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Name: Hoxlan

Type:

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: No

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Introduction - Introducció - InsziòEdit

Hoxlan [ōkslan]

This language was born in 2008. The 'mother' of this language is Glossa (gloßa). The big differences between these two languages are that in Glossa there were cases and declensions and in Hoxlan all they have disappeared.


Aquesta llengua va néixer el 2008. La seva "mare" és la glossa (gloßa). Les grans diferències entre l'una i l'altra és que en glossa hi havia casos i declinacions, mentre que en hoxlan tot això ha desaparegut. El moment en què l'hoxlan va "néixer" va ser quan va perdre tots els casos. Va haver-hi una llarga transició, ja que al principi, dels 5 casos existents: nominatiu, acusatiu, datiu, locatiu i genitiu; va passar a tenir-ne 3: nominatiu, acusatiu, genitiu; i posteriorment només dos: nominatiu, genitiu; fins que el genitiu va desaparèixer i per tant es pot dir que va néixer l'hoxlan tal i com és avui dia.


Glossa language was born between 2003–2004 and its grammar was written in 2005. However, in 2006 the language began to loose its cases (at the beginning: nominativ, acusativ, dativ, genitiv, locativ -> after: nominativ, acusativ, genitiv -> after: nominativ, genitiv -> finally: nominativ). When the language lost all its cases and all declensions, Hoxlan was born.


La llengua glossa va néixer entre el 2003-04 i la gramàtica fou escrita el 2005. No obstant això, a partir del 2006 va començar la seva evolució cap a l'hoxlan.


Hoxlan has been created by: Asfarer 17:21, March 31, 2010 (UTC)

Alphabet - Abecedari - AbkädefEdit

Alphabet - Abecedari - AbkädefEdit

A (Á-Â-Ą) B K Ä D E (É-Ë-Ê-Ę) F G H Ğ I (Ï) L M N Å O (Ò-Ö) P Š R S T U (Ü-Ù) W (Ŵ) Ų X Y (Ÿ) Z Ž


Diphthongs - DiftongsEdit

ai = [aj] -> if it has the stress, we'll write: ą / si és tònic s'escriurà: ą

ei = [ej] -> if it has the stress, we'll write ę / si és tònic s'escriurà: ę

eu = [oj]

ou = [u] -> it will never has the stress / és sempre àton en una paraula

au = [aw]


If we need accentuate these diphthongs / Si s'han d'accentuar:


1. If they have the stress on the antepnultimate syllabe: ą / ę / ëu / âu

2. If they have the stress on the ultimate syllabe: ą / ę / éu-ëu* / àu

*éu = if the word ends in vowel / si el mot acaba en vocal

*ëu = if the word ends in consonant / si el mot acaba en consonant

Digraphs - DígrafsEdit

th / ђ = [t]

ph = [f]

ch = [k]

ll = [l:] -> català: intel·ligència / english: intelligent

tt = [t]

ss = [s]

ny = [ɲ] -> castellano: España / català: Catalunya

Other letters - Altres lletresEdit

There are some letters which aren't accepted in the alphabet, but they appear in some foreign words.

Hi ha algunes lletres que no estan acceptades en l'abecedari, però que apareixen en algunes paraules estrangeres:

C: [k] = cantata / cowe

Q: [k] = obélisque

V: [v] = Venus / vodka / Univerzität

J: [ʒ] = jakuzy / jeep

HEdit

This letter has different uses / Aquesta lletra té usos diferents:

- It was [h] (english: house) at the beginning, but nowadays it's mute / Al principi era aspirada, però ara és muda.

