Iermansc 1.0

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Iermánsc is a Romance language that developed in an alternate timeline in which the Romans conquered the area we know as southern Germany in the first century A.D. The subsequent Romanized German culture lasted long after the breakdown of the Empire several centuries later. The language has a strong family relationship to Romansh, Venetian, and Old French (its closest Romance neighbors), with a sense of phonological, lexical and grammatical flavor from Old High German. One major repercussion of extensive long-term contact between Germanic and Romance is that the language has radically shifted towards the use of simplified grammatical particles and endings at the expense of rich inflected forms inherited from Latin. The name "Iermánsc" is cognate with our word German, from GERMĀNĬCE. It evolved through Old Iermánsc /ʒer.mɔnʧe/ into the modern from /jɛr.mɔnʃ/.

This text describes the 1.0 version. Its purpose is to get a general flavor of the Romance-derived grammatical mechanics and a general Germanic phonetic flavoring. The next version will incorporate a more detailed set of sound changes more deeply and strictly influenced by the phonology of Old High Germanic. This work will proceed with Iermansc 2.2.


There are 8 vowel sounds / i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a / and 20 consonants / p b t d k g f v θ ð s x ʃ ʧ m n l w j r / including the semivowels /w/ and /j/. Diphthongs are represented as combinations of vowels or semivowels. Semivowels are analyzed as consonants word initally, finally, or intervocalically.


The alphabet consists of 21 letters, developed from the Roman alphabet with the addition of two runic letters:

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ðð Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Rr Ss Tt Þþ Uu Vv

The vowels can also be marked for irregular syllabic stress. All words are stressed on the first syllable unless otherwise marked. The stressed vowels are marked á é í ó ú. The above graphemes represent the following sounds:

a /a/ in most cases, /ɔ/ before a nasal, /ǝ/ in unstressed final syllables
au /ɔ/ in most cases, /ɔw/ before a vowel
b /b/
c /k/ in most cases, /ʧ/ before e or i
d /d/
ð /ð/
e /e/ or /ɛ/, /ǝ/ in unstressed final syllables, le and ne
f /f/
g /g/
h /x/
i /i/ in most cases, /j/ when in combination with another vowel
l /l/
m /m/
n /n/ in most cases, /ŋ/ before g
o /o/ or /ɔ/
p /p/
r /r/
s /s/ in most cases, /ʃ/ before p or t
sc /ʃ/
sch /ʃk/
t /t/
þ /θ/
u /u/ in most cases, /w/ in combination with another vowel
v /v/



There are three definite articles: il (, la ( and le (pl.) and three corresponding indefinite articles in, na and ne. The feminine and plural articles may elide to l' and n', respectively, before vowels (though not before i and u as /j/ and /w/). The sequences de il and de in are shortened to dil and din.

il han "the dog" /il xɔn/
le hane "the dogs" /lǝ xɔnǝ/
l'ahua "the water" /laxwǝ/
l'ahue "the waters" /laxwǝ/

na iata "a cat" /na jatǝ/
ne iate "some cats" /nǝ jatǝ/
in om "a man" /in om/
n'ene "some men" /nenǝ/

dil han "the dog's" /dil xɔn/
din om "a man's" /din om/


Nouns come in two genders, masculine and feminine. Most masculine nouns end in a consonant and add -e in the plural. Most feminine nouns end in -a in singular and -e in the plural.

il dent "the tooth" /il dɛnt/
le dente "the teeth"/lǝ dɛntǝ/
na stela "a star" /na ʃtelǝ/
ne stele "some stars" /nǝ ʃtelǝ/

There are some complications, however. There are many alternations in both consonants and vowels between certain masculine plurals. The most common consonant changes are that singular final f þ h become v ð i (/j/) in the plural. The common vowel alternations are o u become e i in the plural. The following examples have one of each kind.

