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Hrotish

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Classical Hrotish
Hrodda/حرُدّه
Type
Fantasy Language
Alignment
Ergative-Absolutive
Head direction
Head-Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Classical Hrotish is the literary language and lingua franca of the Hrots, who now inhabit the continent of Hrotland.


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ (nn)
Plosive p, b t, d [c, ɟ]3 k, g
Fricative f, v θ, [ð]1 s, z [ʃ, ʒ]2 [ç, ʝ]4 x (q), [ɣ]4 [ʁ]5 h
Affricate
Approximant
Trill r [ʀ]5
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l [ɫ]6
Lateral flap

1These are allophones of the same phoneme and can only occur in word-middle and word-final positions.
2These are allophones of /s/ and /z/ respectively in the case where s and z appear before a front vowel
3These are allophones of /k/ and /g/ respectively in the case where k and g appear before a front vowel
4These are allophones of /x/. [ɣ] occurs when /x/ occurs between two vowels, while [ç] and [ʝ] appear before front vowels
5These are all allophones of /r/. [ʁ] appears at the end of words, while [ʀ] appears before back vowels
6This is allophone of /l/ that appears at the end of words

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Low æ a, a:
Low near-close
Close-mid
Mid ɛ, e: o, o:
Open-mid
High near-open [ɪ]1
High i, y u, u:

Diphthongs: ai, ɛi

1 this is an allophone /i/ that occurs when /i/ is short

NB: All vowels, except Y and Ä, can appear as long, which is marked by an accent. In positions where ä would be long, it becomes É.

AlphabetEdit

P, B, M, T, D, N, TH, DH, S, Z, R, L, K, G, NN, Q, H, A, Á, Ä, Â, O, Ó, U, Ú, E, É, I, Í, Y, AE, ÉI

پ، ب، م، ت، د، ن، ث، ذ، س، ز، ر، ل، ك، گ، نّ، ق، ح، اَ، أ، آ، اُ، اٌ، و، ؤ، اِ، إ، ي، ئ، اْ، اً، اٍ

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)(C)V(C)(C). If there are two consonants initially, the second must be a continuant. There are no restrictions for the final two consonants.

Mutations and LenitionEdit

One of the most noticeable aspects of Hrotish phonology is the high amount of assimilation that occurs, even across word boundaries. Nasals, for example, assimilate to the place of adjacent obstruents. An obstruent preceded by a sonorant becomes voiced, except in certain compounding situations (Aezirnsaga, not Aezirnzaga)

Vowel HarmonyEdit

All Hrotish vowels are either front or back, and within a root and its affixes must agree in frontness or backness with the stressed vowel that forms the nucleus of the root. Vowels of different fronting cannot be adjacent to each other across a word boundary and are separated by an “h”.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

Hrotish nouns have three genders, three numbers, and six cases, and are divided into six declensions.

First declension nouns are strong, meaning that the main vowel of the root morpheme changes to reflect number. They always end in -r and are almost always masculine.

1st Declension
Abs Erg Gen Dat Inst Loc Voc
S Gar Gra Garn Garo Garol Garos Gara
Pl Gora Gora Gorn Goro Gorol Goros Gora
D Gur Gura Gurn Guro Gurol Guros Gura

Second declension nouns are strong; almost always end in -t, -d, -s, -z, -l, or -n; and are neuter.

2nd Declension
Abs Erg Gen Dat Inst Loc Voc
S Ät Ät Ädde Äddi Äddel Äddes Äddä
Pl Ét Ét Édde Éddi Éddel Éddes Éddä
D It It Idde Iddi Iddel Iddes Iddä

Third declension nouns are also strong, always end in -a/-ä, and are feminine.

Abs Erg Gen Dat Inst Loc Voc
S Sírä Siré Sírän Siré Sírel Síres Sírä
Pl Saerä Saeré Saerän Saeré Saerel Saeres Saerä
D Séirä Séiré Séirän Séiré Séirel Séires Séirä

Fourth declension nouns are weak, end in -o, -u, or -i, and are mostly masculine.

Abs Erg Gen Dat Inst Loc Voc
S Varo Varó  Varon Varu Varol Varos Varoa
Pl Varor Varór Varorn Varoru Varorol Varoros Varora
D Varot Varót Varondd Varut Varolt Varost Varodda

Fifth declension nouns are weak, end in -a/ä, and are feminine.

