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Ienn

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[This is my first conlang, which I haven't used for a long time. I try to remake this language now by using manuscriptes and earlier documents. Because of discovering newer things and making its grammar more professional there can be temporary notes on this page, sorry.]



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Name: Ienn

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-accusative

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

HistoryEdit

Ienn is a language of a fictional world.

Ienn is a language of the planet Oart. Imagine our Earth with the same age, same attributes, similar continents, same flora and fauna. But a big group of the first human beings did not speak an indo-european language. They spoke the Euny language.

This language family is younger than our indo-european one.

Euny was just a bit different from this Ienn. But today that language does not more exist. After the first changes in Euny, another language started being alive: the Europine. In the middle time of Europine a new language variant appeared; this was the Panorka (today it's died). But there are two languages evolved: Norka, which is really similar to Panorka, and Panora, which is less.

Wait for the whole history later. It'll be interesting...

PhonologyEdit

a, b, c [t͡s], d, e, f, g [d͡ʒ], gh [g], h, i, j [d͡z], k, l, m, n, o, oa [ø], p, q [kv], r, s, t, u, v, w [v], x [ks], y [i] or [j], z [ʒ], zh [z]

Letters not followed by bracket are pronounced as the corresponding IPA symbols. Double letters: gh [g]; oa - [ø]; zh [z]. Gh, oa and zh are called in Ienn double letters, because they act grammatically like one letter.

q is always pronounced as [kv]

x is always pronounced as [ks]

v and w are pronounced identically, i.e. as [v]. The occurence of v or w in writing is not predictable, instead it must simply be learnt. Both letters are used because in the past there was a distinction between the letters, i.e. [v] and [w].

In the beginning of a word y is pronounced as [j] before a vowel, [i] before a consonant, in other cases after cononants [i], after vowels [j].

We can reduplicate the letters, which will show us the length of the sounds.

sii ['si:]

siesse [sie's:e]

vaaden [va:'den]

The two tables below show IPA symbols with the corresponding letter(s) of the alphabet in parentheses beside them.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m (m) n (n)
Plosive p (p) b (b) t (t) d (d) k (k) g (gh)
Fricative f (f) v (v, w) s (s) z (zh) ʒ (z) h (h)
Affricate t͡s (c) d͡z (j) d͡ʒ (g)
Approximant l (l) j (y)
Trill r (r)

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i (i, y) u (u)
Close-mid e (e) ø (oa) o (o)
Open a (a)

StressEdit

The one-syllabe words have no stress in general.

In other cases the stress is always on the last syllabe of the root.

Any forms of the copula ('oa) take the stress from the root or generate it if it's added to a word with one syllabe root.

Let me remember in brackets that oa is one letter (it is calculated like one syllabe); soa [sø:], while ii is two; sii ['si:].

LengthEdit

One syllabe words are basicly short. o and oa are long if they are in the end of the word.

The vowel in a stressed syllabe is always long and the others in the same word are short.

i and y are always short, while ii is always long.


GrammarEdit

ArticlesEdit

DefiniteEdit

The definite article is la. It does not change according to number or case. Use it when something is supposed to be known or a concrete thing by the person who you speak with. Do not use before personal names.

IndefiniteEdit

The indefinite article is leqe. Do not use in plural.

The articles always go before the noun and the adjectives.


NounsEdit

Nouns have no genders. {C}Basicly nouns are in singlar, nominative case. They can have also plural, dual, both and some cases as well.

You use plural when you speak about more then one thing (and they are not one pair). You use it even if something other shows the plurality (for example a number before). The plural ending is -(e)sse. This ending is regular (see: General rules of endings).

mouse - mice: maus - mausesse

city - cities: seloave - seloavesse

You use dual when you speak about pair of things. Do not use dual if it's about two things which are not a pair. The ending of dual is: - (e)nne. You can use also plural of a dual noun. It means more than one pair of things. Then the ending is logically: -(e)nnesse. These endings are regular (see: Grammatical endings ). There are three cases: nominative, accusative and genitive. We use the accusative case after a transitive verb.  We have to add the ending of accusative to nouns and pronouns. The ending of accusative is 'y.

The ending of the genitive case is 'w. The order is owner'w possession.


AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives do not decline.

For comparative add -et to the end of the word.

For superlative use article and add -at to the end of the word.

mathus, mathuset, la mathusat

poate, poatet, poateat


AdverbsEdit

You can make adverbs with the ending -o.

Adverbs always go before the nouns. They do not decline.

For comparative add -t to the end of the the adverb.

For superlative use article and add -at to the end of the adverb.

mathus, mathuso, mathusot, la mathusoat

poateo, poateot, la poateat


VerbsEdit

The verbs have just infinitive forms. We cannot conjugate them. To express the person, mood and aspect the personal pronouns and the copula is used. Actually maybe we can say that there is a real verb, which is the copula itself.

The order is SVO in general but it can change freely.

There are a verbal aspect. Verbs can be transitive or untransitive. If there is no object in a phrase, so there is nothing that could show us that the verb is transitive then we have to add the ending 'y to the verb.

The holiday finished. - La oann fyniitate'u.

It finished the holiday. - Oa fyniitate'u la oann'y.

It finished (the holiday). - Oa fyniitate'u'y

For active particip you have to add to the verb: -ur (for human beings) -un (for others)

futur - runner, futun kanc - running dog

And for passive particip you have to add: -yll

toarryll loaroa - broken window

CopulaEdit

There is one copula, which is really important in Ienn. in fact we could say that this is the only verb in this language. A word with copula grammatically acts like one word. There are two functions:

'In the role of to be: its infinitive form is oa. It changes according to tenses, mood and person (in the third persons in realis mood, in present tense we have to omit it (its called zero copula)). You have to add it to the subjective of the phrase. If the subjective is a noun or a pronoun then the copula will be added to that (in case of meaning to be). If the subjective is not a noun or a pronoun then we have to add it to the predicate.