in foh "a fire" /in fox/
ne feie "some fires" /nǝ fejǝ/
il luf "the wolf" /il luf/
le live "the wolves" /lǝ livǝ/

Some singular words also alternate the final vowel and consonant.

il proveþ "the prophet" /il provǝθ/
le provðe "the prophets" /lǝ provðǝ/
in amih "a friend" /in ɔmix/
n'amie "some friends" /nɔmjǝ/
il iuven "the boy" /il juvǝn/
le iuvne "the boys" /lǝ juvnǝ/

There are also some completely irregular nouns which don’t obey the general rules.

la man "the hand" /la mɔn/ (f. irregular singular)
le mane "the hands" /lǝ mɔnǝ/
il om "the man" /il om/
l’ene "the men" /lenǝ/ (m. irregular plural)


Personal PronounsEdit

There are eight subject pronouns.

iu "I" /ju/
ti "you" /ti/
el "he" /ɛl/
ela "her" /ɛlǝ/
nu "we" /nu/
vu "y'all/you (formal sg.)" /vu/
ele "they" /ɛlǝ/
om "one" /om/

There are seven direct object pronouns.

me "me" /me/
te "you" /te/
le "him/it/they" /le/
la "her/it" /la/
se "him/her/their self/selves" /se/
nu "us" /nu/
vu "y'all/you (formal sg.)" /vu/

And four indirect object pronouns.

mi "to me" /mi/
ti "to you" /ti/
li "to him/her" /li/
lie "to them" /liǝ/

Possessive PronounsEdit

Each of the five possessive pronouns has a form for,, and pl.

mi "my" /mi/
mia "my" /miǝ/
mie "my" /miǝ/

ti "your" /tun/
tia "your" /tiǝ/
tie "your" /tiǝ/

su "his/her/its/their" /sun/
sua "his/her/its/their" /suǝ/
sue "his/her/its/their" /suǝ/

nuster "our" /nuʃtǝr/
nustra "our" /nuʃtrǝ/
nustre "our" /nuʃtrǝ/

vuster "y'all's" /vuʃtǝr/
vustra "y'all's" /vuʃtrǝ/
vustre "y'all's" /vuʃtrǝ/

Demonstrative PronounsEdit

There are two demonstrative pronuns.

huest "this" /xwɛʃt/
huesta "this" /xwɛʃtǝ/
hueste "this" /xwɛʃtǝ/

huel "that" /xwel/
huela "that" /xwelǝ/
huele "that" /xwelǝ/

Interrogative PronounsEdit

hui "who" /xwi/
de hui "whose" /de xwi/
hue "what" /xwe/
por hue "why" /por xwe/
huant "when" /xwɔnt/
come "how" /komǝ/
huante "how much" /xwɔntǝ/
hual "which" /xwal/


Adjectives differ in how they agree with nouns. Some adjectives have distinct forms for all four number/gender combinations.

il nof asen "the new donkey" /il nof asǝn/
le neve asne "the new donkeys" /lǝ nevǝ asnǝ/
la nova havra "the new goat" /la novǝ xavrǝ/
le nove havre "the new goats" /lǝ novǝ xavrǝ/

Others distinguish only, and pl.

in grant om "a big man" /in grɔnt om/
ne grande ene "some big men" /nǝ grɔndǝ enǝ/
na granda fiena "a big woman" /na grɔndǝ fjɛnǝ/
ne grande fiene "some big women" /nǝ grɔndǝ fjɛnǝ/

il blau ciel "the blue sky" /il blɔ ʧjɛl/
le blaue ciele "the blue skies" /lǝ blɔwǝ ʧjɛlǝ/
la blaua ahua "the blue water" /la blɔwǝ axwǝ/
le blaue ahue "the blue waters" /lǝ blɔwǝ axwǝ/

in forþ iuven "a strong boy" /in forþ juvǝn/
na forða iuvna "a strong girl" /na forða juvnǝ/
ne forðe iuvne "some strong children" /nǝ forðǝ juvnǝ/


