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Hwayi

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Dumping Chinese on Korean does not a language make.
Hwayi
화이
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative - Accusative
Head direction Head Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 1%
Statistics
Nouns 4%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words 10 of 1500
Creator Olive11224

General InformationEdit

Hwayi (Haqi: 魂语,Hagu: 화이 IPA: /xwa.i/) is an agglutinative language spoken around the Changbai mountains. It is considered stable, with a population of about ~2,275,000 speakers. The language is vastly innovative, with much assimiation from middle chinese and korean. Thus, recent loanwords may conjugate differently compared to naturalized and natural lexicon.

OriginEdit

The Hwa PeopleEdit

The Hwa people have historically occupied much territory, from Primorsky Krai to Shandong. 

Since the formation of North Korea, it is likely that the population in North Korea has assimilated with North Korean culture and philosophy. Thus, the population may no longer speak Hwayi.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Non phonemic consonants and vowels are in brackets.

Bilabial Labio-Dental Alveolar Alveolo-Palatal Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive unaspirated p t
aspirated

Fricative

s ɕ ʂ x
Affricate unaspirated ts ʈʂ
aspirated tsʰ tɕʰ ʈʂʰ
Trill r
Approximant l j, ɥ w
  • [r] may shorten to [ɾ], as long as [r] is not the initial consonant.
  • The retroflex series does not occur before the vowel /i/.
  • Coda nasals differs depending on the initial consonant of the next syllable.
    • Before bilabial consonants: /m/
    • Before coronal consonants, glottal consonants, and if the consonant is absent : /n/
    • Before velar consonants: /ŋ/

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Back
Close i, y ɯ*, u
Near-close
Close-mid e o, ɤ
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a
  • Hwayi does not employ phonemic vowel or consonant length.

Vowel ClustersEdit

In Hwayi, many vowel clusters may consist of a Pure Vowel/Diphthong and a glide.

Main Vowel Dim. Vowel Glides
Ø j w ɥ
a Ø a ja wa ɥa
ɪ jaɪ waɪ
ʊ jaʊ waʊ

ɤ

Ø ɤ
i Ø i wi
o Ø o jo wo ɥo
e Ø e je we ɥɪ
u Ø u ju
y Ø y
ɯ Ø ɯ
  • /ɥ/ may only succeed an Alveolo-Palatal consonant.
  • Bilabial consonant can not occur before /ɥ/ or /w/.

This is a list showing the possible vowel-final combinations.

Vowel Final
n m ŋ
a /an/ /am/ /ɑŋ/
i /in/ /im/ /iŋ/
e /e/ /em/ /eŋ/
ɤ [ən] /ɤm/ /ɤŋ
o /ɔn/ /ɔm/ /ɔŋ/
u /un/ /um/ /uŋ/
y /yn/ /ym/ /yŋ/
ɯ /n̩/ /m̩/ /ŋ̍/


*Analyzation of /ɯ/ after Certain Consonants Edit
Alveolar Retroflex (Merged with Alveolar) Bilabial Velar
ɯ (With various levels of roundedness) ɯ
  • [ɯ] is often devoiced after velar consonants.

PhonotacticsEdit

  •  The language's main syllable structure is (C)N(F)
    • C = Consonant
    • N = Nucleus
    • F = Alveolar Nasal

Sound Changes From Proto-Atyarau-QiEdit

Writing SystemEdit

This language usually uses a heavily modified variation of the Korean alphabet in conjunction with a Chinese- based logography. The alphabet shown here is similar to the actual alphabet.

Letter
Sound /n/, ⟨n⟩ /m/, /ɱ/, ⟨m⟩ /ŋ/, ⟨ng⟩ /t/, ⟨d⟩ /p/, ⟨b⟩ /k/, ⟨g⟩ /s/, ⟨s⟩
Letter
Sound /ɕ/, ⟨x⟩ /ʂ/, ⟨sh⟩ /tsʰ/, ⟨c⟩ /tɕʰ, ⟨q⟩ /tʂʰ/, ⟨ch⟩ /ts/, ⟨z⟩ /tɕ/, ⟨j⟩
Letter
Sound /tʂ/, ⟨zh⟩ /tʰ/, ⟨t⟩ /pʰ/, ⟨p⟩ /kʰ/, ⟨k⟩ /r/, ⟨r⟩ /l/, ⟨l⟩ /x/, ⟨h⟩
Letter
Sound /i/, ⟨i⟩ /y/, ⟨ui⟩ /ɤ/, ⟨eo⟩ /a/, ⟨a⟩ /o/, ⟨o⟩ /u/, ⟨u⟩ /e/, ⟨e⟩
Letter
Screenshot (41)
Screenshot (42)
Sound /ɯ/, ⟨eu⟩ /u̯/, ⟨u⟩ /ɪ̯/, ⟨i⟩

GrammarEdit

The language is SOV. Hwayi is traditionally suffixing.

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Noun phrasesEdit

Nouns in Hwayi lack grammatical gender, articles and number. In order to show number and definiteness, the noun must be bound to a classifier.

Example 1: 애태왜猫 Etewemani, literally one [classifier- small animate] cat.

Example 2: 사왜猫 Sawemani, literally this [classifier- small animate] cat.