Abs Erg Gen Dat Inst Loc Voc
S Loa Loá Loan Loo = Ló Loál Loás Loa
Pl Loar Loár Loarn Loaró Loaral Loars Loara
D Loat Loát Loandd Lót Loalt Lost Loadda

Sixth declension nouns are weak, usually end in a consonant, especially -n, and are neuter.

6th Declension
Abs Erg Gen Dat Inst Loc Voc
S Nen Nen Nenin Nené Nenel Nenes Nenä
Pl Nenär Nenér Nenärn Nenäré Nenärel Nenäres Nenärä
D Nenät Nenät Nenändd Nenét Nenält Nenest Nenäddä

DeterminersEdit

Hrotish has four main kinds of determiners. The first is the definite article "al/äl", which almost always appears when there is not another determiner. The second is the partitive article "Tal/täl", which represents some or any. The third type is the pronomial determiner, "mar/mär, tar/tär, lar/lär, noar/niär, voar/viär, lara/lärä". The fourth and final type of determiner is the demonstrative determiners "sar/sär and sur/sír 

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives in Hrotish decline for number, gender, and case. They are declined like 4th, 5th, or 6th declension nouns depending on the gender of the noun they modify. They can come after the adjective they modify. Adjectives can be formed from nouns by adding a/ä to the end of the noun. 

VerbsEdit

Hrotish verb constructions have two parts; the first part is the copular verb "ár" conjugated for person, number, tense, mood, and voice. The second part of the verb construction is a participle of the main verb that agrees with the subject of the sentence.

Here is the conjugation of "ár":

Ár conjugation
Present Past Future
1st S sam fam seräm
2nd S es fas seräs
3rd S éi fa serä
1st Pl/D esim famo serämé
2nd Pl/D esti fazo seräzé
3rd Pl/D syn fandda seränddä

Here are the mood markers:

Indicative: ----

Subjunctive: h(a)/h(ä)

Imperative: d(o)/d(e)


Here are the voice markers:

Active: ----

Passive: g(o)/g(e)

To form a a complete verb phrase, one adds a participle form of the verb to the copula. There are three verb forms, the infinitive/gerund, the present participle, and the past participle. 

All infinitives end in -r. The infinite also functions as a gerund and is declined as a 4th declension noun.

Present participles (which are also adjectives) are formed by removing the final -r and adding an a/ä if the stem does not already end in an a/ä.

The past participle is formed by adding -th to the verb stem. 

Here is thus the tense/aspect formed by the two parts of the verbal construction:

Present Past Future
Present Participle present imperfect past future
Past Participle perfect past pluperfect anterior future

NB: Remember that the participle must agree with absolutive case noun associated with it. 

AdverbsEdit

Hrotish adverbs are formed from adjectives by removing the final a/ä and adding the suffix -duil. Adverbs go in the middle of a verb phrase.  

Pro-formsEdit

The Hrotish pro-verb is "var" (to do) and it can replace verbs like a pronoun can replace a noun.

Here is a list of Hrotish pronouns:

Pronouns
1st S 2nd S 3rd S 1st Pl/D 2nd Pl/D 3rd Pl/D Relat/Interro Demonstr Negative
Abs Man Tan Lan Noan Voan Larn Kuan San Nan
Erg Ja Ta La Noa Voa Lar Kua Sa Na
Gen Mo To Lo Laró Kuo So No
Dat Mu Tu Lu Nu Vu Laru Ku Su Nu
Inst Mal Tal Lal Nal Val Larl Kual Sal Nal
Loc Mas Tas Las Nas Vas Lars Kuas Sas Nas
Voc Ma Ta La Na Va Lara Kua Sa Na

PrepositionsEdit

Hrotish preposition are always followed by nouns in either the genitive, dative, instrumental, or locative case. These cases can stand for themselves, in fact there is a silent pronoun in Hrotish. 

Here are some common pronouns:

at - "to" with dative, "at" with locative

aen - "in" with locative, "into" with dative

éq - "out of" with dative

mit - "with" with instrumental

ConjunctionsEdit

Coordinating conjunctions: und (and uniting two phrases), é (and within a phrase type), méi (or)

Subordinating conjunctions always end in -ka 

SyntaxEdit

Basic Theoretical StructureEdit

Like any language, Hrotish follows a basic, universal framework. At the base of this framework is the lexicon, the inventory of words in the language, as well as certain pertinent information about said words. The next step in this framework is the X' Rules, which govern how the words in the lexicon are arranged into phrases and sentences in a hierarchical fashion. This produces the D structure, the underlying structure of the language. The D structure is also the level at which the Theta Criterion applies. The Theta Criterion deals with phenomena like verb transitivity by saying that every lexical item has a theta role. Theta roles of different classes (lexical categories like nouns, verbs, etc) must match up one to one with other classes.

