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Iaskyon

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Name: Iaskyon

Type: Rather synthetic

Alignment: Ergative-Absolutive

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes No
Nouns No Yes No No No Yes No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No Yes No No

General informationEdit

IMAG0126

'Iaskyon' in Iaswü handwriting.

Iaskyon (IPA: /ˈjas.kjɔn/) is an Yosic language native to an island nation Iaskáca. It is notable for its handling of ergativity, heavy verb conjugation, as well as synthetic noun compounding. Iaskyon can be written in two left-to-right scripts called Iaswü (IPA: /ˈjas.βy/, literally Ias writing) and Xogwü (IPA: /ˈɣɔg.βy/, literally rock writing).

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ŋ /ŋ/
Plosive p /p/ b /b/ t /t/ d /d/ k /k/ g /g/
Fricative Plain f /ɸ/ w /β/ s /s/ z /z/ h /x/ x /ɣ/
Lateral ş /ɬ/
Affricate Plain þ /tθ/ c /ts/ j /dz/
Lateral ç /tɬ/
Approximant w /w/ l /l/ y /j/

Syllabic consonantsEdit

/m/ and /l/ have syllabic counterparts ḿ /m̩/ and ĺ /l̩/.

VowelsEdit

Short vowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i /i/ ü /y/ u /u/
Mid e /ɛ/ ö /œ/ à /ɜ~ə/ o /ɔ/
Open a /a/

Long vowelsEdit

Long vowels are represented orthographically by an acute accent or adding à. e.g. é or .

Front Central Back
Close í /iː/ ű /yː/ ú /uː/
Mid é /eː/ ő /øː/ â /əː~ɘː/ ó /oː/
Open á /aː/

DiphthongsEdit

There is a large inventory of possible diphthongs, with a total of 15 of them.

ai au äi äu ei eu iu üa üe üi üö ui oi ou öü
/ai//au//əi//əu//ei//ɛu//iu//ya//yɛ//yi//yœ//ui//ɔi//ou//œy/

PhonotacticsEdit

Iaskyon syllables are maximally:

(C(G))V(C), or (C(G))S,

where C = consonant, G = glide, V = vowel and S = syllabic consonant.

OnsetEdit

The initial consonant has no restrictions.

The following glide can be y/j/ or w/β/>[w].


Allowed onsets are of the followings:

by py dw dy tw ty gw gy kw ky
/bj//pj//dw//dj//tw//tj//gw//gj//kw//kj/
jy cw cy þw þy
/dzj//tsw//tsj//tθw//tθj/
fy wi sy zy şw şy hw hy xw xy
/ɸj//βj//sj//zj//ɬw//ɬj//xw//xj/ [ç]//ɣw//ɣj/ [ʝ]
mw my ny ŋy
/mw//mj//nj//ŋj/
lw ly
/lw//lj/

NucleusEdit

The nucleus can be any vowel, except for iu üa üe üi üö ui /iu ya yɛ yi yœ ui/ when the onset consists of an initial consonant and a glide.

Syllables such as yui /jui/, wüan /βyan/ are allowed but rare.

Syllabic consonants ḿ /m̩/ and ĺ /l̩/ can also be a nucleus but the syllable cannot have a coda.

CodaEdit

The final consonant, can technically be any consonant except y /j/ and w /β/, but þ /tθ/ and ç /tɬ/ are very rare.

(þaç /tθatɬ/ "red" is an example of an exception.)

AllophonyEdit

  • Plosives are usually unreleased at coda.
  • Plosives and affricates are aspirated at onset.
  • h /x/ is realised as [ç] before and after /i(:)/, /y(:)/, and before /j/.
  • x /ɣ/ is realised as [ʝ] before and after /i(:)/, /y(:)/, before /j/, and [ʔ] at the end of a syllable.
  • w /β/ is realised as [w] as a glide (second consonant) in a syllable.
  • t /t/ are realised as [ʔ] at the end of a syllable.

StressEdit

Stress of a word follows these rules in order of priority:

Stress falls on

  1. First long vowel
    e.g. hep "bright" but not *hep
  2. "Separable affixes" (See below) are not counted
  3. Penultimate syllable
  4. If stress falls on a grammatical suffix (other than conjugational suffixes), move stress one syllable backwards.
    e.g. aegemjo "merge" but not *aegemjo

Stress of a "separable compound word" (See below) follow these overriding rules:

Stress falls on

  1. The head component
    e.g. lwoþwat "have to find"
    e.g. kolmunawa "winter sky"

Separable and non-separable affixesEdit

Non-separable affixes are:

  • All affixes that are inseparable in terms of a new meaning conveyed
    e.g. -en appended to tinwet "teach":
    • tinweten "act of teaching" is separable
    • tinweten "education" is non-separable
  • All infixes
  • Directional affixes
    e.g. ukhàg "come down"
  • Causative prefix
    e.g. lahyet "make (sb.) eat"

Other affixes are separable.