Case -a, ae, iu, i -u, eu, e, o -n, ng, m

Nominative

- Ø - Ø Ø

Accusative

-yin -un -ate
Example Tekagae > Tekagaeyin Arawu > Arawun Yoshon > Yoshonate

Dative

-yae -geo -amin
Example Kita > Kitayae Geo > Geogeo Sabarun > Sabarunamin

Genitive

-ain -non -eoyo
Example Ori > Orin Oseu > Oseunon Kagazen > Kagazeneoyo

Vocative

-qywan -sun - a
Example Maexi > Maexiqywan

Meyo > Meyosun

Puran > Purana

Hwayi also uses postpositions to show spatial relations.

Definition

Postposition Example
In (Inessive) eli Inside the house.
At (Adessive) ili At the house.
To (Lative) aidi To the house, into the house.
From (Ablative) iyiu From the house.
Above, On top of, Upon (Superessive) dweoseu On the house.
Below, On the bottom of (Subessive) laowa Below the house.




DemonstrativesEdit

Hwayi has a four-way distinction between demonstratives, similar to the Northern Sami languages. (Proximal, Mesioproximal, Mesiodistal and Distal.)

Demonstrative Definition

English Equivalent

Sweo Proximal This
Nani

Mesioproximal

That (near you)
Qedeu Mesiodistal

That (same difference to both of us, rather near.)

Jan Distal That (far away)

ClassifiersEdit

Classifiers, or counter words, work similarly to Chinese, and must be bound to a noun if one were to describe number or definiteness. Here is a list of the classifiers which are commonly used.

Pronunciation Example
Akeo ~~
Seum Seeds, Snowflakes
Onca Cars, Tigers
Mountains, Planets
Humans, Deities
Cats, Dogs
Lions, Komodo Dragons
Pencils, Rivers
Drums, Bowls
Insects, Fish
QuantityEdit

Many classifiers may be used to demonstrate quantity. They mostly descend from the morphemes for much, xyo, and the morpheme for less, gata.

Meaning Word

Unspecified

Xyogata
Pair Shan
More than Two Rung
Not Much Boxyo
Not Few Bogata
A Large Quantity Taxyo
A Small Quantity Tagata
Unspecified Amount (Questions) Kaxi

NumbersEdit

English Sino-Xenic Traditional
One Yin Yiuci
Two Ni Za
Three San Twe
Four Si Kani
Five Ngo Liu
Six Lyung Co
Seven Tsin Siba
Eight Ban Hai
Nine Kyu Nwa
Ten Jim Doseu
Hundred Bang Ungu
Thousand Cen ~
Ten Thousand Yiuan Sha
Million ~ Eotweo
Hundred Million Ying Qyo
Billion ~ Pyiun
Trillion Ryo Mao

Pronouns Edit

The pronouns in Hwayi act similarly to Japanese pronouns; they aren't true pronouns. They act more similarly to regular nouns, and are sometimes derived from nouns. Also like Japanese, they are an open word class.

First person Alternate Meaning Character Respect Gender
Yo ~ plain Male
Qiya

Affection

plain Female
Oenau ~ formal Both
Second person Alternate Meaning Character Respect Gender
gu ~ plain Male
teu Peculiar plain Female
eona Compassion formal Both
Third person Alternate Meaning Character Respect Gender
li ~ plain Male
lai 𡛥 plain Female
hu Elderly one formal both
swe

Inanimate Object

plain/formal inanimate
ReflexivesEdit

The only reflexive in Hwayi is ki, a suffix. It is a loanword from middle chinese. To use it, it is added as a suffix to a pronoun or a noun.

Example: Me eke taohan-ú twe meki-e. Lit: I(NOM) one [classifier]cup[ACC] give(Present) I[reflexive][DAT].

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives must occur before a noun. 

VerbsEdit

The verb system of Hwayi is somewhat complex.

Mood Polarity Voice Aspect Tense
-
indicative
-
affirmative
-
active
-
simple
-
present
-keon, ken-
conditional
-abe, bi-
negative
-be, iba-
passive
-zeon, zen-
progressive
-can-
past
-kyo, ki-
jussive
-wan-
perfective
-ho, hiu-
future
-hwa-
imperative
-han-
inchoative
-yi, eu-
inferential
-jiu, du-
subjunctive

-kywai, kwau-epistemic

MoodEdit

  1. Indicative - States a fact witnessed by the speaker, in some direct form. -"I feel/hear/see/etc. him running"
  2. Conditional - Indicates that an action depends on another event -"If the motion of his legs is propelling him forward, he is running"
  3. Jussive - Indicates a desire -"I want to run"
  4. Imperative - Indicates a command -"You must run"
  5. Inferrential - Indicates a fact not witnessed directly by the speaker. -"John Doe told me he was running"
  6. Subjunctive - Indicates a thought -"I am thinking that he is running"
  7. Epistemic- Indicates a statement deemed possible

AspectEdit

Auxillary Verbs

Similarily to many other inflecting languages, the auxillary verb in Hwayi is irregularily conjugated.

ParticlesEdit

The particle "iye" is used to form yes/no questions.

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example text Edit

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.  

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