiinpiju bpiinpijịn
Question piíjọ piíjwa bpinpiíjọ bpinpiijee
suz-ẹ, tdunzuz: to fill a basin, sink


Present indicative Momentous

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
First person nzuuj nzuujaw bpyonpiijman bpyonpijmaa
12 (Inclusive) - s'uujaw bpyenp'iijman bpyenpijmaa
Second person s'uuj p'iijmiń bpyenp'iij bpyenp'iijmiń
Third person m sot soco bpinpij bpinpijaa
Third person f suzin pijnuy bpinpiji bpinpijee
Third person n sujow pecuga bpinpijug bpinpijuga
Third person obviate m opiij opijo bpiinpiij bpiinpijọọn
Third person obviate f opijin opijin bpiinpiji bpinpijoon
Third person obviate n opiju opijwa bpiinpiju bpiinpijịn
Question suúzẹ piíjwa bpinpiíjọ bpinpiijee

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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