Regular comparatives and superlatives are formed by suffixes.

blau "blue" /blɔ/
blauer "bluer" /blɔwǝr/
blauen blauma "bluest" /blɔwǝn blɔwmǝ/

The comparative degree form is sometimes unpredictable.

forþ "strong" /forθ/
fercier "stonger" /fɛrʧjǝr/
forðen forðma "strongest" /forðǝn forðmǝ/

There are some irregular comparatives and superlatives.

bon "good" /bon/
meier "better" /mejǝr/
eften "best" /ɛftǝn/

mal "bad" /mal/
peier "worse" /pejǝr/
pescen "worst" /peʃǝn/

main "great" /majn/
maier "greater" /majǝr/
mascen "greatest" /maʃǝn/


Note the preposition for "to" has two forms, the first before consonants and the other before vowels.

a/að "to" /a að/
avasc "below/downstairs" /avǝsc/
contra "against" /kontrǝ/
cun "with" /kun/
davant "in front of" /davǝnt/
de "from" /de/
destra "right" /deʃtrǝ/
entre "between" /entrǝ/
en "in" /en/
en hasa "at home" /en xasǝ/
sen "without" /sen/
senstra "left" /senʃtrǝ/
sur "on/over" /sur/


e "and" /e/
o "or" /o/
ma "but" /ma/
si "if" /si/
hue "that, which" /xwe/


The cardinal numbers are as follows.

nil "zero" /nil/

in ina "one" /in inǝ/
du "two" /du/
tre "three" /tre/
huat "four" /xwat/
huensc "five" /xwɛnʃ/
sesc "six" /seʃ/
seþ "seven" /seθ/
oht "eight" /oxt/
nof "nine" /nof/
desc "ten" /deʃ/

indesc "eleven" /indeʃ/
dudesc "twelve" /duðeʃ/
tredesc "thirteen" /treðeʃ/
huadesc "fourteen" /xwaðeʃ/
huendesc "fifteen" /xwendeʃ/
seðesc "sixteen" /sedeʃ/
seþ e desc "seventeen" /seθ e deʃ/
oht e desc "eighteen" /oxt e deʃ/
nof e desc "nineteen" /nof e deʃ/
vente "twenty" /ventǝ/

in e vente "twenty-one" /in e ventǝ/
du e vente "twenty-two" /du e ventǝ/

trenta "thirty" /trentǝ/
huaðránta "fourty" /xwað.rantǝ/
huenénta "fifty" /xwen.entǝ/
sescánta "sixty" /se.ʃantǝ/
seðánta "seventy" /seð.antǝ/
ohtónta "eighty" /oxt.ontǝ/
nonánta "ninety" /non.ontǝ/
cent "one hundred" /ʧɛnt/

du cente "two hundred" /du ʧɛntǝ/
tre cente "three hundred" /tre ʧɛntǝ/
huat cente "four hundred" /xwat ʧɛntǝ/
mil "one thousand" /mil/

du mil tre cente seþ e vente "two thousand three hundred twenty-seven" /du mil tre ʧɛntǝ seθ e ventǝ/

The ordinal numbers are irregular through ten and completely regularly formed from the cardinals thereafter.

prem prema "first" /prem premǝ/
siunt "second" /sjunt/
tersc "third" /terʃ/
huart "fourth" /xwart/
huent "fifth" /xwent/
sest "sixth" /seʃt/
seten "sevent" /setǝn/
ohtaf "eigth" /oxtǝf/
non "ninth" /non/
deim "tenth" /dejm/

indescen "eleventh" /indeʃǝn/
venten "twentieth" /ventǝn/
oht e nonántan "ninety eighth" /oxt e non.antǝn/


Regular VerbsEdit

Infinitives consist of a stressed stem plus a thematic vowel, a or e, which determine the two main conjugation classes. The present participle/gerund is formed by adding nt to the stem and stressing the final vowel. The past participle is formed by adding þ to the infinitive. The imperative singular is formed by stressing the final vowel. The imperative plural is formed by stressing the final vowel and adding þ.

