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High Kickish
Qaisik
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
both
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Standard High Kickish (natively Qaisik /!ˀʌisikʰ/) is a language spoken by the Cittus (Sītul ya /siːtʰɯl jʌ/), insect-looking sapients from the planet Cittus-V (Gçēr /ᶢǂeːr/) and one of the founding species of the Allied Intelligences, who live above-ground in Kickland and associated states (Qaisixhuāl /!ˀʌisiǁʰɯʌːl/). SHK is the standard variety, taught in schools.

PhonologyEdit

Pulmonic consonantsEdit

alveolar dorsal epiglottal glottal
stop t tʰ k kʰ ʔ
affricate ts ʡħ~ʡʕ
fricative s ħ h
approximant ɹ l j
trill ʜ~ʢ
  • /l/ is devoiced before a voiceless consonant or at the end of an utterance.
  • /s/ and /ts/ are hushed before /j/.

ClicksEdit

Due to the Cittus not possessing a uvula, all clicks are pronounced with the back articulation in the pharynx.

retroflex lateral palatal
voiced ᶢ! ᶢǁ ᶢǂ
aspirated ǁʰ ǂʰ
glottalized ǁˀ ǂˀ

VowelsEdit

front back
high ɪ iː ɯ ɯː
low ɛ e̞ː ʌ ɤ̞ː
  • Diphthongs: /ʌɪ/, /ɛɪ/, /ɯɪ/, /ɯʌ/, /ɯʌː/
  • Triphthong: /ɯʌɪ/

Phonotactics Edit

(C)V(F)

  • C can be any consonant.
  • Vowels cannot be consecutive.
  • V can be any short or long vowel, or any diphthong or triphthong.
  • Word-finally F can be any stop, sibilant, or alveolar approximant.
  • Word-initial clusters are limited to: /tɹ/, /tʰɹ/, /kɹ/, /kʰɹ/, /tsɹ/, /sɹ/, /lɹ/, /tj/, /tʰj/, /kj/, /kʰj/, /tsj/, and /sj/.
  • Word-medial clusters are limited to: /ɹt/, /lt/, /ɹtʰ/, /ltʰ/, /ɹk/, /lk/, /ɹkʰ/, /lkʰ/, /ɹts/, /lts/, /kʰs/, /ɹs/, /ls/, /tɹ/, /tʰɹ/, /kɹ/, /kʰɹ/, /tsɹ/, /sɹ/, /lɹ/, /ɹl/, /tj/, /tʰj/, /kj/, /kʰj/, /tsj/, and /sj/.
  • Coda /ʔ/ and /ɹ/ don't occur after diphthongs.

Stress Edit

To determine stress placement in High Kickish, one needs to learn about syllabic weight. A syllable containing a short monophthong and no syllable-final consonants is considered to be light (L), whereas a syllable containing any long vowel, diphthong, triphthong, or syllable-final consonant is considered to be heavy (H)

Patterns:.

  • -HH, -LHL, penultimate is stressed. ex. tul "Cittus"
  • -HLL, -HHL, antepenultimate is stressed. ex. gqādare "antenna"
  • -LH, ultimate is stressed. ex. ceħe "speaking"
  • -LLL, penultimate is stressed. ex. 'ale "you (sg. fem.)"

Orthography Edit

Native writing system Edit

Romanization Edit

letter a ā c ç çh d e ē g gq
phoneme /ʌ/ /ʌː/ /ts/ /ǂˀ/ /ǂʰ/ /t/ /e/ /eː/ /k/ /ᶢǂ/ /ᶢ!/
letter gx h ħ i ī j k l q qh r
phoneme /ᶢǁ/ /h/ /ħ/ /i/ /iː/ /ʜ/ /kʰ/ /l/ /!ˀ/ /!ʰ/ /r/
letter s t u ū x xh y '
phoneme /s/ /tʰ/ /ɯ/ /ɯː/ /ǁˀ/ /ǁʰ/ /j/ /ʔ/ /ʡħ/

Parts of speech Edit

  • Nouns
  • Articles
  • Pronouns
  • Verbs
  • Auxiliary verbs
  • Adverbial prefixes
  • Postpositions
  • Polar particles
  • Conjunctions

NounsEdit

Gender and NumberEdit

Genders are three:

  1. Feminine: used for female Cittus and some inanimate objects. Shows singular, dual, and plural number.
  2. Masculine: used for male Cittus and some inanimate objects. Shows singular and plural number.
  3. Juvenile: used for juvenile Cittus who have not yet differentiated into male and female, and some inanimate objects. Shows singular and plural number.

