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Heiwa

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Heiwa
'
Type
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes~No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ‹ň› ŋ
Plosive Plain p t k q ʔ
Ejective p' ‹p̓› t' ‹t̓› k' ‹k̓› q' ‹q̓›
Fricative Plain s ɕ ‹š› x ‹g› χ ‹x› ħ ‹r› h
Ejective s' ‹s̓› ɕ' ‹š̓› x' ‹g̓› χ' ‹x̓›
Approximant w j ‹y› ʕ ‹l›
  • Plain plosives and fricatives are aspirated word-initially
  • Plain plosives are unreleased word-finally
  • Plain plosives and fricatives are voiced following nasals
  • Plain plosives and fricatives are voiced preceding nasals word-medially
  • Velars and Uvulars assimilate when adjacent to one another with the initial consonant having dominance
  • Sonorants are preglottalized following ejective consonants
  • Clusters of /ʔ/ or /h/ plus a sonorant are realized as preglottalized or voiceless, respectively

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Creaky Short Long Creaky Short Long Creaky Short Long
Close i iː ‹í› ɨ̰ ‹ù› ɨ ‹ı› u uː ‹ú›
Mid ɛ̰ ‹ì› ə̰ ‹è› ə ‹e› əː ‹é›
Open a̰ ‹à› a aː ‹á› ɒ̰ ‹ò› ɒ ‹o› ɒː ‹ó›
  • Uvular lowering: close vowels open to mid vowels near uvular consonants
  • Vowels become nasalized when preceeding nasal consonants
  • Final /h/ is realized as breathy voice on the previous vowel


PhonotacticsEdit

The canonical syllable structure for Heiwa is (C)(C)V(C). Roots may be of the form (C)(C)V(C)[(C)V(C)]. Marked forms may be an indefinite series of (C)(C)V(C)... so long as medial clusters remain binary.

Initial clusters are limited to:

Plosive/Fricative + Nasal/Approximant

Nasal + Approximant


Medial Clusters may be:

Plosive/Fricative + Nasal/Approximant

Nasal + Approximant/Plosive/Fricative

Fricative + Plosive

Plosive + Fricative

StressEdit

Stress is weight sensitive and falls on the heaviest syllable. It is realized as a rise in pitch.

Generally, the more sonorous a syllable the lighter it is, and conversely, the more obstruent, the heavier it is.

V ~ Vcreaky <  V: <  CV ~ CVcreaky < CCV ~ CV: ~ CVC < CCVcreaky ~ CCV: ~ CV:C ~ CVcreakyC < CCVC ~ CCVcreakyC < CCV:C

Nominal MorphologyEdit

DeclensionEdit

Heiwa nouns decline for 3 numbers and 22 cases.

The nominal template is as follows:

POSS/DEM ROOT DER CASE NUM

NumberEdit

Singular -0
Dual -(i)s, -na(i), -RED
Plural -k, -g/(g)a, -u

CaseEdit

Nominative -0
Accusative -[P/V]se, -[F/N]e
Genitive -ya
Dative -me
Comitative -ši
Instrumental -tam
Ornative -weŋi, -uŋi
Distributive -ik̓
Distributive-Temporal -aŋ
Causal -Vŋku, -CEŋku
Equative -eš
Orientative -x̓e
Apudessive -ıt
Inessive -qa(u)
Locative -wá
Ablative -mlà
Allative -eut
Illative -sŋa
Terminative -s̓
Egressive -mák
Elated -gk̓o
Vialis -yòhi, -yi

Nominal DerivationEdit

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

Nominative Accusative Possessive Oblique
1st Person Singular
Dual
Plural
2nd Person Singular
Dual
Plural
3rd Person Singular
Dual
Plural

ReflexiveEdit

IndefiniteEdit

DemonstrativesEdit

Proximate Medial Distal
Singular
Dual
Plural

ClassifiersEdit

Males
Females
Laborers
Scholars, Academia
Animals + Plants
Fish
Insects, Birds
Spiders
Long, hollow, thick
Long, wavy
Long, thin, straight
Small, Short
Round, small
Round
Flat
Heavy
Liquid, Grainy
Slice, Sheet
Handheld
Walls
Rivers
Part, portion
Room
Door, Entrance
Exit
Building, Mountain
Lake, Ocean, Sea
Meat, Flesh
Place, Location

QuantifiersEdit

AdjectivesEdit

Nominal PhrasesEdit

Adjectival PhrasesEdit

Verbal MorphologyEdit

ConjugationEdit

Verbal DerivationEdit

AuxiliariesEdit

AdverbsEdit

Verbal PhrasesEdit

Adverbial PhrasesEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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