a hanta "to sing" /a xɔntǝ/
hantánt "singing" /xɔnt.ant/
hantaþ "sung" /xɔntǝθ/
hantá "sing!" /xɔnt.a/
hantáþ "sing! (pl)" /xɔnt.aθ/

a save "to know" /a savǝ/
savént "knowing" /sav.ent/
saveþ "known" /savǝθ/
savé "know!" /a sav.e/
savéþ "know! (pl)" /sav.eθ/

Simple PresentEdit

Most verbs are extremely regular in the simple present, though the first person singular often ends with a different consonant than the stem.

iu hant "i sing" /ju xɔnt/
ti hanta "you sing" /ti xɔntǝ/
el hanta "he sings" /el xɔntǝ/
nu hantan "we sing" /nu xɔntǝn/
vu hantaþ "y'all/you sing" /xɔntǝθ/
ele hantan "they sing" /elǝ xɔntǝn/

iu saf "I know" /ju saf/
ti save "you know" /ti savǝ/
el save "he knows" /el savǝ/
nu saven "we know" /nu savǝn/
vu saveþ "y'all know" /vu savǝθ/
el saven "they know" /el savǝn/

Present ContinuousEdit

The present continuous is formed with sta + Present Participle.

nu stan hantánt "we are singing" /nu ʃta xɔnt.ɔnt/
ele stan hantánt "they are singing" /elǝ ʃtan xɔnt.ɔnt/
ela sta savént "she is knowing" /elǝ ʃta sav.ent/
ti sta savént "you are knowing" /ti ʃta sav.ǝnt/

Present PassiveEdit

The present passive is formed with sta + Past Participle.

nu stan hantaþ "we are sung" /nu ʃta xɔntǝθ/
ele stan hantaþ "they are sung" /elǝ ʃtan xɔntǝθ/
ela sta saveþ "she is known" /elǝ ʃta savǝθ/
ti sta saveþ "you are known" /ti ʃta savǝθ/

Simple PastEdit

The simple past often changes the stress to the thematic syllable, and uses a different set of endings than the simple present.

iu hantá "i sang" /ju xɔn.ta/
ti hantásc "you sang" /ti xɔn.taʃ/
el hantá "he sang" /el xɔn.ta/
nu hantán "we sang" /nu xɔn.tan/
vu hantásc "y'all sang" /vu xɔn.taʃ/
ele hantán "they sang" /elə xɔn.tan/

iu savé "i knew" /ju
ti savésc "you knew" /ti sa.veʃ/
el savé "he knew" /el
nu savén "we knew" /nu sa.ven/
vu savésc "y'all knew" /vu sa.veʃ/
ele savén "they knew" /elə sa.ven/


Form the perfect with the present form of ave + Past Participle.

ti af hantaþ "you have sung" /ti af xɔntəθ/
ela af hantaþ "she has sung" /elə af xɔntəθ/
iu af saveþ "i have known" /ju af savəθ/
nu aven saveþ "we have known" /nu avən savəθ/


Form the pluperfect tense with the past of ave + Past Participle.

vu avésc hantaþ "y'all had sung" /ti av.eʃ xɔntəθ/
ele avén hantaþ "they had sung" /elə av.en xɔntəθ/
iu avé saveþ "i had known" /ju av.e savəθ/
nu avén saveþ "we had known" /nu av.en savəθ/


Form the future with the present form of vole + Infinitive.

nu volen hanta "we will sing" /nu volǝn xɔntǝ/
vu voleþ hanta "ya'll will sing" /vu volǝθ xɔntǝ/
iu vel save "i will know" /iu vel savǝ/
ti vol save "you will know" /ti vol savǝ/

Future PerfectEdit

Form the future perfect with vole + ave + Past Participle.

