Fandom

Conlang

Hoyu

3,199articles on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk3 Share

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.

The author requests that you do not make significant changes to this project without first seeking approval.
By all means, please either help fix spelling, grammar and organization problems or contact the author about them. Thank you.
The author wishes to make it clear this project is currently undergoing significant construction or revamp.
By all means, take a look around. Thank you.
Progress 74%
Hoyu
Hoxzantư
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Hoyu (Hoyu: Hoxzantư) is a language spoken in the Federal Republic of Hoyu, a small island nation, where it is the sole official language of the 9 million residents. It is a language isolate. 

General informationEdit

Hoyu is the native language of the Hosh people in the Federal Hoyu Republic. It is a suffixal agglutinative language. Word order is preferably SOV. It is written with the Latin alphabet.

EtymologyEdit

The native name for the language is Hoxzantư [hɔʔzæntɯ]. It is of unknown etymology.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive b t d k g q ʔ
Fricative f s z χ h
Lateral Fric. ɬ
Approximant ɹ j w
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

All of /i ɯ u ɤ/ occur short and long, differed only by length, while /e o a/, which are phonetically always [ɛ ɔ æ], have the respective long counterparts /e: o: a:/.

Front Back
Close i(:) ɯ(:) u(:)
Close-mid e: ɤ(:) o:
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-open æ
Open a:

AllophonyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

  • Stops are unreleased at the ends of words. For example, /p/ > /p̚/.
  • Similarly to English, /ɹ/ is commonly realised as post-alveolar or retroflex and produces rhotic vowels when preceeded by a vowel.
  • Stops and affricates are aspirated before another stop or affricate across a syllable boundary. 
  • Nasals assimilate to a following consonants place of articulation across syllable boundaries.
  • Unvoiced consonants become voiced before another voiced consonant and vice-versa.
  • Consonants can be geminated across morpheme boundaries.
  • If a resonant consonant appears before a sibilant across a morpheme boundary, the /RS/ cluster is simplified to /S/ and the vowel preceeding it is lengthened. 

VowelsEdit

  • Two identical short vowels are never realized with hiatus, instead as a long vowel.
Diphthong compressionEdit

Historically, diphthongs in Hoyu became short monophthongs. Diphthongs in older Hoyu varieties did not occur as long. This sound change is reflected orthographically across morpheme boundaries and is presented as an irregularity in the language. 

  • /a/ + /u/ as ‹au› > /ɔ/ ‹o›
  • /a/ + /i/ as ‹ai› > /e/ ‹e›

PhonotacticsEdit

Hoyu syllables follow the simple structure (C)V(C) where C is any consonant and V is any vowel.

Writing SystemEdit

Hoyu is written using the Latin alphabet. 

AlphabetEdit

Aa Áá Bb Ff Dd Ee Éé Gg Hh Ii Íí
/æ/ /a:/ /b/ /f/ /d/ /ɛ/ /e:/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /i:/
Kk Ll Łł Mm Nn Oo Óó Qq Jj Ơơ Ớớ
/k/ /l/ /ɬ/ /m/ /n/ /ɔ/ /o:/ /q/ /χ/ /ɤ/ /ɤ:/
Rr Ss Tt Uu Úú Ưư Ứứ Ww Xx Yy Zz
/ɹ/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /u:/ /ɯ/ /ɯ:/ /w/ ./ʔ/ /j/ /z/

If /j/ and /w/ appear after a vowel, they are written as ‹i› and ‹u› respectively, unless adjacent to an existing  ‹i› or ‹u›. If two short vowels appear together in a word (i.e. ‹ii›) they are written as a long vowel.

GrammarEdit

VerbsEdit

The only necessary elements in a Hoyu verb is the verb root and the personal suffix.

Verb root Personal suffix Voice Tense Mood Aspect

Personal suffixEdit

The person suffix agrees with the nominative case argument of the verb in subject and number. If the subject is pronominal, the pronoun is often omitted. 

Singular Plural
Inclusive Exclusive
1 un kon seun
2 it kait
3 ar kár

VoiceEdit

There are three voices in Hoyu. The active voice, wherein the grammatical subject is the agent, is personal and unmarked on the verb. The passive voice, wherein the grammatical subject is the patient, is nonpersonal, meaning that personal suffixes are not used, and is marked by the suffix -oqư. The reflexive voice, wherein the subject is simultaneously the agent and the patient, is personal and marked by the suffix -nu

TenseEdit

There are two morphological tenses in Hoyu. The non-past tense, which is unmarked, is used in present tense constructions and with the future tense auxilliary verb. The past tense is marked with the suffix -si. The future tense is constructed with the use of an auxiliary verb.

MoodEdit

There are six verbal moods in Hoyu. They are listed in a table below along with their suffixes. The conditional mood expresses the idea that the action or state expressed by the verb may or may not actually happen. In a sentence such as "I would do X if you did Y", the conditional mood is used in both halves of the sentence with the second preceeded by han, meaning if. It is never used for polite requests like in English. The imperative mood expresses a command to the addresse(s). The potential mood is used to express that an event is likely to happen but not certain. The dubitative mood expresses doubt that an event happened. The interrogative mood asks a simple question but is also used as a polite imperative.

Mood Suffix
Indicative -∅
Conditional -to
Imperative -i
Potential -nen
Dubitative -ok
Interrogative -ua

AspectEdit

There are six verbal aspects in Hoyu.

Aspect Suffix Meaning
Imperfective -∅ An ongoing action
Perfective -lơ An entire action
Inochiative -dua Beginning of an action
Cessative -ba Ending of an action
Momentane -kuli One occurance of an action
Frequentative -sưt Multiple, repeated occurances of an action

Auxiliary verbsEdit

Hoyu regularly employs auxiliary verbs. If an auxiliary verb is employed, the auxiliary verb takes on suffixes and the main verb stem immediately follows the conjugated auxiliary. These verbs cannot stand by themselves and must occur before another verb. The table below lists the auxiliary verbs and their meanings.

If two auxiliary verbs need to be used, for example the negative verb or the future tense auxiliary and a verb expressing modality, the negative verb will always take on verbal suffixes and appear before anything else in the verb phrase, then the future tense auxiliary, then auxiliary verbs expressing modality. If one wants to say I won't be able to sing, it would be constructed as such: imétun hésna ałan nuưn, with nuưn, "sing", being preceeded by three auxiliary verbs in the correct order.

Auxiliary Meaning
imét negative verb
ósui should, be obliged to
ałan can, be able to
úrte want to
ơjiúk have permission to
anmé know how to
wáyid must, ought to

The future tense is constructed periphrastically using hésna, "go", as an auxilliary verb, constructed in the same way as any normal auxiliary verb, but hésna can be used on its own.

Non-finite forms and other suffixesEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns in Hoyu decline for number, case, and definiteness/proximity, and can take on various other suffixes.


VocabularyEdit

Hoyu Dictionary at ConWorkShop

Example textsEdit

Also on Fandom

Random Wiki