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Idoburgish/Sound Changes

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Bleh.

The sound changesEdit

No specific order, though. I am a noob at putting the sound changes in an order, therefore I request the order of sound changes not to be a reason to give lesser preference to Idoburgish.

Here P = plosive, O = obstruent, J = /n t d s k g x/ (Consonants which may be palatalized. There's a shitload of fuss over them, so they'll be explained later.)

-Umlaut-
The umlaut is greatly reduced, with only the i-umlaut left in widespread use.
a e > e  i /_$i ! {a: o:} ai ei > ei ii /_$i (stadiz > stediz ! ailidaz > ailidaz)

- Stage 1 -

z > 0 /_# (ailidaz, niftiz > ailida, nifti)
z > r (betizô > betirô)
awj > aij (awjō > aijō)
wj > j: /V_V (niwja > nij:a)
wj > j (if exists)
ai > e: (ailida > e:lida)
au > u: (kaupo:na > ku:po:na)
h > 0 /_C ! /V_C (hrinþa > rinþa ! tahrą > tahrą)
ą > 0 /_# (je:rą > je:r)
ō ô ǭ > a /_# (e:jō > e:ja)
þ > d (þurp > durp)
VC:a > V:Cə (nij:a > ni:jə > !ni:wə)
s > 0 /C_# (e:ks > e:k)
a > ə /_# (rinda, e:ja > rində, e:jə)
ǫ̂ > (an >) ən /_# (wulfǫ̂ > wulfən)
ə > ʲ /J_# (rində > rindʲ) 
i > ʲ /J_C l_C (e:lidʲ > e:lʲdʲ)
ə > i /_# ! /j_# (betʲrə > betʲri; ni:wə > ni:wi ! e:jə > e:jə)
i > ʲ /_# (nifti > niftʲ)

si > ʃ /_# (hesi > heʃ)
tj > tsʲ /_V (matjan > matsʲan)
g > j /#_V (gaskaftʲ > jaskaftʲ)
ja jo > je (jaskaftʲ > jeskaftʲ)
Jji Jjə > Jʲ /C_# (nidjə > nidʲ)
ji jə > j /_# (e:jə > e:j)

P[+voiced] > P[-voiced] /_# (rinʲdʲ, elʲdʲ > rinʲtʲ, elʲtʲ) << only in speech
C1C2ʲ C1ʲC2 > C1ʲC2ʲ (rindʲ > rinʲdʲ) << SAP

Cʲ > C /_C (betʲri > betri; e:lʲd > e:ld) << only in writing

P[+voiced] P[-voiced] > P[-voiced] P[+voiced] /#_V  (durp > turp)
sk > ʃ /_V[+front] (skind > ʃind)
sC > ʃC (stetʲ > ʃtetʲ)

- Stage 2 -

Umlaut: o u > ö /_$i ! oi ui > öi

eu > ö (sceutan > scötan)
oi > ö (ējōi > ējo /e:jø/)
iu wi (> y) > ø ! /#_ (swimsl > sömsl)
jV[+front] wV[+back] > V: (jitsj > ītsj; wundr > ūndr)
j > 0 /#_V[+front] (jescötj > escötj)
w > 0 /#_V[+back]

è > ə (e'ʃøc > ə'ʃøc) << only in speech
ə > e /Cj_ (farjən > farjen) << SAP

PF > FP /_# (ītsj > īstj /i:ʃc/)
t tj d dj > 0 /O_# (lehdj /leçc/ > lech; īstj > !īstj)
{t d} {tj dj} > p i /m_# (gemtj > gemp; !gemdj > gemi)
{t d} {tj dj} > k hj /n_# (gind > gink)
hj > h(h)i /_# (ēch > ēh(h)i /e:ç(:)i/) << the <h> here counts as long in sound changes and this has a lot of irregularities
Cl > Cle /_# (sömsl > sömsle)
s > sc /_V[+front]V _ø (sömsle > scömsle)
ų > e [ə] /_# (eekų > eeke)
u > i /N_# (ginnu > ginni)
u[-stressed] > e /C_N#
{u e i}[-stressed] > 0 /C_CV C_C#
u[-stressed] > 0 /C_# ! /Cn_# (wintru > wintr)

Vn V:n > Ṽ /_C _# ! /#_# ən > ə̃ (wrecan > wrecą; warōn > warǫ; tagān > tagą; farjen > farję ! in > in; ūlfen > ūlfen) << distinguished in writing only partially

{je ja} {ję ją} [+unstressed] > i į (farję > farį)
tr dr > tsj /_C _# (ųdr > ųtsj)
tsj > sj /_# (ųtsj > ųsj)
V > V: /_hCC _hC# (tahr > tāhr)
hC > C /_C _# (tāhr > tār) << and previous are messing things up: <tār> in nom. but <tahrami> in dat. (merged with instrumental)
u [+stressed] > ö ! /#C_C# (purg > pörg ! tur > tur)
V[+nasal] > Vn /_F# (ųsj > ųnsj)
ų ų: [+stressed] > öö (ųnsj > öönsj)
J(J)(J) > Jʲ(Jʲ)(Jʲ) /V[+front]_# 
{e ē} [-stressed] > i /C_# (ēldē > ēldi)
i[-stressed] > ʲ /J_# (ēldi > ēldj)
ī[-stressed] > e /_#
F > P /L_# (ölf > ölp)
f > p /_# 
V > V: /_J _Jʲ (tödisj > töödisj)
i > 0 /C_C (ējpörgisj > ējpörgsj; töödisj > (töödsj >) töötsj)
d > j /V_V[+front] (blōdi > blōji)
w > p /#_r (wrecą > precą)
c > h /V_V (precą > prehą)
tsj sj > ss /V_V[+back] (ītsjǫ > īssǫ)

V:[+high] V:[-high] > V:˦˨ V:˦˨˧ (ēj > ē˦˨˧j) << pathetically cribbed (c) from Limburgish and not indicated in writing

FʲPʲ > FP /_# (īstj > īsc)
sc > sj /_# (īsc > īsj)
wa we > ō (gwemą > gōmą)
V:[-stressed] > V /_# (sō > so)
lj nj > li ni /_# (arnj > (arni >) erni)
ö[-stressed] > o /_# ! /j_# (tūdö > tūdo)
Cni > Cen /_# (gegni > gegen)
(j g ch h)en > in /V_# (gegen > gein)
aa > ao (waadj > waodj) << i-umlaut: äö
{eer} ier > eeë ieë /_C (eersj > eeësj)
ör ir > öö ie /_C (pörg > pöög; törp > tööp)
i > 0 /_# << depends on grammar
- Defuckerization of nasal vowels -
į > jen /_# ! not in monosyllables
ą > an
Ṽ > en /_#
Ṽ > Vn

^ All that is not considering the influences and irregularities. There are s**tloads of both.

Orthography:
Stage 2: <-j> for palatalization; <sc> for /ʃ/ before front vowels and /sk/ elsewhere; <sj> for /ʃ/; macrons for long vowels; <h> for /x/ and /ç/ before <i ö>; <ch> for /ç/ elsewhere; <ö> for /ø/ except after <j>, where /ø/ is denoted by <o>; <c> for /k/ everywhere.

Stage 3 (modern): <sj> for all /ʃ/, <k> for /k/ everywhere, <ö> for all /ø/; <gk> for hard /g/ and word-final /g/ after /n/. Irregular tonality: acute and grave accents for rising and falling tones respectively.

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