nu volen ave hantaþ "we will have sung" /nu volǝn avǝ xɔntǝþ/
ele volen ave hantaþ "they will have sung" /elǝ volǝn ave xɔntǝþ/
ela vol ave saveþ "she will have known" /elǝ vol avǝ savǝþ/
ti vol ave saveþ "you will have known" /ti vol avǝ savǝþ/


A-class and E-class verb subjunctives are highly regular.

iu hantáse "may i sing" /ju xɔn.tasə/
ti hantáse "may you sang" /ti xɔn.tasə/
el hantáse "may he sang" /el xɔn.tasə/
nu hantásen "may we sang" /nu xɔn.tasən/
vu hantáseþ "may y'all sang" /vu xɔn.tasəθ/
ele hantásen "may they sang" /elə xɔn.tasən/

iu savése "may i knew" /ju sa.vesə/
ti savése "may you knew" /ti sa.vesə/
el savése "may he knew" /el sa.vesə/
nu savésen "may we knew" /nu sa.vesən/
vu savéseþ "may y'all knew" /vu sa.vesəθ/
ele savésen "may they knew" /elə sa.vesən/

Semi-Regular VerbsEdit

Irregular StressEdit

(coming soon)

Irregular PastEdit

Some verbs are regular apart from the stem changing in simple past:

a dice "to say" /a diʧə/

iu disc "i say" /ju diʃ/
ti dice "you say" /ti diʧə/
el dice "he says" /el diʧə/

iu discé "i said" /iu di.ʃe/
ti discésc "you said" /diʃ.eʃ/
nu discén "she said" /di.ʃen/

Irregular VerbsEdit

Some of the most commonly used verbs are irregular.

Esce and StaEdit

Esce and sta are both used for "to be". Esce is the usual verb denoting essential qualities.

að esce "to be" /að eʃǝ/
esent "being" /esǝnt/
esen "been" /esǝn/
esc "be!" /eʃ/
este "be! (pl.)" /eʃtǝ/

iu sun "i am" /ju sun/
ti esc "you are" /ti e/
ela esc "she is" /el eʃ/
nu sun "we are" /nu sun/
vu esc "y'all are" /vu eʃ/
ele sun "they are" /elə sun/

iu fui "i was" /ju fwi/
ti fuiste "you were" /ti fwiʃtə/
ela fui "she were" /el fwi/
nu fuin "we were" /nu fwin/
vu fuiste "y'all were" /vu fwiʃtə/
ele fuin "they were" /elə fwin/

Sta has connotations of expressing location in time and space, and is also used as an auxiliary.

a sta "to be" /a ʃta/
stant "being" /ʃtant/
staþ "been" /ʃtaθ/
sta "be!" /ʃta/
staþ "be! (pl.)" /ʃtaθ/

iu stun "i am" /ju ʃtun/
ti sta "you are" /ti ʃta/
el sta "he is" /el ʃta/
nu stan "we are" /nu ʃtan/
vu staþ "y'all are" /vu ʃtaθ/
ele stan "they are" /elə ʃtan/

iu stai "i was" /ju ʃtaj/
ti stasc "you were" /ti ʃtaʃ/
ela stai "she was" /el ʃtai/
nu stan "we were" /nu ʃtan/
vu stasc "y'all were" /vu ʃtaʃ/
ele stan "they were" /elə ʃtan/


Ave is used as both "to have" and used in tense construction.

að ave "to have" /að avǝ/
avént "having" /av.ɛnt/
aveþ "had" /avǝθ/
avé "have!" /av.e/
avéþ "have! (pl)" /av.eθ/

iu af "i have" /ju af/
ti af "you have" /ti af/
el af "he has" /el af/
nu aven "we have" /nu avǝn/
vu aveþ "y'all have" /vu avǝθ/
ele aven "they have" /elǝ avǝn/

iu avé "i had" /ju av.e/
ti avésc "you had" /ti av.eʃ/
ela avé "she had" /elǝ av.e/
nu avén "we had" /nu av.en/
vu avésc "y'all had" /vu av.eʃ/
ele avén "they had" /elǝ av.en/


