|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Hoyu (Hoyu: Hoxzantư) is a language spoken in the Federal Republic of Hoyu, a small island nation, where it is the sole official language of the 9 million residents. It is a language isolate.
Hoyu is the native language of the Hosh people in the Federal Hoyu Republic. It is a suffixal agglutinative language. Word order is preferably SOV. It is written with the Latin alphabet.
The native name for the language is Hoxzantư [hɔʔzæntɯ]. It is of unknown etymology.
|Plosive||b||t d||k g||q||ʔ|
All of /i ɯ u ɤ/ occur short and long, differed only by length, while /e o a/, which are phonetically always [ɛ ɔ æ], have the respective long counterparts /e: o: a:/.
- Stops are unreleased at the ends of words. For example, /p/ > /p̚/.
- Similarly to English, /ɹ/ is commonly realised as post-alveolar or retroflex and produces rhotic vowels when preceeded by a vowel.
- Stops and affricates are aspirated before another stop or affricate across a syllable boundary.
- Nasals assimilate to a following consonants place of articulation across syllable boundaries.
- Unvoiced consonants become voiced before another voiced consonant and vice-versa.
- Consonants can be geminated across morpheme boundaries.
- If a resonant consonant appears before a sibilant across a morpheme boundary, the /RS/ cluster is simplified to /S/ and the vowel preceeding it is lengthened.
- Two identical short vowels are never realized with hiatus, instead as a long vowel.
Historically, diphthongs in Hoyu became short monophthongs. Diphthongs in older Hoyu varieties did not occur as long. This sound change is reflected orthographically across morpheme boundaries and is presented as an irregularity in the language.
- /a/ + /u/ as ‹au› > /ɔ/ ‹o›
- /a/ + /i/ as ‹ai› > /e/ ‹e›
Hoyu syllables follow the simple structure (C)V(C) where C is any consonant and V is any vowel.
Hoyu is written using the Latin alphabet.
If /j/ and /w/ appear after a vowel, they are written as ‹i› and ‹u› respectively, unless adjacent to an existing ‹i› or ‹u›. If two short vowels appear together in a word (i.e. ‹ii›) they are written as a long vowel.
The only necessary elements in a Hoyu verb is the verb root and the personal suffix.
|Verb root||Personal suffix||Voice||Tense||Mood||Aspect|
The person suffix agrees with the nominative case argument of the verb in subject and number. If the subject is pronominal, the pronoun is often omitted.
There are three voices in Hoyu. The active voice, wherein the grammatical subject is the agent, is personal and unmarked on the verb. The passive voice, wherein the grammatical subject is the patient, is nonpersonal, meaning that personal suffixes are not used, and is marked by the suffix -oqư. The reflexive voice, wherein the subject is simultaneously the agent and the patient, is personal and marked by the suffix -nu.
There are two morphological tenses in Hoyu. The non-past tense, which is unmarked, is used in present tense constructions and with the future tense auxilliary verb. The past tense is marked with the suffix -si. The future tense is constructed with the use of an auxiliary verb.
There are six verbal moods in Hoyu. They are listed in a table below along with their suffixes. The conditional mood expresses the idea that the action or state expressed by the verb may or may not actually happen. In a sentence such as "I would do X if you did Y", the conditional mood is used in both halves of the sentence with the second preceeded by han, meaning if. It is never used for polite requests like in English. The imperative mood expresses a command to the addresse(s). The potential mood is used to express that an event is likely to happen but not certain. The dubitative mood expresses doubt that an event happened. The interrogative mood asks a simple question but is also used as a polite imperative.
There are six verbal aspects in Hoyu.
|Imperfective||-∅||An ongoing action|
|Perfective||-lơ||An entire action|
|Inochiative||-dua||Beginning of an action|
|Cessative||-ba||Ending of an action|
|Momentane||-kuli||One occurance of an action|
|Frequentative||-sưt||Multiple, repeated occurances of an action|
Hoyu regularly employs auxiliary verbs. If an auxiliary verb is employed, the auxiliary verb takes on suffixes and the main verb stem immediately follows the conjugated auxiliary. These verbs cannot stand by themselves and must occur before another verb. The table below lists the auxiliary verbs and their meanings.
If two auxiliary verbs need to be used, for example the negative verb or the future tense auxiliary and a verb expressing modality, the negative verb will always take on verbal suffixes and appear before anything else in the verb phrase, then the future tense auxiliary, then auxiliary verbs expressing modality. If one wants to say I won't be able to sing, it would be constructed as such: imétun hésna ałan nuưn, with nuưn, "sing", being preceeded by three auxiliary verbs in the correct order.
|ósui||should, be obliged to|
|ałan||can, be able to|
|ơjiúk||have permission to|
|anmé||know how to|
|wáyid||must, ought to|
The future tense is constructed periphrastically using hésna, "go", as an auxilliary verb, constructed in the same way as any normal auxiliary verb, but hésna can be used on its own.
Non-finite forms and other suffixesEdit
Nouns in Hoyu decline for number, case, and definiteness/proximity, and can take on various other suffixes.
Hoyu Dictionary at ConWorkShop