Here is the regular declension, though some nouns break this pattern.

singular dual plural
Feminine -0/e -us -el
Masculine -i -il
Juvenile -a/ā/u -al/ul

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are a very recently closed subclass of nouns, inflecting for all of the same categories as nouns and even matching some nouns in form (e. g. the word for little one, "srā" is the ordinary 3s.juv pronoun). They are however also marked suppletively for three levels of deference.

singular dual plural
1 rūs rūle
2.f 'ale disus disel
2.m 'ali disil
2.juv 'ala disal
3.f ħe ħus ħel
3.m cai cail
3.juv srā srāl

ArticleEdit

There is no indefinite article. The definite article inflects for gender and is placed after a noun. The article is not used with proper nouns.

Feminine ye
Masculine y
Juvenile ya
  • The masculine definite article y attaches to the noun as a /j/, and in speech lengthens the typical masculine ending -i. If the y is bordered by consonants on both sides for any reason, it merges with the feminine article, ye. ex. 'ergi y "the brother", 'ergil ye gqi "with the brothers"
  • The definite article contracts to y- before a postposition beginning in a vowel. ex. tatāri y-ū "from the soul"

VerbsEdit

Verbs have three conjugation classes and are a closed class of about 120. They conjugate according to four tenses (present, future, simple past, discontinuous past), two evidentialities (direct, indirect), two voices (active, passive), and deference to the listener(s).

Conjugation classes Edit

Verbs may be one of three conjugation classes:

  1. u verbs: the largest class.
  2. ħ verbs: the verb stems can only end in a vowel or <'>.
  3. i verbs: the smallest class with the most irregular verbs.

Nonfinite formsEdit

The citation form of verbs is the passive participle or gerund, which are identical (-ūd, -ħīd, -īd). There is also a supine used with auxiliary verbs and to mean "in order to verb" (-utā, -ħetā, -etā), and an active participle (-uis, -ħeis, -ais).

Finite formsEdit

u ħ i
dir ndir dir ndir dir ndir
present -u -uas -ħe -ħas 0 -as
continuous past -uci -ħeci -(i)ci
discontinuous past -u' -ura -ħe' -ħera -i' -(i)ra
future -uris -ħeris -(i)ris

Affix orderingEdit

(adverbial)- stem -(deference)- -(voice)- -person

Deference Edit

The deferential suffix is an important part of the honorific system of Kickish. It expresses respectful submission to the judgement or will of the listener(s), and is used in each of the registers of formality. Depending on region in Qaisixhuāl, the deferential suffix could be -eir, -ēr, or -ēy, among others. When traveling Qaisixhuāl, it is imperative that one uses the correct suffix for the region. The suffixes also differ depending on the relative age/genders of the speaker and listener.

PassiveEdit

The passive construction consists of taking the citation form of a verb and adding the universal passive endings (shown below).

dir ndir
present -i -as
continuous past -ici
discontinuous past -i' -ra
future -ris
  • ex. Rūle qharīdas. "I feel like we are being watched."

Examples Edit

Regular verbs Edit

Gūd [ˈkɯːt]: to give, gutā, guis

Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future
Direct gu guci gu'
Indirect guas gura guris
Ceħīd [tsɛˈħiːt]: to speak, ceħetā, ceħeis
Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future
Direct ceħe ceħeci ceħe'
Indirect ceħas ceħera ceħeris
Hēlīd [he̞ːˈliːt]: to arm, bring weapons, hēletā, hēlais
Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future
Direct hēl hēlci hēli'
Indirect hēlas hēlra hēlris

Irregular verbs Edit

be, do, go, should, have

Adverbial prefixes Edit

Adjectives and adverbs do not exist as separate words in Kickish. Instead, they can be translated as nouns, nominal phrases, or as a closed but rather large set of Adverbial prefixes.

Postpositions Edit

Kickish gloss English
a gen of
çhai bene for
gqi com with
ji form as
ū abl from

Polar particles Edit

Polarity is the truth value of a statement. In Kickish it is represented with the four polar particles. If modifying a part of speech they are always placed before and separated with a hyphen. If the following word begins in a vowel, then it will gain an initial glottal stop (except if following sik). They can also function as a standalone utterance.

# polarity proclitic independent
0 affirmative 0 ā
1 intensive duai
2 unknown duhē
3 negative si(k) sīk
4 interrogative ra rac

Conjunctions Edit

and (ut)

SyntaxEdit

Case is not marked, so word order is relatively strict. SVO is the norm.

Noun phraseEdit

noun (article) (postposition)
  • ex. Gçēr ū Sītul ya
  • Cittus.V-fem.sg ABL Cittus-pl DEF-juv
  • the Cittus of Cittus-V

Verb phraseEdit

Serial verb constructions are not unheard of.

verb(-nonfinite suffix) (helping verb) (auxiliary verb)
  • ex. ceħeis xhilalūdi
  • speak-act.part loud-birth-pass-dir.cont.pst
  • ... was born speaking loudly

FormalityEdit

There are three primary registers of speech.

