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Horgóne

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Name: Horgóne

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Subject

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


/xoɹg'one/

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

IPA:

Labial Dental Alveolar Emphatic Palato-Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b pʰ t d tʰ tˤ dˤ c ɟ k g kʰ q ʔ
Fricative f v θ ð s z sˤ zˤ ʃ ʒ ç x χ h
Flap ɾ
Approximant ɹ j w
Lateral l

Aspiration is written in the orthography with an 'h' next to the plosive (ph, th, ch). Voiceless velar plosives are written with 'c' and palatalizes to /c/ when in front of a front vowel, (i, e, y) as do their voiced counterparts. The letter 'h' applies to 'c' and 'g' in the same way; while in front of a front vowel it palatalizes (/ç/), and in front of a back vowel/open vowel it velarizes (/x/). Dental fricatives are written in the Germanic style (þ, ð). The glottal stop is an apostrophe, always between vowels.

Orthography:

Labial Dental Alveolar Emphatic Palato-Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b ph t d th ṭ ḍ c-iey g-iey c-aou g-aou kh q '
Fricative f v þ ð s z ṣ ẓ sh zh h-iey h-aou h
Flap r
Approximant r(C) j w
Lateral l

VowelsEdit

Creaky vowels can "stain" consonants that fall after them; making velars into uvulars and others to become pharyngealized. Creaky vowels occur in the eastern dialect 2/3 as much as the French nasal vowels do, but in the west, they are simply long (ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, ȳ).

Front Central Back
Plain Creaky Plain Creaky Plain Creaky
Close i - y ḭ - y̰ u
Close-mid e o
Mid ə
Open a

DiphthongsEdit

ei, ai, oi, ui, ue, ua

StressEdit

Stress is usually penultimate, but can occur initially (only when its a vowel first) or finally.

a=V

k=C

kakáka

ákaka

kakaká

GrammarEdit

Horgóne resembles a mix of Latin, Greek, and Arabic. Deriving noun and verb declensions/conjugations from Latin, the phonology and some of the grammar from Greek, and the root system from Arabic.

NounsEdit

Nouns are expressed in tri-consonantal root words that can relate phonetically to their verb roots (book is to read as song is to sing).

ConventionsEdit

Conventions exist in Horgóne that denote the gender/number of a declention; there are certain orderings of vowels that show the ending's meaning.

Group I:

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular u i a
Plural ju ji ja

Group II:

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular u i y
Plural ju ji jy

Group III : This has an alternating neuter vowel system.

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular o e y
Plural oi ei yi

Group IV:

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular o e a
Plural oi ei ai

Definite ArticlesEdit

Nominative/Locative/Vocative/Associative Accusative/Instrumental/Comparative Genitive/Dative/Ablative/Allative
Singular Masculine tu- to- os-
Feminine ti- te- es-
Neuter ta- ty- as-
Plural Masculine tun- ton- tos-
Feminine tin- ten- tes-
Neuter tan- tyn- tas-

CasesEdit

The suffixes for case must agree with the number and gender of the noun.

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Locative Instrumental Vocative Allative Ablative Comparative Associative
Singular Masculine -u -o -ub -um -ui -ûk -oq -al -óm -ak
Feminine -i -e -ib -im -ij -ik -eq -il -ém -ak
Neuter -a -y -ab -ym -ai -ak -aq -yl -ám -yk
Dual Masculine -jo -os -uv -us -oi -ûkh -îh -on -aṇ -ún -ok
Feminine -je -es -iv -is -ei -ikh -êh -en -iṇ -ín -ok
Neuter -jy -as -av -ys -ai -ykh -ôh -an -yṇ -án -ok
Plural Masculine -ju -oi -oh -ug -oiṭ -oþ -îẓ -ost -uh -úþ -ois
Feminine -ji -ei -eh -ig -eiṭ -eþ -êẓ -est -ih -íþ -oit
Neuter -ja -yi -ah -ag -aiṭ -aþ -ôẓ -yst -yh -áþ -ois
ExamplesEdit

For árþâf (man), kîláf (woman), bónt (ant).

