|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
The Chungganese Language (Ice, derived from ica [idiomachungga], meaning "Chungganese language") is a language that is currently being spoken in the Chungga Empire since the middle 16th century. The language first grew as a result of the Spanish revolution, a linguistic revolution that took place in the same century, which led to the bilingualism of Chungganese people of the Antocu and Ice languages.
Chungganese phonology is entirely phonetic with very few exceptions. One of these is the dç cluster which is pronounced as d͡ʒ.
There is also the voiceless palato-alveolar affricate t͡ʃ.
Main article: Chungganese Orthography
The Chungganese alphabet has 21 letters; all of the letters of the English alphabet, minus the letters h, k, q, v, w, x, z. The letters added are ç (which represents a t͡ʃ sound) and š (ʃ sound).
The language can be currently written in three writing systems:
- Mago. The Antocu word for "major". This is the most commonly-used script as it is written in the Latin script.
- Chunggul. A portmanteau of Chungganese and Hangul, the writing system of the Korean language.
- Chunggayin. A portmanteau of Chungganese and Baybayin, the ancient writing system of the Filipino language.
|Shortcut||Part of Speech|
See also: Chungganese Grammar
Nouns have three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. By far, the most common gender among nouns is the neuter gender, denoted by the ending -e. Nouns that do not belong to the neuter gender are called gender-sensitive nouns by local Chungganese, which consist of the feminine and masculine gender. Feminine nouns are marked with the ending -a, while masculine nouns end in -o.
The language has an indefinite article tun- and a definite article le.
The indefinite article tun- is attached before the word it modifies.
The definite article le is always omitted, even in noun declensions. However, the article is used when declining nouns that are not classified as common nouns.
There are eleven cases in the Chungganese language.
When declining a gender-sensitive noun, the ending -y is added before following the rules stated below.
The first case is the accusative case, marked with the ending -l. Vaguely, the ending is used to denote the definite article le, an additional reason to why le is not used alone.
The ten other cases in Chungganese are denoted based on preposition.
|in, on, at||-en||-ens|
There are seven basic conjugations in Chungganese, with each determining the person and number.
- The chef makes our food for tonight. -> Lutegte cre joinoçun cainesçes.
- We play Hide And Seek in the backyard. -> Juges licden Tagtabuesce.
There are past, future and progressive stems as well.
- Past (and also perfect) -> -kd
- Future -> -kr
- Progressive -> -kn
If a need for combinations arises (e.g. past progressive tense), the order of the stems will be
(future) - (progressive) - (past) - (simple) The letter k is replaced by the last vowel of the root. A tricky rule is that vowels are divided into two groups: progressive (a, e, o) and past group (a, i, u).
In action, for a verb with the root canar-, the progressive stem will be -an, while the past stem will be -ad.
- They went to the laboratory to research on their latest project. -> Çatdaun fo lin modmuttraibeço.
- We were working while you weren't here. -> Trabanades acen gumlinsidu.
One of the most fascinating things about the language is its system of indirect objects. Instead of adding a word or a totally different suffix, the conjugation that corresponds to the indrect object is used.
In action, the root amar- means "love". Remove the -ar to form present. Add an -i to make it "I love". Add a -u as an indirect object, and it becomes amiu or "I love you".
Also, the indirect object suffix for "it" is -le. Example:
- I like her because she is pretty. -> Gustia cupgandesa.
- They came to me to ask how I am doing. -> Geloi lin cumustoi.
Reflexive and Intensive PronounsEdit
Reflexive pronouns are treated like verb conjugations. Showing the reflexive of a conjugated verb will call for the -us conjugation after the conjugated verb. Example:
- I did myself this artwork. -> Gidius tisartcle.
- He cooked himself spaghetti for dinner. -> Lutadilus apunun paste.
To indicate intensive pronouns, one adds the affix -tuš before the verb.
Chungganese adjectives are what give the language its unique touch. Every adjectival phrase is just one word, and its noun is always at the end. To add adjectives to nouns, remove the last letter then place before the noun. Same goes for all other adjectives.
If a prepositional phrase follows the noun one is referring to, turn it to an adjective and do the same procedure. Processes like these are how words can get as long as twenty characters.
Main article: Chungganese Numbers
| Part of a series of articles on the Chungganese language|
Icen baisins tuleuyin piarte || 이케엔 바니신스 투제우인 피알테
|Chungganese Essentials||Grammar • Writing systems|
|Lexicon||Numbers • Exonyms|
|Poetry||(View original and translated poems & songs in Chungganese)|
|Prose||(View original and translated texts in Chungganese)|