- It gets long the vowel which is in front / Allarga la vocal del davant: Wihm = [vi:m] / flehgeu = [fle:goj]

XEdit

This letter has two different souns: [x] / [ks]

- When it is at the end of the word, it souns: [x] = Ix [ix] / Wihx [vi:x]

- When it is inside of the word, it souns: [ks] = taxy [taksi]


ŴEdit

This letter souns like [w] (in English: water)

This letter, however, isn't very normal and it doesn't appear in a lot of words, only in a few. We can also write the diphthong OU in its place:

kiŵy = kïouy -> [kīwi]

ğaŵar = ğâouar -> [ʒāwar]

hardŵare = hardouare -> [ardwāre]

ëkŵite -> [ēkwite]

Žeŵs = Žeous -> [tsēws]

Eŵrïdyze = Eourïdyze -> [ewrīðize]

Phonoly - Fonètica - PhonätikaEdit

A

[a]

català: casa

B

[b]

català: Barcelona

english: bad

K

[k]

català: casa

english: Canada

Ä

[ɛ]

català: bèstia

français: père

D

[d]

català: Dinamarca

english: Denmark

E

[e]

castellano: España

F

[f]

català: Figueres

english: fire

G

[g]

català: gat

H

muda / mute

català: història

Ğ

[ʒ]

català: Girona

français: je

I

[i]

català: illa

L

[l]

català: lògica

M

[m]

català: Mallorca

N

[n]

català: niu

Å

[ɔ]

català: còmode

O

[o]

castellano: orfebre

P

[p]

català: porta

Š

[ʃ]

english: ship

R

[r]

català: cara

S

[s]

català: Sabadell

T

[t]

català: Tarragona

U

[u]

català: hu

W

[v]

français: voiture

Ų

[y]

français: voiture

X

[ks] / [x]

català: taxi

russian: хорошо

Y

[i]

català: illa

Z

[z]

català: zebra

Ž

[ts]

català: cantats

italiano: pizza

Ћ

[t]

català: teatre

Ą

[aj]

català: aire

Ę

[ej]

català: eina

Ŵ

[w]

english: water

Basic grammar - Gramàtica bàsica - Atharda gramâtikaEdit

Accents - AxënžEdit

In Hoxlan only the words which the stress on the antepnultimate and ultimate syllable are accentuated.

En hoxlan només s'accentuen les paraules esdrúixoles i agudes:

Examples / Exemples:


antepnultimate / esdrúixola = Antïgona / Söphokles / ëruken

ultimate / aguda = hibù

pnultimate / plana = Ysmene / žwäster


The vowels: ä - å - ų have always the stress, so that they don't need any accent.

Les vocals: ä - å - ų són sempre tòniques, per això no duen cap altre accent gràfic.


Types of accentsEdit

When the word has the stress on the antepnultimate syllabe, the vowels will be accentuated:

Quan la paraula sigui esdrúixola les vocals s'accentuaran:

 - Ë - Ï - Ö - Ü


When the word has the stress on the ultimate syllabe, the vowels will be accentuated:

Quan la paraula sigui aguda les vocals s'accentuaran:

1. If the word ends by vowel / Si la paraula acaba en vocal:

À - É - Ÿ - Ò - Ù

2. If the word ends by consonant / Si la paraula acaba en consonant:

À - Ë - Ï - Ö - Ü

ArticlesEdit

the

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Masculin

masculí

il

es

Feminin

femení

la

as

Neutral

neutre

ol

os

a / some

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Masculin

masculí

un


uns

Feminin

femení

una

Neutral

neutre

on

ons


il / la / ol = l' + vowel

un / una / on = on' + vowel

DemonstrativesEdit

- Determiners / DeterminantsEdit

this / that

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Masculin

êt

ês

Feminin

era

eres

Neutral

er

ers


- Subject pronouns / Pronoms de subjecteEdit

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Masculin

der

ders

Feminin

das

dass

Neutral

dih

dihs


- OD pronouns / Pronoms de C.D.Edit

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Masculin

iği

Feminin

aği

Neutral

oği

- These OD pronouns possessives are also used in comparative sentences.

- Aquests possessius pronoms de C.D. també s'utilitzen en comparacions.

