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Conlang

Hard

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General informationEdit

Hard is a very hard language

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Floor of mouth Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n nj ń
Plosive p b p' t d ṭ ḍ c j k g q G '
Fricative f v t́ d́ s z ś ź ṣ ẓ c(v)h j(v)h x gx x́ ǵ h
Affricate
Approximant w y ɯ
Trill ŕ
Flap or tap r
Lateral fric. ł ɬ ł̣ ɬ̣
Lateral app. l
Click bp td tj ṭḍ cj
Fricate click pv tz

The floor tap only occurs intervocalically

All consonants except h may be aspirated, this may be marked by an h.

All consonants except palatal consonants, dental consonants, non-nasal sonorant consonants and retroflex consonants may be palatalized, this is marked by a y

All consonants except labials may be labialized

All consonants may be prenasalized)

All consonants may occur in a cluster with a glottal stop. When a glottal stop comes into contact with a stop the resulting combination is an ejective stop of the same row as the original stop, with the glottal stop disappearing.

The maximum syllable structure is (fricative)-(prenasalization)(any consonant)-(sonorant {unless preceding consonant is sonorant})(secondary articulation)(vowel {never diphthong})(Fricative or sonorant)(stop)

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close ei oi ou
Close-mid
Mid e oe o
Open-mid
Near-open ẹ oẹ
Open a

All vowels may be either short or long.

There are no diphthongs.

A vowel may carry one of four tones

low tone: a, aa

high tone: á, áá

rising tone: aá (long vowels only)

falling tone: áa (long vowels only)

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Class 3-r verbsEdit

3-r verbs are all intransitive or semi-transitive and form their plural stems by nasalising the first consonant of the verb stem and prefixing a copy of the radical vowel and a click consonant from the same row as the root of the verb. This verb class is most commonly used to form the nominalizations of tools, for example, ksud "paint" to nksuud: I paint.

pij-u, bpinpij-u:

to swim (front crawl)

Present indicative Momentous

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
First person npiij npijaw bpyonpiijman bpyonpijmaa
12 (Inclusive) - p'ijaw bpyenp'iijman bpyenpijmaa
Second person p'iij p'iijmiń bpyenp'iij bpyenp'iijmiń
Third person m pec pijo bpinpij bpinpijaa
Third person f pijin pijnuy bpinpiji bpinpijee
Third person n pecoɯ pecuga bpinpijug bpinpijuga
Third person obviate m opiij opijo bpiinpiij bpiinpijọọn
Third person obviate f opijin opijin bpiinpiji bpinpijoon
Third person obviate n opiju opijwa bpiinpiju bpiinpijịn
Question piíjọ piíjwa bpinpiíjọ bpinpiijee
suz-ẹ, tdunzuz: to fill a basin, sink


Present indicative Momentous

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
First person nzuuj nzuujaw bpyonpiijman bpyonpijmaa
12 (Inclusive) - s'uujaw bpyenp'iijman bpyenpijmaa
Second person s'uuj p'iijmiń bpyenp'iij bpyenp'iijmiń
Third person m sot soco bpinpij bpinpijaa
Third person f suzin pijnuy bpinpiji bpinpijee
Third person n sujow pecuga bpinpijug bpinpijuga
Third person obviate m opiij opijo bpiinpiij bpiinpijọọn
Third person obviate f opijin opijin bpiinpiji bpinpijoon
Third person obviate n opiju opijwa bpiinpiju bpiinpijịn
Question suúzẹ piíjwa bpinpiíjọ bpinpiijee

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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