The next layer in the framework of Hrotish is the case filter, which assigns nouns case depending on their syntactic role in the sentence.  The final stage in the framework is movement, which governs a whole series of different types of transforms that can occur. The language the we would see and hear, the product of these transformations, forms the S Structure, the final level in our syntactic framework.

LexiconEdit

An abridged lexicon of Hrotish is presented below in the Vocabulary section, a rudimentary dictionary of the Hrotish language.

X' RulesEdit

Hrotish X' Rules are as follows:

XP → X'(WP)

X' → (YP) X'

X' → X (WP)

D StructureEdit

The D structure for the Hrotish sentence “al-paddra éi ninn lan givivädä äl-metré” (The father didn’t give it to the mother) would thus be:

Syntax tree (2)

Theta CriterionEdit

This tree conforms to the Theta Criterion as every theta assignment maps to the theta role and vis à vis. “Givivär”, which assigns three theta roles, as all of its assignments mapped one to one with “al-paddar”, “lan”, and “äl-meträ” respectively.

Case TheoryEdit

Now that we have the D structure, we can apply case theory. The idea behind case theory is that that all DP, depending on the role they play in the sentence, must have a case. This case, in Hrotish, affects the suffix a noun has. In this particular sentence, “al-paddar” is assigned ergative case, since it is the subject of a transitive verb, “lan” is assigned absolutive case because it is the direct object of a transitive verb, and “äl-meträ” is assigned dative case because it is the indirect object of the verb. As such, “al paddar” transforms into “al-paddra”, “lan” remains “lan”, and “äl-meträ” becomes “äl-metré”.

MovementsEdit

The most common type of movement in Hrotish, “wh” movement, in  which the DP complement of a verb (the verb's direct object) moves up into [Spec,CP]. All sentences in Hrotish undergo this movement, producing its characteristic Object Subject Verb word order. Hrotish also undergoes head movement, where the T moves to the [C] position.

S StructureEdit

The S Structure for the sentence “Lan éi h'al-paddra ninn givivädä äl-metré” thus looks like:

Stgraph.png

Question formationEdit

Yes/no Questions are formed in Hrotish by adding the Interrogative Particle “kua” to the C position in the tree, blocking T → C movement. In complex questions, one adds the Interrogative Particle and replaces the phrases in question with an interrogative pro-form.

Embedded and relative clausesEdit

To embedded a clause in Hrotish, one simply adds a complementizer to the C position of the embedded clause. To form a relative clause, one moves the phrases that is being relativized to the [Spec,CP] position and replaces it with an interrogative pronoun.

ErgativityEdit

Hrotish is ergative, meaning that the subject of an intransitive verb gets assigned that same case as the direct object of a transitive verb. In Hrotish, the main verb in the sentence licenses absolutive case, and, as a quirk of Hrotish grammar, must license that case to some DP. If there is no complement DP to license the absolutive case to (as in the case of an intransitive verb), the verb will license the absolutive case to the subject DP. Since a DP can only receive case once, the subject DP is then blocked from taking ergative case.

SummaryEdit

Here is a tree that summarizes basic Hrotish syntax:

Stgraph.png (1)


NB: The adjunct can also come before the verb.