Possessives - PossessiusEdit

- DeterminersEdit

MASCULIN

FEMININ

NEUTRAL

PLURAL

Ix

meun

mena

mon

mes

Tou

teun

tena

ton

tes

Is

seun

sena

son

ses

Wihm

weun

wena

wòn

wes

Wihx / Wihl

weux

weša

wox

wex

Izi / Wihlz

šeun

šena

šon

šes


- Subject pronounsEdit

MASCULIN

FEMININ

NEUTRAL

PLURAL

Ix

main

mąna

mon

munx

Tou

tain

tąna

ton

tunx

Is

sain

sąna

son

sunx

Wihm

wain

wąna

wòn

wunx

Wihx / Wihl

waix

wąša

wox

wųnx

Izi / Wihlz

šain

šąna

šon

šunx


- OD pronounsEdit

MASCULIN

FEMININ

NEUTRAL

PLURAL

Ix

mihn

mina

mino

munx

Tou

tihn

tina

tino

tunx

Is

sihn

sina

sino

sunx

Wihm

wihn

wina

wino

wunx

Wihx / Wihl

wihx

wiša

wišo

wųnx

Izi / Wihlz

šihn

šina

šino

šunx

- These OD pronouns possessives are also used in comparative sentences.

- Aquests possessius pronoms de C.D. també s'utilitzen en comparacions.

Pronouns - PronomsEdit

MASCULIN

MASCULÍ

FEMININ

FEMENÍ

NEUTRAL

NEUTRE

I / jo

Ix

you / tu

Tou

he / ell

Is

Isa

Os / das

we / nosaltres

Wihm

you / vosaltres

Wihx

they / ells

Izi

Izes

Ozi

vostè / vous (sing.)

Wihl

Wihle

Wohl

vostès / vous (plur.)

Wihlz

Wohlz


Wohl / Wohlz = we use them when we don't know the gender of the person who we speak with.

Wohl / Wohlz = s'empren quan no se sap el gènere de la persona a qui es refereix el pronom de cortesia.

Reflexive pronouns - Pronoms reflexiusEdit

In Hoxlan the reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself...) don't exist like in English, Catalan, Spanish, French or other language. If we want express this idea, we'll put at the end of the sentence the particle AN.

En Hoxlan els pronoms reflexius (em, et, es...) no existeixen com en anglès, català, espanyol, francès o en altres llengües. Si volem expressar la idea que l'acció del verb recau sobre el mateix subjecte, posarem al final de la frase la partícula AN.

Examples:

- I shave = Ix raše ųt an

- You shave = Tou raš ųt an

- He shaves = Is rašt ųt an

In catalan = jo m'afaito / tu t'afaites / ell s'afaita


Acusative pronouns (of persons)Edit

These pronouns are the acusative form of the pronouns. In English they’re like “me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them).

In Hoxlan these pronouns go in front of the verb when it’s in passt tense (I did / I’ve done), pluperfect tense (I hat done), future (will have done), conditional (would have done) and in passt tense and pluperfect tense of subjunctive.

They go behind (or in front too) the verb when it’s in present tense, imperfect tense (I used to do), futur tense (will do), conditional tense (would do)

When the verb is in imperative or gerund, the acusative pronouns go always behind it.


Aquests pronoms són la forma acusativa dels pronoms de més amunt. En català serien "em, et, el/la/li/ho, ens, us, els/les".

En hoxlan aquests pronoms van davant del verb quan es troba en: passat, plusquamperfet, futur compost, condicional compost i passat i plusquamperfet de subjuntiu.

Van darrere (o també poden anar-hi davant) del verb quan es troba en: present, imperfect, futur i condicional.

Quan el verb es troba en imperatiu o gerundi els pronoms van sempre darrere seu.

When the verb begins in consonant:

When the verb begins in vowel:

When the verb ends in consonant:

When the verb ends in vowel:

Ix

me

m’

-men

‘m

Tou

te

t’

-ten

‘t

Is

se

s’

-sen

‘s

Isa

Os

Wihm

we

f’

-wen

‘f

Wihx

wex

-wex

Izi


še

š’

-šen


‘š

Izes

Ozi

Wihl

Wihle

Wohl

wel

-wel

Wihlz

Wohlz

welz

-welz

Acusative pronouns (of things)Edit

In English they’re like “it, them”. They refer things, not human persons.

