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High Kickish

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High Kickish
Qaisik
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
both
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Standard High Kickish (natively Qaisik [ˈ!ˀɑjsɪkʰ]) is a language spoken by the Cittus (natively Sītul [ˈsiːtʰɯ̽l̥]), buglike sapients from the planet Cittus-V (natively Gçēr [ˈᶢǂe̞ːɹ]) and one of the founding species of the Allied Intelligences. SHK is the standard variety, taught in schools.

PhonologyEdit

Pulmonic consonantsEdit

postalveolar dorsal epiglottal glottal
stop t tʰ k kʰ ʔ
affricate ts ʡħ~ʡʕ
fricative s ħ h
approximant ɹ l (l̥) j
trill ʜ~ʢ

ClicksEdit

retroflex lateral palatal
voiced ᶢ! ᶢǁ ᶢǂ
aspirated ǁʰ ǂʰ
glottalized ǁˀ ǂˀ

VowelsEdit

front back
high ɪ iː ɯ ɯː
low ɛ e̞ː ʌ ɤ̞ː

NounsEdit

Gender and NumberEdit

Genders are three:

  1. Feminine: used for female Cittus and some inanimate objects. Shows singular, dual, and plural number.
  2. Masculine: used for male Cittus and some inanimate objects. Shows singular and plural number.
  3. Juvenile: used for juvenile Cittus who have not yet differentiated into male and female, and some inanimate objects. Shows singular and plural number.
singular dual plural
Feminine -(e) -(u)s -(e)l
Masculine -i -il
Juvenile -a -al

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are a very recently closed subclass of nouns, inflecting for all of the same categories as nouns and even matching some nouns in form (e. g. the word for little one, "srā" is the ordinary 3s.juv pronoun). They are however also marked suppletively for three levels of deference.

singular dual plural
1 rūs rūle
2.f 'ale disus disel
2.m 'ali disil
2.juv 'ala disal
3.f ħe ħeus ħel
3.m cai cail
3.juv srā srāl

VerbsEdit

Verbs have three conjugation classes and are a closed class of about 120. They conjugate according to three tenses, two to three evidentialities, person and number of the subject, and deference to the listener(s). Grammatical voice and modality are shown periphrastically.

Conjugation classesEdit

Verbs may be one of three conjugation classes:

  1. ūd verbs: the largest class.
  2. ħīd verbs: the verb stems can only end in a vowel or <q>.
  3. īd verbs: the smallest class with the most irregular verbs.

Present Direct tenseEdit

-ūd verbs

sg pl
1 ex -u -ura
in -us
2 -ui
3 -ul

-ħīd verbs

sg pl
1 ex -ħe -ħera
in -ħes
2 -ħei -ħī
3 -ħī -ħel

-īd verbs

sg pl
1 ex -e -era
in -as
2 -ai
3 -el

Example regular verbsEdit

Gūd [ˈkɯːt]: to give

sg pl
1 ex gu gura
in gus
2 gui
3 gul

Ceħīd [ˈtsɛħiːt]: to speak

sg pl
1 ex ceħe ceħera
in ceħes
2 ceħei ceħī
3 ceħī ceħel

Qharīd [ˈ!ʰʌɹiːt]: to look (at/into), regard, check

sg pl
1 ex qhare qharera
in qharas
2 qharai qharī
3 qharī qharel

Affix orderingEdit

(adverb prefix)- stem -(deference marker) -suffix

PassiveEdit

The passive construction

verb+nonfinite suffix passive "do" auxiliary

Adjectives and AdverbsEdit

Adjectives and adverbs together form a closed but rather large set of prefixes.

SyntaxEdit

Case is not marked, so word order is very strict. SVO is the norm.

Noun phraseEdit

(preposition) noun (article)
  • ex. Sītul ye a Gçēr
  • Cittus-juv.pl DEF GEN Cittus.V-juv.sg
  • the Cittus of Cittus-V

Verb phraseEdit

verb(-nonfinite suffix) (auxiliary verb)
  • ex. ceħīd xhi'ī
  • speak-NFIN loud-PASS-3.sg
  • is spoken loudly

FormalityEdit

There are three primary registers of speech.

  1. deferential: used to signify unfamiliarity and respect to the listeners.
  2. ordinary: the unmarked register, safe to use anytime.
  3. slang: used to signify familiarity to the listener, whether that be respect as friends or rudeness.

VocabularyEdit

Because of differences in anatomy and physiology, many categories of words are very different from their Earthly counterparts.

NumbersEdit

The Cittus typically crawl on all six limbs, but they do use their first two pairs of limbs for manipulation. On each foot they have three clawlike fingers and a clawlike thumb. Their counting base is twelve, achieved by counting the fingers of their manipulative limbs.

Body PartsEdit

ColorsEdit

The Cittus live around a star which spits out more light in the ultraviolet than our own. They have adapted to see a wider range of color than us, granting them not three dimensional color like us Humans, but four dimensional color.

DirectionsEdit

gqukā'a
degase ralci
çhēcidegase halasralci
çhēci halase
'ūte
  • Also considered cardinal directions are up (ħīri) and down ('artē'ħi).

Example textEdit

Laigesel ye lalūd 'ī gqi līkerde ut 'akya qharīd 'idigqal ut līkerdel a ħel. Ħel gūd 'ī 'ħūsel a qaicisūd ut rajakasūd sī çhai hicel a laigesel ye ji 'ergal.

intelligent-f.pl DEF give.birth-NFIN do-NDIR.PRES.3p COM freedom-f.sg and equality-juv.sg regard-NFIN dignity-juv.pl and freedom-f.pl GEN 3p.juv / 3p.juv give-NFIN do-NDIR.PRES.3p ability-f.pl GEN smart-think-NFIN and proper-act-NFIN should-NDIR.PRES.3p BENE other-f.pl GEN intelligent-f.pl DEF FORM sibling-juv.pl /

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

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