VocabularyEdit

  • Abjar - VI; to consent
  • Ádar - N4; bird
  • Addorlátur - VT; to arrange
  • Æddyn - N2; clan, tribe
  • Æn - prep; in, on (loc); into (dat), in from (gen)
  • Æna - Adj; one (notice it breaks the vowel harmony rule)
  • Ænäzeryléduil - adv; to one another, to each other
  • Agóz - N6; sin, wrong
  • Agró - N4; farm
  • Ahadúr – VT; to take, lead, carry
  • Ahara - adj; late
  • Alba - adj; white
  • Alóm – N2; dream
  • Alómar – VI; to dream
  • Alór - intj; so, then, here
  • Alsagar – VT; to speak about
  • Alvar - N4; old man
  • Alvar - VT; to learn
  • Älvéä - N5; jug
  • Aman - N6; faith
  • Amánar – VT/I; to believe
  • Amar - VT; to order, rule, command
  • Amaz - N2; time
  • Anar - N1; spirit, ghost
  • Andua - adj; west
  • Änin- N6; voice
  • Änzäl - N6; number
  • Änzär - VT; to count
  • Áqalar – VT; to eat
  • ár - VT; to be
  • ár az - VI; to have (literally to be to)
  • Ara - adj; glorious, honorable
  • Ara - N1; glory, honour
  • Arf - N6; heir
  • Arja - adj; great, noble, mighty
  • Aro - N4; oar
  • Arvór - VT; to value, (passive) to be worth
  • Ät - N2, place, location
  • Auroddar - VT; to exterminate
  • Ävær - V4; to hold, to keep
  • Avon - N2; river
  • Avónur - N1; grandfather/grandmother's brother
  • Az - P; to, towards (with dative); at (with locative)
  • Aza - adj; happy
  • Bæjänir - VT; to divide, separate
  • Baggjar - VI; to remain
  • Bagja - N5; desire, will, want
  • Bahar - V1; to bleat
  • Baqar - VT; to open
  • Bara - N3; bread
  • Barach - N6; flash
  • Baraggar - VT; to bless
  • Bardar - N1; beard
  • Baugró - N4; ring
  • Bazra  - N5; joy
  • Belyvä - adj; curvy, bent
  • Biz - N6; kiss
  • Bizér - VT; to kiss
  • Bjannka - conj; although
  • Bjur - adv; well
  • Braddar - N1; brother
  • Brur - N1; brow
  • Bunja - N5; building
  • Bunjar - VT; to build
  • Bykjir - VI; to weep
  • Byl - N6; mud
  • Bylstén - N6; brick
  • Dabak - N6; stick
  • Dabar - VT; to command
  • Dabha - N5; sacrifice
  • Dabhar - VT; to sacrifice
  • Dæver - N1; husband's brother
  • Dägez - adv; yesterday, tomorrow (depending on verb tense)
  • Dägez - N6; yesterday, tomorrow
  • Dagga - N5; memory
  • Daggar - VT; to remember
  • Daggró - N4; tear
  • Dagór - VT; to fight
  • Danddan - N6; yore
  • Daragga - adj; straight
  • DDvagga - N3; human skin
  • Déin - N6; day(time)
  • Dévä - N3; goddess/ female diety
  • Dévär - N1; diety, god
  • Dir - VT; to say, to tell, to mean
  • Djanar - VT; to judge
  • Djanaró - N4; judge
  • Djend - adv; since
  • Dól - N6; pain, ache
  • Dólar - VT; to hurt, to pain
  • Dómjar - VI; to bleed
  • Dóngua - N3; tongue
  • Dont - N2; tooth
  • Dóqala - adj; natural
  • Dótra - N3; daughter, girl
  • Dóza - N3; forearm
  • Dräzil - N6; house, home
  • Drizär - VT; to study
  • Dróz - N2; loaf
  • Drugga - adj; evil
  • Druk - N6; death, destruction, evil
  • Drylélduil - adv; thoroughly
  • Duqa - N5; suffering
  • Duqar - VI; to suffer
  • Dyljär - VY; to hang
  • é - conj; and
  • éár - VT; to take, to conquer, to control
  • Edder - N1; intestines
  • Eg - N6; a day
  • Egéz - N2; lake
  • éivär - N1; vital force, spirit
  • Elär - VI; to live
  • Elbä - adv; maybe
  • Elnä - N3; elbow
  • Engir - N1; organ
  • Enverm - adv; sometime
  • ér - N1; king, lord
  • érämäz - N2; wilderness
  • érqir - N1; testicle
  • eryl - N6; other
  • erylä - adj; other
  • éryz - N2; mountain
  • érzä - N3; arse
  • Evz - N6; dawn
  • Evzä - N3; ear
  • ézen - N6; harvest
  • ézér - VT; to try, to attempt
  • Fa - N2; daughter
  • Faddaha  - adj; open
  • Falaur - VI; to must
  • Far - N1; son
  • Favhar -VI; to exhale
  • Fésträr - VT; to meet
  • Filemelä - N5; nightingale
  • Fludda - N5; horn
  • Flugga - adj; false
  • Fóla - N5; menstrual blood
  • Fólk - N6; family, kin
  • Fuqalar - VI; to act