Separable and non-separable compound wordsEdit

Non-separable compound words are:

  • Compound words of which the meaning has shifted, or become specific
    e.g. yetihken "restaurant" vs. yetihken "place of eating"
  • Compound words which are frequently used
    e.g. syomxaod "fish meat/flesh"

MorphophonologyEdit

Internal sandhiEdit

SynaeresisEdit

The following table shows the general formation of diphthongs or long vowels from two adjacent short vowels on a morpheme boundary.

  • Empty spaces imply the vowels are pronounced in two syllables.
  • Combinations resulting in glide + vowel cannot occur if there is already a glide prior to the vowels.
Second vowel
First vowel a à e i ü u o ö
a á á ai ai au au au
à â ài àu àu àu
e ya é é ei eu eu eu
i ya ye í iu yo
ü üa üe üi ű üö
u wa ui ui ú wo
o ó oi oi ou ó oi
ö öü öü öü ő
Suffix sandhiEdit
RendakuEdit

When two consecutive syllables start with the same voiceless consonant, the second consonant is voiced.

  • háhàge (greeting) /ˈxaːxɜɡɛ/ > [ˈxaːɣɜɡɛ]
  • sesḿ (spoke) /'sɛsm̩/ > [ˈsɛzm̩]

External sandhiEdit

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

There are no grammatical genders nor articles in Iaskyon. Nouns are only inflected for cases, and inflection for number is generally obsolete.

There are 7 cases in Iaskyon:

Case (suffix) Usage Example in Iaskyon Example in English
Ergative

(-i)

Agent of transitive verb Wi goxe yesḿ. I ate rice.
Absolutive

(none or -u)

Argument of intransitive verb;

object of transitive verb

Jakniyw hàg.

Hwei lím dém.

Jakniyw comes.

(The) Person drinks water.

Locative

(-eu)

Time, location; topic Fá hwe hecleŋeu pöüloşöü.

To yetihkeneu löüm.

All human are equal in dignity.

He was at the restaurant.

Dative

(-em)

Indirect object of ditransitive verb; motion to location; addressee of greetings; end of a period of time Matnuem háhàge!

Toi zeà wem cailüm.

Greetings everyone!

He gave a book to me.

Ablative

(-ax)

Motion from location; start of a period of time Wu Iaskácáx hàg.

Fá hwe nixonax yawaoşöü.

I come from Iaskáca.

All human being are free since birth.

Genitive

(-ö)

Possession, origin, reference; formation of some compounds; counting with measures Yetihkenö zeà a.

zeà a.

Límö hyuxdon la.

(It) is a book about restaurant(s).

(It) is my book.

There are two carts of water.

Instrumental

(-ĺ)

Instrument, means; topic, object in some verbs Ebi wüanĺ zeyu.

Toi sononĺ set.

We record with a pen/pens.

He talks about bridges.

PronounsEdit

Personal pronounsEdit

Personal pronouns in Iaskyon are relatively simple, as all pronouns are distinct and specific in person and number.

There is a three-way distinction of singular, dual and plural pronouns inherited from older, now obsolete declensions in number.

Another three-way distinction in sentient, animate and inanimate beings in third person pronouns exists, which originates from an even older noun class system.

  • The wu-form is the more generic, while the xeà-form is often considered informal, sometimes even arrogant.

DemonstrativesEdit

VerbsEdit

Verbs are the most productive lexical category in Iaskyon, which describes an action, an event, a state, or a change in state. It is heavily conjugated to tense, aspect and mood. There exists two grammatical classes of verbs, namely t-class and null-class.

T-class and null-class verbsEdit

T-class and null-class verbs are two classes of verbs that take different forms when conjugated.

  • T-class verbs:
    • By definition end with a 't'
    • May be formed by
      • An obsolete affix added to a root ending with a vowel; verbs formed this way may or may not end with 'et'.
      • Derivation from other parts of speech; verbs formed this way tend to end with 'et'.
    • When conjugated, the 't'-ending of which undergoes irregular consonant mutation.
  • Null-class verbs:
    • Does not end with a 't'
    • May be formed by
      • Unaltered root forms
      • Other derivations into verbs
    • When conjugated, the endings of which may or may not undergo regular sound mutation.

TenseEdit

Iaskyon verbs have 4 tenses, each representing different time of action relative to the time of utterance.

  • Present

The present, or the unconjugated form, marks:

  1. actions or events that take place in the present, or an indefinite time.
    e.g. Wi goxe yet. "I eat rice (now or at an indefinite time)"
  2. actions or events of which the time is unknown.
    e.g. Toi wem upleu sesadem su upcyeu (lau) nasḿ. "He said to me at some point but I forgot when."
  3. actions or events that have an implied time due to simultaneity with other events, or because it is already mentioned in the main clause.
    e.g. Tĺbo wakowem þàkfeulletpye, i Sináeu uhöl kaisḿ. "As they are moving east, they discovered plains in Shinar."
  • Past

The past marks:

  1. actions or events that take place in the past relative to the time of utterance.
    e.g. Wi üşeu goxe yesḿ. "I ate rice yesterday"
  2. actions or events that take place in the past relative to the time of another specified event.
    e.g. Yoi yase lömçupye, wu xyenyopüm. "By the time you (will) read this, I will probably have died.
  • Near future

The near future marks:

  1. actions or events that are upcoming, in the immediate, and planned or forcast future.
    e.g. Wi xuso. "I gonna go".
    e.g. Wu xyeno. "I am dying soon."
  2. actions or events that take place in a definite, subjectively non-distant future.
  3. actions or events that are more temporary than another.
  • Distant future

The distant future marks:

  1. actions or events that take place in a far future, i.e. months or years after.
  2. actions or events that take place in an indefinite future that is subjectively distant.
  3. long term states in the future.