Vole is used for "to will" and as an auxiliary.

a vole "to will" /a volǝ/
volént "willing" /vol.ent/
voleþ "willed" /volǝθ/
volé "will!" /vol.e/
voléþ "will! (pl.)" /vol.eθ/

iu vel "i will" /ju vel/
ti vol "you will" /ti vol/
el vol "he will" /el vol/
nu volen "we will" /nu volǝn/
vu voleþ "y'all will" /vu volǝθ/
ele volen "they will" /elǝ volǝn/

iu volé "i willed" /iu vol.e/
ti volésc "you willed" /ti vol.eʃ/
el volé "he willed" /el vol.e/
nu volén "we willed" /nu vol.en/
vu volésc "y'all willed" /vu vol.eʃ/
ele volén "they willed" /elǝ vol.ern/


Da is a common irregular verb.

a da "to give" /a da/
dant "giving" /dɔnt/
daþ "given" /daθ/
da "give!" /da/
daþ "give! (pl.)" /daθ/

iu dun "i give" /ju dun/
ti da "you give" /ti da/
el da "he gives" /el da/
nu dan "we give" /nu dan/
vi daþ "y'all give" /vi daθ/
ele dun "they give" /elǝ dun/

iu deðe "i gave" /ju deðǝ/
ti deðesc "you gave" /ti deðǝʃ/
ela deðe "she gave" /elǝ deðǝ/
nu deðen "we gave" /nu deðǝn/
vu deðesc "y'all gave" /vu deðǝʃ/
ele deðen "they gave" /elǝ deðǝn/


Iermánsc is a V2 language. The following constructions are all permissible in main clauses:

Iu lei ier huest liver.

/ju lej jɛr xwɛʃt livǝr/
[i read yesterday this book]
I read this book yesterday.

Ier lei iu huest liver.

/jɛr lej ju xwɛʃt livǝr/
[yesterday read i this book]
Yesterday I read this book.

Huest liver lei iu ier.

/xwɛʃt livǝr lej ju jɛr/
[this book read i yesterday]
This book I read yesterday.

The second (and third) elements of compound verbs go to the end.

Iu af huest liver leht.

/ju af xwɛʃt livǝr lɛxt/
[i have this book read]
I have read this book.

In relative clauses, the verb goes to the end.

Il liver, hue iu ier lei.

/il livǝr xwe ju jɛr lej/
[the book, that i yesterday read]
The book that I read yesterday.

Iu discé, hue iu ier huest liver lei.

/ju di.ʃe xwe jɛr xwɛʃt livǝr lej//
[i said that i yesterday this book read]
I said I read this book yesterday.


Comparison With The Romance LanguagesEdit

English Latin Portuguese Spanish French Italian Romansh Romanian Iermánsc
arm brachium braço brazo bras braccio bratsch braţ brasc
black nĭger negro negro noir nero nair negru neier
city cīvĭtas cidade ciudad cité città citad oraş ciuðaþ
death mŏrs morte muerte mort morte mort moarte morþ
dog canis cão perro chien cane chaun cîine han
ear aurĭcŭla orelha oreja oreille orecchio ureglia ureche aurel
egg ovum ovo huevo œuf uovo ov ou of
eye ŏcŭlus olho ojo œil occhio egl ochi oil
father pater pai padre père padre bab tată paðer
fire fŏcus fogo fuego feu fuoco fieu foc foh
fish pĭscis peixe pescado poisson pesce pesch peşte pesc
foot pĕs pie pied piede pe picior pieþ
friend amīcus amigo amigo ami amico ami amic amih
green vĭrĭdis verde verde vert verde verd verde verþ
horse cabăllus cavalo caballo cheval cavallo chaval cal haval
I ĕgo eu yo je io jau eu iu
island īnsŭla ilha isla île isola insla insulă isla
language lĭngua língua lengua langue lingua lieunga limbă lengua
life vīta vida vida vie vita vita viaţă viða
milk lac leite leche lait latte latg lapte laht
name nōmen nome nombre nom nome num nume num
night nŏx noite noche nuit notte notg noapte noht
old vĕtus velho viejo vieux vecchio vegl vechi viel
school schŏla escola escuela école scuola scola şcoală schola
sky caelum céu cielo ciel cielo tschiel cer ciel
star stēlla estrela estrella étoile stella staila stea stela
tooth dĕntem dente diente dent dente dent dinte dent
voice vōx voz voz voix voce vusch voce vusc
water aqua água agua eau acqua aua apă ahua
wind vĕntus vento viento vent vento vent vînt vent