  • Gadba - adj; angry
  • Galóa - adj; jealous
  • Gänäbir - V3; to steal
  • Ganja - N5; song
  • Ganjar – VT/I; to sing
  • Gar - N1; war, battle
  • Gard - N2; town, city, fortress
  • Garur - VT; to drag
  • Gaurór - VI; to be afraid
  • Gauróz - N6; fear
  • Gebä - N3; jaw
  • Géiä - N5; winter
  • Genyä - N3; cheek
  • Genyr - N1; knee
  • Gér - VT; to make, to create
  • Gest - N2; hand
  • Givddär - VT; to aid
  • Givivär - VDT; to give
  • Glæq - adv; the same, equally
  • Glóva - N3; brother's wife
  • Gólómur - V3; to shear
  • Gozdd - N2; stranger/guest
  • Grad - N2; hail
  • Grund - N2; hammer
  • Guelbä - N3; womb
  • Guelegä - N3; gland
  • Guenä - N3; woman
  • Guér - N1; sinew
  • Guéz - N2; event, times (pl)
  • Guezär - VT; to taste
  • Habar - VT; to hide
  • Hadaddar - VI; to occur, to happen
  • Häddemir - VT; to seal
  • Hædyr - VT; to deserve
  • Hægä - N5; spear
  • Haemär - VT; to copy
  • Haggam - N6; wisdom
  • Haggama - adj; wise
  • Hahra - adj; south
  • Hajur - N4; smell, fragrance, odour
  • Hajur - VT; to smell
  • Hajuva - N5; perfume
  • Halakar - VT; to transport
  • Hamam - N6; heat
  • Hämärä - N5; twilight
  • Hamuda - adj; thankful
  • Hamudan - N6; gratitude
  • Hamudar - VT; to thank
  • Harab -N6; ruin, wreck
  • Häzäber - VT; to calculate
  • Hazar - VT; to feel
  • Häzdder - N1; star
  • Hébir - VT; to love (familiarly)
  • Héidri - N4; part, piece
  • Helm - N6; hat
  • Hen - N2; ancestor
  • Hinä - N5; sling
  • Hjort - N6; heart, center
  • Hju - adverb; also, too
  • Hœst - N2; bone
  • Hórma - N5; wall
  • Horós -N6; stupor
  • Horózar - N1; to be put into a stupor
  • Hózar - VT; to lose
  • Hräddir - VT; to plow
  • Hrelä - N3; ewe
  • Hrézär - N1; human blood
  • Hryq - N6; silence
  • Hryqä - adj; silent
  • Huana - adj; weak
  • Hudra - N3; udder
  • Hund - N2; dog
  • Huros - Adv; now
  • Ir - VI; to go
  • Isir - N1; the specific group of gods that rules now
  • Ivrä -adj; drunk
  • Ivrär - VI; to become drunk
  • Jabaza - adj; dry
  • Jæz - N2; language
  • Jämä - adj; right
  • Jämen - N6; the right
  • Javar – VI; to work
  • Jeg - N6; ice
  • Jenddrä - N3; brother-in-law's wife
  • Jer - N1; year
  • Jóddaggu - conj; so that, in order to
  • Joqur - N1; liver
  • Jóra - adj; yellow
  • Jóstava - adj; sultry, hot
  • Kabbudd - N2; head
  • Kablar - VT; to bind, to tie
  • Kabór - VT; to bury
  • kadazar - VT; to sanctify, make holy, bless
  • Kaddbar - N4; book
  • Kadja - N5; end
  • Kadjar - VT; to end
  • Kadza – adj; holy
  • Kær - N1; fortress, castle
  • Kagga - N3; excrement
  • Kähuaejä - adj, cute
  • Kälilér - VT; to diminish
  • Kanazar - VT; to gather
  • Kaqa - N3; shit
  • Kar - conjunction, for
  • Kar - N1; male friend
  • Kara - N3; female friend
  • Karar - VT; to proclaim
  • Kard - N2; heart
  • Kardól - N6; heartache, grief
  • Karógar - VT; to be able to
  • Kavanur - VI; to exist
  • Kavna - N5; existence
  • Kél - N6; music
  • Kélijærä - adj; lost for words
  • Kenngä - N3; kneecap
  • Kér - N1; skull
  • Kevér - N4; northwind
  • Kibädir - VT; to gather, to bring together
  • Kiddäb - N6; script, writing
  • Kiddäbir - VT; to write
  • Kidebär – VI/T; to lie
  • Kinedä - N3; paradise
  • Kirbä - adj; near
  • Kivä - adj; sultry, hot, seqy
  • Kiver - N4; covering
  • Kiver - VT; to cover
  • Kizrä - adj; short
  • Klynir - N1; buttock
  • Kóra - adj; short, brief
  • Kóznór - N1; world, universe
  • Krabbar - N1; body
  • Krevä - N3; blood (generic)
  • Krózggór - N1; leg
  • Kuba - N3; hips
  • Kudular – VT/I; to copulate
  • Kulmaggarva - N5; eyebrow
  • Kuyn - adv/prep; like, as
  • Kyrir - VI; to run
  • Kyrri - N4; vehicle, fashion in which something is done
  • La - prefix, to do again
  • La-qabar - VT; to be enthralled with
  • Labas - N6; clothes
  • Laggadar - VT; to collect, gather