They go in front of the verb or behind it like the acusative pronouns (persons)

When the verb begins in consonant:

When the verb begins in vowel:

When the verb ends in consonant:

When the verb ends in vowel:

S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

MASCULIN

di


d’

-den


‘d

FEMININ

da

-dan

NEUTRAL

do

-don

P

L

U

R

A

L

MASCULIN

es es

-es

FEMININ

as

as

-as

NEUTRAL

os

os

-os


Combination of acusative pronounsEdit

In a sentence we can find two acusative pronouns: person and thing. For example: I give you the present = I give it to you

En una frase podem trobar dos pronoms acusatius: personal i de cosa. Per exemple: Jo et dono això a tu = Jo t' ho dono


In Hoxlan we put first the acusative pronoun of person and behind it the acusative pronoun of thing. They go always together.

ME + DI = when the verb begins in consonant: me'd / ...in vowel: me d' / ...ends in consonant: -me'd / ...ends in vowel: 'm-den

ME + DA = when the verb begins in consonant: me'd / ...in vowel: me d' / ...ends in consonant: -me'd / ...ends in vowel: 'm-dan

ME + DO = when the verb begins in consonant: me'd / ...in vowel: me d' / ...ends in consonant: -me'd / ...ends in vowel: 'm-don

The pronouns "te / se / še" are like "me" = te'd / te d' / -te'd / 't-den

WE + DI = when the verb begins in consonant: we'd / ...in vowel: we d' / ...ends in consonant -we'd / ...ends in vowel: 'f-den

WE + DA = when the verb begins in consonant: we'd / ...in vowel: we d' / ...ends in consonant -we'd / ...ends in vowel: 'f-dan

WE + DO = when the verb begins in consonant: we'd / ...in vowel: we d' / ...ends in consonant -we'd / ...ends in vowel: 'f-don

WEX + DI = when the verb begins in consonant: wex di / ...in vowel: wex d' / ...ends in consonant: -wex-den / ...ends in vowel: -wex-den

WEX + DA = when the verb begins in consonant: wex da / ...in vowel: wex d' / ...ends in consonant: -wex-dan / ...ends in vowel: -wex-dan

WEX + DO = when the verb begins in consonant: wex do / ...in vowel: wex d' / ...ends in consonant: -wex-don / ...ends in vowel: -wex-don

The pronouns "wel / welz" are like "wex" = wel di / wel d' / -wel-den / -wel-den

DictionaryEdit

Numbers - NųmersEdit

The numbers in Hoxlan are different. We use the first letter of the number's name.

Els números en Hoxlan són diferents. S'empra la primera lletra del nom del número.

0 = Z = zero

1 = I = ąn

2 = W = žwa

3 = T = tri

4 = K = katr

5 = F = fäf / fef

6 = S = sex

7 = P = sept

8 = A = ašt

9 = N = neuw

10 = D = diss

11 = II = älf

12 = IW = žwift / we can also say: iw [if] / també podem dir: iw

13 = IT = trift / we can also say: it [it] / també podem dir: it

14 = IK = katrift / we can also say: ik [ik] / també podem dir: ik

15 = IF = fäfift / we can also say: if [if] / també podem dir: if

16 = IS = sexft / we can also say: is [is] / també podem dir: is

17 = IP = septift / we can also say: ip [ip] / també podem dir: ip

18 = IA = aštift / we can also say: ia [i:a] / també podem dir: ia

19 = IN = neuft / we can also say: in [in] / també podem dir: in

Example text - Text d'exemple - Writted won ixämpleEdit

Preface of tragedy Antigona (by Sophocles)

Pròleg de la tragèdia Antígona (de Sòfocles)


Ëruken d'Antïgona (bai Söphokles)

- ANTÏGONA: Ğäre Ysmene, mena måede žwäster; Knifs Tou eron åhm,, wom funnet dês Ädip,, wer Žeŵs nox nert’ê urgeted ins wes lųhfwes? Os nert’ist du duhl temåge no insųte ųb atelssenne, no duhl lyero,, wer Ix nert’ê sihd ins tes åhms no ins mes. E neg; was ist êt slağ,, šųr ųk åhle dazs šprix,, êt,, wer l’ebolš astprommulkt ap?; Tou knifs fą?; Tou ignors, spaly, es åhms,, wer os atfreuhns asmağen wųf kunter wes måedu?

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