Nominative(I)

Accusative(I)

Genitive(I) Dative(I) Locative(II) Instrumental(I) Vocative(III) Allative(II) Ablative(II) Comparative(III) Associative(III)
Singular Masculine tu-árþafu to-árþafo os-árþâfub os-árþafum tu-árþafui to-árþafûk tu-árþafî os-árþafoq os-árþafal to-arþafóm tu-árþafak
Feminine ti-kîláfi te-kîláfe es-kîláfib es-kîláfim ti-kîláfij te-kîláfik ti-kîláfê es-kîláfeq es-kîláfil te-kîlafém ti-kîláfak
Neuter ta-bónta ty-bónty as-bóntab as-bóntym ta-bóntai ty-bóntak ta-bóntô as-bóntaq as-bóntyl ty-bontám ta-bóntyk
Dual Masculine tun-árþafjo ton-árþafos tos-árþafuv tos-árþafus tun-árþafoi ton-árþafûkh tun-árþafîh tos-árþafon tos-árþafaṇ ton-arþafún tun-árþafok
Feminine tin-kîláfje ten-kîláfes tes-kîláfiv tes-kîláfis tin-kîláfei ten-kîláfikh tin-kîláfêh tes-kîláfen tes-kîláfiṇ ten-kîlafín tin-kîláfok
Neuter tan-bóntjy tyn-bóntas tas-bóntav tas-bóntys tan-bóntai tyn-bóntykh tan-bóntôh tas-bóntan tas-bóntyṇ tyn-bontán tan-bóntok
Plural Masculine tun-árþafju ton-árþafoi tos-árþafoh tos-árþafug tun-árþafoiṭ ton-árþafoþ tun-árþafîẓ tos-árþafost tos-árþafuh ton-arþafúþ tun-árþafois
Feminine tin-kîláfji

ten-kîlafei

tes-kîláfeh tes-kîláfig tin-kîláfeiṭ ten-kîláfeþ tin-kîláfêẓ tes-kîláfest tes-kîláfih ten-kîlafíþ tin-kîláfoit
Neuter tan-bóntja tyn-bóntyi tas-bóntah tas-bóntag tan-bóntaiṭ tyn-bóntaþ tan-bóntôẓ tas-bóntyst tas-bóntyh tan-bontáþ tan-bóntois

(I): Verbal function cases

(II): Adpositional cases

(III): Class cases

PronounsEdit

Since all verbs are marked for person, there are no nominative pronouns. The fourth person equates to the English pronoun one, or the French pronoun on.

First Person Second Person Third Person Fourth Person
Singlular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Accusative mu, mi, nu, ni du, di zu, zi ku, ki, ka hu, hi, ha ad adja
Genitive mub, mib nub, nib dub, dib zub, zib kub, kib, kab hub, hib, hab ab abja
Dative mw, mwi nw, nwi dw, dwi zw, zwi kw, kwi, kag hw, hwi, hag af afja
Vocative mî, mê nî, nê dî, dê zî, zê kû, kî hû, kî
Instrumental mru, mri nru, nri dru, dri zru, zri kru, kri, kra hru, hri, hra an anja
Locative moi, mer noi, ner doi, der zoi, zer koi, ker, koi hoi, her, hoi ag agja
Allative mw, mwi nw, nwi dwn, dwin zwn, zwin kw, kwi, kag hw, hwi, hag af afja
Ablative mjoh, mjeh njoh, njeh djo, dje zjo, zje kjoh, kjeh, kjah hjoh, hjeh, hjah ah ahja
Comparative mom, mim nom, nim dom, dim zom, zim kom, kim, kam hom, him, ham am amja
Associative my, me ny, ne dy, de zy, ze ky, ke hy, he av avja

DemonstrativesEdit

Proximal Mesio-proximal Mesio-distal Distal
Singular Masculine óstw úmer aqól þjo
Feminine éstw ímer aqél þje
Neuter ýstw ýmer aqýl þjy
Plural Masculine óstws ov om þju
Feminine éstws ev em þji
Neuter ýstws av am þja

VerbsEdit

Verbs fall into two categories of transitive (those that take an object) or intransitive (those that do not). Seperate root affixes are applied in different ways to either. But here is a diagram that demonstrates the absolute constrution of verbs in Horgóne. Verbs take a veriety of endings that conjugate for Person, Tense, and Aspect.

Prefix-Prestem-Radical1-Infix1-Radical2-Infix2-Radical3-Suffix-Ending

Present TenseEdit

Perfective
S. Pl.
1st P -mo -môz
2nd P -za -naz
3rd P -tu -nât
4th P -hi -hû


Imperfective
S. Pl.
1st P -bal -bajos
2nd P -bâs -bâts
3rd P -bat -bânt
4th P -baq -bîq


Habitual
S. P.
1st P -'o -'ôi
2nd P
3rd P
4th P -jw -jwi

Future TenseEdit

Perfective
S. Pl.
1st P -vat -vam
2nd P -veṣ -von
3rd P -void -vrec
4th P -hab -huab


Imperfective
S. Pl.
1st P
2nd P
3rd P
4th P


Habitual
S. P.
1st P
2nd P
3rd P
4th P

Ai hageþþazíveṣ. -- Call me.

Past tenseEdit

The past tense is made by the prefix é- (shifting the word stress) to the entire verb, and uses the present tense endings.