  • Laja - N5; sojourn
  • Lajar - VI; to rest
  • Lazgappór - VT; to take up arms against
  • Lebä - N3; lip
  • Lend - N2; kidney
  • Levqä - adj; bright
  • Lóa - N5; flower, blossom
  • Lóna - adj; blue
  • Lond - N2; haven, harbor
  • Loz - N6; shock
  • Lyggär - VI; to shine
  • Lyk - N6; light
  • Madaur - VI; to forgive (dative)
  • Madur - N1; mead (the traditional Hrotish drink)
  • Madur - N6; mankind
  • Mäggéä - adj; sweet
  • Mähæjär -VT; to erase
  • Malagga - N5; reign
  • Malaggar - VT; to rule over
  • Malar - VT; to fill
  • Mänyd - N2; person
  • Märi - N4; sea
  • Mavadar - V; to die
  • Mazar - VT; to touch
  • Meddér - VDT; to place, to put
  • Méi - conj; but
  • Meld - N2; lightening
  • Men - N6; mind, consciousness
  • Meneqér - VT; to hinder
  • Menz - N6; month
  • Menzór - N1; flesh
  • Méträ - N3; mother
  • Miggvér - VT; to cleanse
  • Miz - prep; with (inst)
  • Mizähär - VT; to wipe
  • Móna - N3; moon
  • Mónja - N3; neck
  • Mórmór - N1; whale
  • Mózgór - N1; brain
  • Mua - adj; soft
  • Mukta - adj; free
  • Muzaga - N5; whisper, rumor
  • Muzagar - VT; to whisper
  • Myggvä - N5; ritual cleansing exercises
  • Myndd - N6; a small coin
  • Naba - N3; navel
  • Naba - N5; prophecy
  • Nabar - VT; to predict
  • Nabbddór - N1; grandson
  • Naddakór - VT; to bite
  • Næn - conj; thus
  • Naur - N1; corpse
  • Navar - N4; light
  • Navar - V1; to glow
  • Navóhar – VT/I; to blow
  • Navózar - VI; to breath
  • Naza - N3; nose
  • Nazar - N4; guard
  • Nazar - VT; to guard
  • Näzér - VT; to help
  • Nebbddir - N1; nephew
  • Nebóz - N6; cloud
  • Neggäbir - VT; to dig
  • Neggär - N1; dead person
  • Nem - N2; name
  • Nemer - VT; to name
  • Nen - N6; thing
  • Nénäggä - adj; sassy
  • Nevä - N3; heaven, the heavens
  • Nevä - N3; sky
  • Nevérädérn - N6; heaven and earth
  • Nókt - N2; night
  • Nóra - adj; north
  • Nóra - adj; young
  • Nu - adverb; never
  • Nunduil - adv; now
  • Nunduilka - conj; now that
  • Nyggemér - VT; to avenge
  • Ob/ko - prep; if/then
  • óduzar - VI; to journey, to travel
  • Og - conj; or
  • óg - prep; of, about (gen)
  • ógga - N3; eye
  • óggar - VT; to stare, glance at
  • ólrudda - adj; crazy, insane, mad
  • ómza - N3; shoulder
  • ór - N1; gold
  • óra - adj; wealthy, golden, beautiful
  • órum - N2; arm
  • Oza - adj; east
  • óza - N3; mouth
  • Ozd - N2; the east
  • Paddar - N1; father
  • Pazar - N1; penis
  • Peggyr - N1; cattle
  • Pek - N6; wealth
  • Pel - N2; ball, sphere
  • Pel - N2; skin (generic)
  • Peler - VT; to skin
  • Perggä - N3; rib
  • Pérznä - N3; heel
  • Péstär - V1; to thresh, to beat
  • Piggäri - N4; cup, goblet
  • Pilä - N5; arrow
  • Piskä - N5; fish
  • Pizdä - N3; vulva
  • Plagar - VT; to stab
  • Plomór - N1; lung
  • Póda - N3; foot
  • Poga - N3; lap
  • Pula - N3; hair, lock
  • Qaba - N5; female slave/servant
  • Qabadar - VT; to serve
  • Qabar - N4; slave, servant
  • Qabrar - VT; to cross
  • Qaga - adj; fast
  • Qagal - N6; speed
  • Qaggabur - VT; to follow
  • Qamada - adj; unchanging
  • Qedär - VT; to hate, dislike
  • Qér - N1; bowels
  • Qérz - N6; horror
  • Qérzä - adj; horrible
  • Qóggar - VT; to disturb
  • Rädér - N1; earth
  • Radója - N4; pleasure
  • Radójar - VT; to please
  • Raglar - VI; to walk
  • Raham - N6; mercy
  • Rajar - VT; to see
  • Räqel - N6; orgasm
  • Razmór - VT; to draw
  • Rézär - VT; to love (romantic)
  • Rezmenz - N2; throat
  • Rhadar - VT; to wash
  • Riqibär - VT; to ride
  • Róc - N6; smoke
  • Róza - adj; red
  • Rumjar - VT; to throw
  • Sabaqa - adj; satiated
  • Saqjar - VT; to drink
  • Saga - N5; story, tale
  • Sagar - N1; speech, language
  • Sagar – VI; to speak
  • Sal - N6; valley
  • Salam - N6; peace
  • Salar - VT; to ask
  • Samaqur - VT; to hear
  • Sana - N5; hate