Sample TextsEdit

The Tower of BabelEdit

Il Tur de Bavel

Genesis 11:1-9.

1. The whole world had one language and a common speech.

Toþ il munt avén ina lengua e na comna pravla.
/toθ il munt a.ven inǝ leŋgwǝ e na comnǝ pravlǝ/
[all the world had one language and a common speaking]

2. As men moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there.

Miránt est, truván l’ene in hamp en Scinar e alá stavlén se ele.
/mir.ɔnt eʃt, tru.vɔn lenǝ in xɔmp en ʃinar e ʃtav.len se elǝ/
[migrating east, found the people a plain in Shinar and there settled themselves they]

3. They said to each other, "Come, let's make bricks and bake them thoroughly." They used brick instead of stone, and tar for mortar.

Ele discén l’in a l’alter, “Venéþ, maðen facen nu e cun foh cocen.
/elǝ di.ʃen lin a laltǝr, ven.eθ, maðǝn faʧǝn nu e kun fox coʧǝn/
[they said the one to the other, “come, bricks make we and with fire cook.”]

Ele usán maþ en loial de peðra, e beðun de cemént.
/elǝ us.ɔn maθ en lojǝl de peðrǝ, e beðǝn de ʧem.ent/
[they used brick in place of stone, and tar of mortar]

4. Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves and not be scattered over the face of the whole earth."

E ele discén, "Venéþ, na ciuðaþ constrúhtan nu, cun in tur hue a le ciele traie,
/e elǝ di.ʃen, ven.eθ na ʧjuðǝθ kon.ʃtruxtǝn nu, kun in tur xue a lǝ ʧjɛlǝ trajǝ/
[and they said, “come, a city build we, with a tower that to the heavens reaches]

por a face nu in num, e no a sta dispérsaþ sur il vult dil munt."
/por a faʧǝ nu in num, e no a ʃta diʃ.persǝθ sur il vult dil munt/
[for to make us a name, and not to be dispersed over the face of-the earth]

5. But the Lord came down to see the city and the tower that the men were building.

Ma il Diu descendé por a veðe la ciuðaþ, e il tur hue l’one construhtánt stan.
/ma il dju dɛʃ por a veðǝ la ʧjuðǝθ, e il tur xwe lonǝ konʃtrux.tant ʃtan/
[but the Lord came-down for the city to see, and the tower that the men constructing were]

6. The Lord said, "As one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, and nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them.

Il Diu discé, “Come in povul pravlan ele la meðma lengua, ele ave enieht a face huest,
/il dju di.ʃe, komǝ in povǝl pravlǝn elǝ la meðmǝ lɛŋgwǝ, elǝ avǝ enjɛht a faʧǝ xwɛʃt/
[the Lord said, as one people speak they the same language, they have begun to do this]

e neint, hue ele a face volen, vol sta emsivel por le.
/e nejnt, xwe elǝ a faʧǝ volǝn, vol ʃta ɛmsivǝl por le/
[and nothing that they to do want will be impossible for them]

7. Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other."

