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High Kickish

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High Kickish
Qaisik
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
both
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Standard High Kickish (natively Qaisik [ˈ!ˀʌɪsɪkʰ]) is a language spoken by the Cittus (natively Sītul [ˈsiːtʰɯl̥]), buglike sapients from the planet Cittus-V (natively Gçēr [ˈᶢǂe̞ːɹ]) and one of the founding species of the Allied Intelligences. SHK is the standard variety, taught in schools.

PhonologyEdit

Pulmonic consonantsEdit

postalveolar dorsal epiglottal glottal
stop t tʰ k kʰ ʔ
affricate ts ʡħ~ʡʕ
fricative s ħ h
approximant ɹ l (l̥) j
trill ʜ~ʢ

ClicksEdit

retroflex lateral palatal
voiced ᶢ! ᶢǁ ᶢǂ
aspirated ǁʰ ǂʰ
glottalized ǁˀ ǂˀ

VowelsEdit

front back
high ɪ iː ɯ ɯː
low ɛ e̞ː ʌ ɤ̞ː

NounsEdit

Gender and NumberEdit

Genders are three:

  1. Feminine: used for female Cittus and some inanimate objects. Shows singular, dual, and plural number.
  2. Masculine: used for male Cittus and some inanimate objects. Shows singular and plural number.
  3. Juvenile: used for juvenile Cittus who have not yet differentiated into male and female, and some inanimate objects. Shows singular and plural number.

This is the regular declension, though some nouns break this pattern.

singular dual plural
Feminine -(e) -(u)s -(e)l
Masculine -i -il
Juvenile -a -al

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are a very recently closed subclass of nouns, inflecting for all of the same categories as nouns and even matching some nouns in form (e. g. the word for little one, "srā" is the ordinary 3s.juv pronoun). They are however also marked suppletively for three levels of deference.

singular dual plural
1 rūs rūle
2.f 'ale disus disel
2.m 'ali disil
2.juv 'ala disal
3.f ħe ħeus ħel
3.m cai cail
3.juv srā srāl

ArticleEdit

There is no indefinite article. The definite article inflects for gender and is placed after a noun.

Feminine ye
Masculine y
Juvenile ya
  • The masculine definite article y attaches to the noun as a /j/, and in speech lengthens the typical masculine ending -i. If the y is bordered by consonants on both sides for any reason, it merges with the feminine article, ye. ex. 'ergi y "the brother", 'ergil ye gqi "with the brothers"
  • The definite article contracts to y- before a postposition beginning in a vowel. ex. tatāri y-ū "from the soul"

VerbsEdit

Verbs have three conjugation classes and are a closed class of about 120. They conjugate according to three tenses, two to three evidentialities, person and number of the subject, and deference to the listener(s). Grammatical voice and modality are shown periphrastically.

Conjugation classesEdit

Verbs may be one of three conjugation classes:

  1. ūd verbs: the largest class.
  2. ħīd verbs: the verb stems can only end in a vowel or <q>.
  3. īd verbs: the smallest class with the most irregular verbs.

Nonfinite formsEdit

The citation form of verbs is the passive participle or gerund, which are identical. -ūd, -ħīd, -īd. There is also a supine used with auxiliary verbs and to mean "in order to verb". -utā, -ħetā, -etā

Present Direct tenseEdit

-ūd verbs

sg pl
1 ex -u -ura
in -us
2 -ui
3 -ul

-ħīd verbs

sg pl
1 ex -ħe -ħera
in -ħes
2 -ħei -ħī
3 -ħī -ħel

-īd verbs

sg pl
1 ex -e -era
in -as
2 -ai
3 -el

Example regular verbsEdit

Gūd [ˈkɯːt]: to give

sg pl
1 ex gu gura
in gus
2 gui
3 gul

Ceħīd [ˈtsɛħiːt]: to speak

sg pl
1 ex ceħe ceħera
in ceħes
2 ceħei ceħī
3 ceħī ceħel

Qharīd [ˈ!ʰʌɹiːt]: to look (at/into), regard, check

sg pl
1 ex qhare qharera
in qharas
2 qharai qharī
3 qharī qharel

Affix orderingEdit

(adverb prefix)- stem -(deference marker) -suffix

PassiveEdit

The passive/impersonal construction

verb- -nonfinite suffix- -īd endings
qhar- -īd- -e
"Someone's looking at me"

Adjectives and AdverbsEdit

Adjectives and adverbs together form a closed but rather large set of prefixes.

SyntaxEdit

Case is not marked, so word order is very strict. SVO is the norm.

Noun phraseEdit

noun (article) (postposition)
  • ex. Gçēr ū Sītul ya
  • Cittus.V-fem.sg ABL Cittus-pl DEF-juv
  • the Cittus of Cittus-V

Verb phraseEdit

Serial verb constructions are not unheard of.

verb(-nonfinite suffix) (auxiliary verb)
  • ex. xhiceħīdī
  • loud-speak-PASS-3.sg
  • It is spoken loudly.

FormalityEdit

There are three primary registers of speech.

  1. deferential: used to signify unfamiliarity and respect to the listeners.
  2. ordinary: the unmarked register, safe to use anytime.
  3. slang: used to signify familiarity to the listener, whether that be respect as friends or rudeness.

VocabularyEdit

Because of differences in anatomy and physiology, many categories of words are very different from their Earthly counterparts.

NumbersEdit

The Cittus typically crawl on all six limbs, but they do use their first two pairs of limbs for manipulation. On each foot they have three clawlike fingers and a clawlike thumb. Their counting base is twelve, achieved by counting the fingers of their manipulative limbs. Numerals are masculine gender when used as nouns, and take the place of the definite article when applied to nouns. Some numbers change form when counting and the numbers 2, 3, and 4 have different forms for different genders.

No. 12+No. No.*12
# standard count standard standard
1 te' te' kuās qhās
2 ku/kui/kua ku(0/i/a) kuās kuās
3 lei/lā l(ei/ā) kuās lelās
4 tarede/taredi/tareda tared tared(e/i/a) kuās tareduās
5 ħaca ħac ħaca kuās ħacalās
6 ħaitu' ħaitu' ħaitu' kuās ħaitulās
7 'ēhes 'ēhes 'ēhes kuās 'ēhesuās
8 jūr jūr jūr kuās jūruās
9 xhai xhai xhai kuās xhailās
A dare'a dare' dare'a kuās darelās
B gīca gīc gīca kuās gīcalās
10 qhās qhā kuās

Body PartsEdit

ColorsEdit

The Cittus live around a star which spits out more light in the ultraviolet than our own. They have adapted to see a wider range of color than us, granting them not three dimensional color like us Humans, but four dimensional color.

DirectionsEdit

gqukā'a
gqukralci degase
ralci çhēci
'ūtralci halase
'ūte
  • Also considered cardinal directions are up (ħīri) and down ('artē'ħi).

Example textEdit

Laigesel ye lalūdī līkerde ut 'akya gqi qharīd srāl a 'idigqal ut līkerdel. Srāl gūdī qaicisūd a 'ħūsel ut rajakasutā syurī 'ergal ji te' ū hicel ye çhai.

intelligent-f.pl DEF-f give.birth-PASS-NDIR.PRES.3p freedom-f.sg and equality-juv.sg COM regard-GER 3p.juv GEN dignity-juv.pl and freedom-f.pl / 3p.juv give-PASS-NDIR.PRES.3p smart-think-GER GEN ability-f.pl and proper-act-SUP should-NDIR.PRES.3p sibling-juv.pl FORM one ABL other-f.pl DEF-f BENE /

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

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