  • Sana - N5; word
  • Sanar - VT; to hate
  • Sar - N4; remains, remnants, ruins
  • Sar - VI; to remain, to endure
  • Sasta - N3; filth, dirt
  • Séhän - N6; heat
  • Séhér - VT; to heat
  • Sékrä - N3; mother-in-law
  • Sélämér - VT; to save
  • Seledä - adj; beautiful, pretty
  • Sem - N6; summer
  • Sembrä - adj; eternal, everlasting
  • Sembru - adv; always
  • Semja - adj; half
  • Senedir - VT; to bolster
  • Seräggär – VI/T; to rise
  • Sérhär – VT/I; to scream
  • Sóma - N5; hallucinogenic drink used in many religious rituals
  • Sig - N6; meat, food
  • Sigrä - adj; small
  • Sirä - N2; ship, boat, vessel
  • Sjardur - VT; to hunt
  • Sjól - N6; seed, sperm
  • Skap - N6; weapon, tool
  • Skra - adj; intoxicated
  • Smeq - N2; chin
  • Snéig - N6; snow
  • Snevdri - N4; mist
  • Snuza - N3; daughter-in-law
  • Sókrur - N1; father-in-law
  • Sóla - adj; alone, lonely
  • Sólórubba - N5; sunrise, dawn
  • Solv - N6; sun
  • Sondur - prep; without (inst)
  • Splengä - N3; spleen
  • Srop - N6; sling
  • Sryzir - VT; to burn, to cook
  • Stajar - VT; to drink
  • Stenä - N3; breast
  • Stón - N6; stone (material)
  • Sunur - N1; son
  • Svebben - N6; sleep
  • Svebber - VI; to sleep
  • Svéid - N2; sweat
  • Sy - prep; under (locative); to underneath (dat); from underneath (gen)
  • Syggädär - VT; to pour out
  • Tabadd - N6; the ground
  • Tabadda - adj; stable
  • Tabhar - VT; to slaughter
  • Tabqa - N5; stamp
  • Taedi - N4; art, skill, knowledge
  • Tagar - VT; to cut
  • Talpa - N3; space
  • Tanha - N5; clinging
  • Tanhar - VT; to cling to
  • Taval - N6; plain
  • Tavba - adj; good, fine
  • Témämä - adj; complete, perfect
  • Tenddä - N5; temptation, seduction
  • Tenddär - VT; to tempt, seduce
  • Terzä - adj; dry, barren
  • Tjar - VT; to stir
  • Tól - N2; island
  • Tónar - N1; thunder
  • Tóvaróq - N6; comrade
  • Traezagan - N6; trilogy
  • Trigér - VT; to dwell
  • Tróvar - VT; to find
  • Tryzä - adj; sad
  • Tudda - adj; all
  • Tudda - Adj; whole, entire
  • Tuddanon - N6; everything
  • Tular - V1; to come
  • Tulazóddavbaduil - intj; welcome
  • Ubbronda - adj; outrageous
  • Udar - VT; to hit, to strike
  • Udara - N3; belly
  • Umbar - N1; fate, destiny, Fortune
  • Und - conj; and
  • Vabur - VT; to love (an inanimate object)
  • Vadar - VI; to exit
  • Vag - N6; wave
  • Vahad - N6; union, whole
  • Vahadar - VT; to unify
  • Väheddär - VI; to fall
  • Var - VT; to do
  • Varn - N6; deed, action
  • Varnnqérezä - adj; horrified
  • Varó - N4; someone, somebody, person
  • Vastan - prep; against (loc)
  • Väzár - N4; evening
  • Vér - V2; to become
  • Vet - N2; year
  • Vezri - N4; spring
  • Viddä - adj; wise
  • Viddä - N5; wisdom
  • Vigil - N6; power
  • Vigilär - VT; to empower
  • Vihär - N4; wrath
  • Vinjä - N3; wine
  • Vir - N1; man
  • Viräddär - VI; to flow
  • Vizä - N5; verse
  • Vódchar - VT; to know
  • Vólda - N5; birth
  • Vóldar - VI1; to be born
  • Von - prep; from (gen); by (inst)
  • Vóqar - VT; to call
  • Vrydir - VI; to come down
  • Vybir - VT; to look at
  • Vydivä - N3; widow
  • Vygg - N6; trouble
  • Yb - prep, on, above (loc); over (dat)
  • Ydir - prep; between (loc)
  • Yhänä - adv; wonderful
  • Ynyr - VT; to overflow, to flood
  • Yz - N2; place, location
  • zädim - adv; then
  • zalma - adj; dark
  • zalmar - VI; to darken
  • Zalur - N4; bough
  • zar - N1; Poet
  • Zéit - N2; people, nation
  • zólóa - adj; whole
  • zraq - N6; plant
  • zraqar - VT; to plant
  • Zubur – VI/T; to lie, to cheat
  • zvézä - N3; sister
  • Mahúr - N1; hill, mountain
  • Ót - N2; horse
  • Guzvand - N2; sheep
  • Kezär - VT; to pull
  • Arava - N5; cart
  • Bazna - adj; heavy
  • Bórga - adj; big
  • Jun - N6; wool
  • Randar - VT; to drive, to operate
  • Ustar - N1; master
  • Garma - adj; warm
  • Gireqtär - VI; to flee