Te'e mathus. - You are nice.

Oa mathus. - S/he is nice.

in the role of verb conjugator: it does not have infinitive form (because the verb roots are in infinitive basicly) [?]. We have to add it to the end of the verbs. It shows the tense and the mood of the verb. In this role it does not show the person, it does not dissapear in the third person.

Present tense: 'e

Past tense: 'u

Future tense: 'a

Imperative: o'

Conditional: present: e'; past: u', future: 'a

Conjugative:

Ay fut'e. - I run./ I'm running.

Day fut'e. - They run./ They're running.

ParticiplesEdit

You have to use one of the next endings to make a participle from a verb.


Present

Non-personal

Personal
Active -us' ' '-soar-
Passive -aqa' ' '-qamer-


The non-personal endings first will be added to the verb, it will fallow between apostrophes the active time ending, and then the ending, whoch shows whether is it an adjetive -ill, a noun or an adverb.

Fut - to run

fut'us'e - a person or animal which is running now (f. e. a dog)

fut'söro - a person who is running now

PronounsEdit

Personal pronounsEdit

nominative possessive accusative
singular first person ay ay'w ay'y
singular second person te te'w te'y
singular third person oa oa'w oa'y
plural first person may may'w may'y
plural first person tay tay'w tay'y
plural third person day day'w day'y

NumbersEdit

The numbers always go before the noun and adjectives.

After numbers we do not use plural. eqe, ketoa, drie, fore, froaz, six, siiben, oht, nik, eqess,

11 - ex, 12 - ketoax, 13 - driex, 14 - forex, 15 - froax, 16 - sex, 17 - siibenx, ox, nix,

20 - ketoass, 30 - driess, 40 - foress, 50 - froass, 60 - sess, 70 - siibens, 80 - ohc, 90 - nex,

100 - tess

1000 - tress

2465 - ketoatress foretess sesssix

2013 - ketoatress driex

tess, tress

Ordinal: eqest, ketoaest, driest, forest, froaest, sixest, siibnest, ohtest, nikest, eqesst

Communal: equm, ketoaum, drium, forum, froazum, sixum, siibnum, ohtum, nikum, eqessum,

QuestioningEdit

You have to use the question word qe in the begining of the phrase in yes-no questions. In other cases use just the question word.

Qe te walk'a tu salt dolzan?


EndingsEdit

Grammatical endingsEdit

We can say that grammatical endings (of plural, dual, accusative etc.) are regular. There are some pissible forms:

The words, which ends in consonant, its last vowel is not e and the ending does not start with e; we simply have to add the longest form of the ending.

If the last letter or letters are consonant(s) and the last vowel is e, then the root will change; the e will go to end (still as part of the root) and the ending will be added without its vowel in case if you are able* to spell it;


Possible letter changes if the last vowel

VeC(C)(C) - VC(C)(C)e,

VCvoicedeCvoiced - VCvoicedCvoicede

VCunvoicede(Cunvoiced, l, m, n, r) - VCunvoiced(Cunvoiced, l, m, n, r)e

VCvoicedCvoicede(r, l) - VCvoicedCvoiced(r, l)e

VCunvoicedCunvoicede(r, l) - VCunvoicedCunvoiced(r, l)e


Example: noun + plural -(e)sse

maus - mausesse

sii - siesse

men - mnesse

If the last letter of the word is a, i, o, oa, u or y (so not e, or ii) then we simply have to add the ending. If the last letters of the world are double i, then the second one will dissapear and the first vowel of the ending will form the last letter of the root end the ending will be added wothout its first vowel. If the last letter of the word is e and the first vowel of the ending is also e, then we add the ending without its first vowel. If the last letter of the root is e and the ending does not starts with e, then we simply have to add the ending.

NegationEdit

You have to add the ending -not, or -ot to the end of the root. It is not a regular ending. Use -ot after vowels and not after consonants.

Oa futnot.

You can start a phrase or a clause with the word Not. Then the negation concerns the verb.

Not ay no'e. = Ay noot'e.

Not oa no. = Oa noot.

AffixesEdit

From nouns to nouns: -viir; trium - triumviir

From nouns to adjectives: -ill; griis, griisill

From nouns to verbs: -ing; ün - ünning

DictionaryEdit

List of basic words found in translationsEdit

English Ienn Description Etymology
sea sii en
mouse maus en
board, coast part hu
man men en
affix gramm misunderstanding the Enlish word grammar
the la sp, fr,
what dot unknown unknown
new neu lt
Earth Oart en
in in en
with soa imitation of well-sounding french soi fr
weather ventre en
today max unknown
cereal pisfike
honey hon en
slide lapas unknown
tax oax unknown
language langue en
country ian the ending "-ian" from latin lt
four fore en
day zan fr
since sins en

Example textEdit

La Ienn leqe najoa empginxill'w cerzho.

La Ienn najoa pet'w Oart'w. Vonpikuu may'w Unes soa aysies yoar, aysies yinesse pa Imagine our Earth with the same age, same attributes, similar continents, same flora and fauna. But a big group of the first human beings did not speak an indo-european language. They spoke the Euny language.

This language family is younger than our indo-european one.

Euny was just a bit different from this Ienn. But today that language does not more exist. After the first changes in Euny, another language started being alive: the Europine. In the middle time of Europine a new language variant appeared; this was the Panorka (today it's died). But there are two languages evolved: Norka, which is really similar to Panorka, and Panora, which is less.

Wait for the whole history later. It'll be interesting...

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