  1. formal: used in professional situations.
  2. ordinary: the unmarked register, safe to use within the family.
  3. slang: used to signify familiarity to the listener, whether that be respect as friends or as sarcastic rudeness.

VocabularyEdit

Because of differences in anatomy and physiology, many categories of words are very different from their Earthly counterparts.

NumbersEdit

The Cittus typically crawl on all six limbs, but they do use their first two pairs of limbs for manipulation. On each foot they have three clawed fingers, and the first pair each have a clawed thumb. Their counting base is twelve, achieved by counting the fingers of their manipulative limbs, not counting the thumbs.

Numerals are masculine gender when used as nouns, and take the place of the definite article when applied to nouns. Some numbers change form when counting and the numbers 2, 3, and 4 have different forms for different genders.

No. 12+No. No.*12
# standard count standard standard
1 te' te' kuās qhās
2 ku/kui/kua ku(0/i/a) kuās kuās
3 lei/lā l(ei/ā) kuās lelās
4 tarede/taredi/tareda tared tared(e/i/a) kuās tareduās
5 ħaca ħac ħaca kuās ħacalās
6 ħaitu' ħaitu' ħaitu' kuās ħaitulās
7 'ēhes 'ēhes 'ēhes kuās 'ēhesuās
8 jūr jūr jūr kuās jūruās
9 xhai xhai xhai kuās xhailās
10 dare'a dare' dare'a kuās darelās
11 gīca gīc gīca kuās gīcalās
12 qhās qhā kuās cyār
  • Though twelve is qhā, thirteen is tē kuā, literally one-twenty. This dozens-are-always-early pattern only appears in the dozens position.
  • Large numbers are the reverse of a typical English number, ex. 2812/3210 jūr lelā.
  • The gross (122) position is separated from any number 12 and below with ut "and", ex. tē ut cyār

Body PartsEdit

  • body: j ārga
  • head: f dare
  • gnathal plates: m krehil
  • teeth: j 'īcal
  • eyes: f krīcus
  • antenna: f gqādarus
  • neck: m ja'uai
  • breathing tubes: j ħarsal
  • dermal armor: f xadeksel
  • armor ridges: f lartūl
  • underside: f 'artē'ħe
  • back: f ħīre
  • appendage: f çheg
  • arm/first appendage: f çhegetē
  • middle appendage: f çhegekū
  • leg/last appendage: f çhegelē
  • wrist/ankle: m drēyui
  • finger/toe/claw: j tyua
  • thumb: j gairiltais a tyua

ColorsEdit

Introduction Edit

The Cittus live around a star which spits out more light in the ultraviolet than our own. They have adapted to see a wider range of color than us, granting them not three dimensional color like us Humans, but four dimensional color. One of the odd consequences of this is that the Cittus can tell the difference between purple (red+blue) and violet (blue+UV).

Notation: colors are notated as a combination of 1s and 0s representing the presence or absence of a primary color in the order Red-Yellow-Blue-Ultraviolet. For example, 1010 is the combination of red and blue (purple) and 0101 is the combination of yellow and ultraviolet (negapurple).

All color words are nouns.

Simple colors Edit

"Simple" colors are those formed by pure primary color combinations.

notation Kickish translation Human sight
0000 rēd black black
1000 'akser red red
0100 yellow yellow
1100 cīldi orange orange
0010 gxais blue blue
1010 purple purple
0110 green green
1110 negaultra white
0001 ultraviolet black
1001 negagreen red
0101 negapurple yellow
1101 degase negablue orange
0011 violet violet
1011 negayellow violetred
0111 halase negared bluegreen
1111 teħa white white

Complex colors Edit

"Complex" colors are those that cannot be described in ones and zeros. Some complex colors have dedicated names, while most are combinations of words. Any simple color can be described as teħa "white, light" or rēd "black, dark", and combinations of colors can be described as more one color than others by adding that specific color before the general color, for example, cīldi "orange" with more 'akser "red" than yellow would be 'akser-cīldi "red-orange".

DirectionsEdit

gqukā'a
gqukā'aral gqukā'açhē
ralci çhēci
'ūteral 'ūteçhē
'ūte
  • Also considered cardinal directions are up (ħīri) and down ('artē'ħi).

Example textEdit

Lraigesel ye lalūdas līkerde ut 'akya gqi qharīd srāl a 'idigqal ut līkerdel. Srāl gūdas qaicisūd a 'ħūsel ut rajakasutā syas 'ergal ji te' ū hicel ye çhai.

intelligent-f.pl DEF-f birth-PASS-NDIR.PRES freedom-f.sg and equality-juv.sg COM regard-GER 3p.juv GEN dignity-juv.pl and freedom-f.pl / 3p.juv give-PASS-NDIR.PRES smart-think-GER GEN ability-f.pl and proper-act-SUP should-NDIR.PRES sibling-juv.pl FORM one ABL other-f.pl DEF-f BENE /

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood." (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

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