Example textEdit

اِوٌنِل تال سٍره حِزوندّ ناويگاندإ لِندويل. كو لَرمّ وَّندّ ايوٍ يا زو نؤن سَقه.

Avónal täl-saerâ hazundd nävigädé lenduil. Ku larmm vvandd ivé ja zu nún saqa.
River-LOC some-ships might-be-PAST sailing slowly. Where-to they be-PAST going I NEG-know.
Some ships might have sailed [up] the river. I don't know whither they were going.

***

آل ايزر، مَر پأدّره! اَل مأدوره هِ

ال سيگان يه حِزو اَقألَن، اِ هَل أرَن كَر

مو هِ مَنُ ال وٌلكُ يه حَزو اَحأدَن

äl-Izr, mar-páddra! al-Mádura h’e
al-Sigän ja hazu aqálan, e h’al-áran kar
Mu h'e mano al-vólko ja hazu ahádan!

Issr, my father! May I devour
meat and mead, and may I take
glory for both me and my family!

***

Yb al-vagro vvandd nävígrä h’äl-saerä
Arorol péstärel fluddrol baharol
Aen al-londo albano navano
Gardan óranan é lyggän Silärn.

Over the waves the ships sailed
With threshing oar and bleating horns
Into the lucent white harbor
Of Silär’s gleaming fair city.

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