VoiceEdit

Frame to eat:
Active Ø-R1-I1-R2-i-R3-S-E KaPiNúmo
Passive ha-R1-I1-R2-a-R3-S-E haKaPaNúmo
Reflexive sha-R1-I1-R2-u-R3-S-E shaKaPuNúmo
Reciprocal ða-R1-I1-R2-i-R3-S-E ðaKaPuNúmôz*
  • the reciprocal voice must always be in the plural

MoodEdit

Mood in Horgóne is conjugated by mutating I1 of the verb and in the Imperative R2 is geminated.

Mood Frame
Indicative R1-a-R2-I2-R3-S-E
Subjunctive peu R1-e-R2-I2-R3-S-E
Imperative R1-e-R:2-I2-R3-S-E
Conditional R1-é-R2-I2-R3-S-E


I went to the mountain. ~ Ékaligumo ty-hagídomy.

I want (for him to) that he go to the mountain. ~ Vahigúbal peu keligúvrek ty-hagídomy.

Go! ~ Kelligúza!

I would go, but... ~ Kéligumo, lópeu...

ClusivityEdit

InfinitiveEdit

The infinitive is formed by putting neutral vowels between the root consonants. bgz - bagaz - to walk

GerundEdit

The gerund form of a verb is formed by adding the particle "" before the verb whilst already in the infinitive form but with the prefix á-.

hù ábagaz ~ that which is walking or walking

GerundiveEdit

The gerundive form of verbs are made using the particle (grave accent used to differentiate from the third person masculine accusative pronoun) before the verb; meaning that which is, the imperative mood which is applied to the fourth person (one who must VERB), and of course the future tense.

SupineEdit

AdjectivesEdit

For the stem vól- (good).

- Comparative Superlative
Good Better Best
Positive Masculine vólu ivólu vólué ivólué vólu'asa ivólu'asa
Feminine vóli ivóli vólié ivólié vóli'asa ivóli'asa
Neuter vóly ivóly vólyé ivólyé vóly'asa ivóly'asa
Negative Masculine vólul ivólul vólulé ivólulé vólulasa ivólulasa
Feminine vólil ivólil vólilé ivólilé vólilasa ivólilasa
Neuter vólyl ivólyl vólylé ivólylé vólylasa ivólylasa

AdverbsEdit

Subordinate ClausesEdit

QuestionsEdit

NumeralsEdit

â - one

do - two

teh - three

cats - four

ceni - five

sen - six

psŷh - seven

ocat - eight

wtun - nine

zisc - ten

â-zisc - eleven

do-zisc - twelve

...

vîgu - twenty

â-vîgu - twenty-one

do-vîgu - twenty-two

...

degw - thirty

â-degw - thirty-one

do-degw - thirty-two

...

catsah - forty

cenah - fifty

senah - sixty

psŷhah - seventy

ocatah - eighty

wtunah - ninety

âhwl - one hundred

Word ListEdit

NounsEdit

codah- - book (m.)

degad- - hand (m.)

huzag- - door (f.)

azugîb- - letter (f.)

egrapan- - food (m.)

cabém- - house (n.)

puasá- - fish (n.)

bihan- - party (f.)

kalaki- - shoe (f.)

énahar- - silver (f.)

ueskél- - gold (m.)

sabaman- - slave (n.)

îketil- - sheep (n.)

tanuh- - ox (m.)

imér- - donkey (m.)

aveho- - theif (n.)

árþaf- - man (m.)

kîláf- - woman (f.)

sjóram- - tower (n.)

cehóm- - string (n.)

VerbsEdit

kzb - to read

hdh - to open

zhb - to send

kpn - to eat

dþm - to think

klg - to go

gbn - to have

bvn - to give

bgz - to walk

gjn - to bring

grm - to hate

glm - to sneak

hbl - to hold

lkg - to kill

gðm - to accept

vgm - to see

vgs - to walk

bls - to buy

hgn - to speak

bnm - to sit

dkl - to hit

vnb - to run

ghv - to destroy

AdjectivesEdit

vól- - good

hûl- - intense

kûn- - happy

bil- - lucky

sel- - big

pár- - small

lóst- - other

feut- - blue

khah- - red

bart- - green

zhon- - yellow

bag- - brown

duar- - black

lak- - white

sêk- - long

ParticlesEdit

ai - used to differentiate the formally conjugated verbs from the informal second person verbs, or to make the first person plural conjugated verbs inclusive.

- that which is

TranslationsEdit

Ṭaqirúbânt adu os-boḍénub as-ivápaq. (ṬQR - to chase (indicative, active, present, imperfective, plural, third person, masculine))

They are chasing a-me world's to end.

They are chasing me to the end of the world.

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