AspectEdit

  • Generic / gnomic

The gnomic aspect marks:

  1. general truths (must be in present tenses).
    e.g. Hawon höüi. "The sun shines."
  2. general, enduring situations (e.g. habits) which may not be permanent (may be in any tense except near future).
    e.g. Wu upib öüm. "I used to be young"
  • Progressive

The progressive aspect marls:

  1. incomplete actions in progress in the referenced time.
    e.g. Wi goxe yellet. "I am eating rice."
    e.g. Ecliyw Nóusononem xusmet. "Ecliyw was going to Northbridge."
  2. state transition in progress in the referenced time.
    e.g. Wi kod holàket. "I am putting on a 'kod' (shirt)." not *"I am wearing a 'kod'."

MoodEdit

  • Potential
  • Permissive
  • Abilitative
  • Desiderative
  • Imperative
  • Cohortative
  • Optative

Other verb formsEdit

  • Causative
  • "Linking" form
  • "Compound" form

(See below)

Other verb typesEdit

Transitive and intransitive verbsEdit
Auxiliary verbsEdit

Some moods cannot be expressed by conjugation and auxiliary verbs are utilised.

Compound verbsEdit
Irregular verbsEdit
  • a - to be

The verb a is the copula. It takes two arguments, both in the absolutive. It is used to:

  1. denote identity.
    e.g. Hüikiyw wö alnoem a. "Hüikiyw is my mother."
  2. denote class mermbership, except for class within classes.
    e.g. Wu hwe a. "I am a human."
    e.g. *Hwétoun taulon a. "Dogs are animals." (See sa)
  • la - to exist
  • sa - to belong

The verb sa takes two arguments, the "possessor" being in the ergative and the "possessed" in the absolutive. It is used to:

  1. denote possession.
  2. denote class being within other classes.
    e.g. Hwétoun tauloni sa. "Dogs are animals."
  • jo - to become

Conjugation tablesEdit

Adjectives and adverbsEdit

ParticlesEdit

NumbersEdit

The number system in Iaskyon is vigesimal (base-20). The writing system Iaswü has a set of 20 numerals to represent it.

Larger numbers are grouped by yil /jil/ (100020, i.e. 800010), alike the Indo-European system of grouping by thousands.

Basic numeralsEdit

Numerals
Iaskyon Vig. Dec. Iaskyon Vig. Dec.
gwön 0 0 A 10
1 1 pih B 11
don 2 2 töe C 12
làd 3 3 zei D 13
wöx 4 4 fún E 14
5 5 çà F 15
wou 6 6 ŋeh G 16
sün 7 7 küz H 17
8 8 ox J 18
bux 9 9 xeu K 19
  • I is skipped in the vigesimal notation to avoid mistaking for 1.

Attached formsEdit

  • Normal nouns
    Numbers are appended as a suffix to the noun.
    • gin (thing): ginya (1), gindon (2), ginlàd (3), ginwöx (4), ginkí (5)...
    • mök (cat): mökya (1), mökdon (2), möklàd (3), mökwöx (4), mökkí (5)...
  • Hwe
    The word hwe "person" takes irregular forms with numbers.
    • hwá (1), hudau (2), huyàd (3), huwöx (4), hukí (5)...
  • Ordinals
    The ordinal prefix takes the form of cV-, where V is the first (short) vowel of the numeral.
    • cyé (1), codon (2), càlàd (3), cöwöx (4), cikí (5), cowou (6)...
  • Number of times
    In representing number of times or instances, a suffix -hen is used.
    • yahun (1), dauhun (2), làdhen (3), wöxhen (4), kíhen (5)...

Fractions and vigesimalsEdit

Word derivationEdit

Change in parts of speechEdit

No change in parts of speechEdit

Word compoundingEdit

SyntaxEdit

Word orderEdit

Relative clausesEdit

SpeechEdit

VocabularyEdit

Swadesh listEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


Example textsEdit

The Universal Declaration of Human RightsEdit

  • Article 1; Kiloncy-1

Fá hwe nixonax yawaoşöüno, hecleŋeu cwakleŋeuel pöüloşöü.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.


Tĺbo lékmaşehĺ hácexşehĺel üneĺino, i çamkwel mwőgkwolöŋau núgĺ çodgat.

They are endowed with reason and conscience and should treat each other in a spirit of brotherhood.

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