Venéþ, descénden nu e cunfúnden sua lengua por huel ele l'in l'alter no enténda poðen.
/ven.eθ, dɛʃ.endǝn nu e kun.fundsǝn swa leŋgwǝ por huel elǝ lin laltǝr no en.tendǝ poðǝn/
[come, let's go-down us and let's-confuse their language for that they the-one the-other no understand can]

8. So the Lord scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city.

Il Diu despersá le de alá, e ele fermán construhtán la ciuðaþ.
/il dju dɛʃ lǝ de, e elǝ fer.mɔn conʃtrux.tan la ʧjuðǝθ/
[the Lord scattered them frmo there, and they stoped building the city]

9. That is why it was called Babel -- because there the Lord confused the language of the whole world. From there the Lord scattered them over the face of the whole earth.

Por huest la clama se Bavel - por huel alá il Diu la lengua dil toþ il munt confúsaþ.
/Por xwɛst la clama se Bavǝl - por xwel il dju la lɛŋgwǝ dil toθ il munt con.fusaθ/
[for this it calls itself Babel - for that there the Lord the language of the whole the world confused]

De alá despersá il Diu le sur la facia dil toþ la ciera.
/de dɛʃ il dju le sur la faʧjǝ dil toθ la ʧjerǝ/
[from there scattered the lord them on the face of the whole earth]

Derivation from LatinEdit

Phonological DevelopmentEdit

Vowels which were stressed in Latin tended to develop similarly to the Western Romance varieties.

Ī > /i/
Ē,I > /e/
E > /ɛ/
A,Ā > /a/
O > /ɔ/
Ō,U > /o/
Ū > /u/
OE > /e/
AE > /ɛ/
AU > /aw/

/i/ > /e/ before a nasal
/e/ > /ɛ/ before a consonant cluster
/ɛ/ > /jɛ/ sporadically in open syllables
/o/ > /u/
/u/ > /y/

The umlaut process started after these changes.

/u/ > /y/ before /i/ or /j/ in the next syllable
/o/ > /ø/ before /i/ or /j/ in the next syllable
/ɔ/ > /æ/ before /i/ or /j/ in the next syllable

Followed shortly by unrounding of front-rounded vowels and other changes.

/y/ > /i/
/ø/ > /e/
/æ/ > /ɛ/
/a/ > /ɔ/ before a nasal
/aw/ > /ɔ/

Final vowels other than /a/ and /i/ are lost.

Final /a/ > /ǝ/
Final /i/ > /e/ > /ǝ/

Final consonants / m,s,t / are lost.

There were some general consonant changes.

CT > /xt/
MN > /n/ or /m/ depending on stress
NS > /s/
QU > /xw/ initially and /k/ elsewhere (but /xw/ here as well in some common words)
X > /ʃ/
PT > /ft/
SC > /ʃ/
SCH > /ʃk/
ST > /ʃt/
SP > /ʃp/

Lenition happens between vowels or between a vowel and /r/:

C,G > /ɣ/
P,B,F > /v/
T,D > /ð/

Double or "geminate" consonants are reduced to a single consonant. Notably, reflexes of geminates do not undergo the above lenition process (i.e. GATTUM /jat/, not /*jaθ/).

There is also a palatalization process.

/t/ > /ʧ/ before /j/
/k/ > /ʧ/ before a front vowel or /j/
/g/ > /ʒ/ before a front vowel or /j/


/k g/ > /x/ before /a/
/ʒ/ > /j/

Final consonants have a strong tendenacy to devoice:

/b/ > /p/
/d/ > /t/
/ɣ/ > /x/
/v/ > /f/
/ð/ > /θ/
/ʧ/ > /ʃ/

Between vowels,

/ɣ/ > /j/ mostly, sometimes /i/ or lost altogether

Morphological DevelopmentEdit

Articles developed as reflexes of ILLE,ILLI,ILLA,ILLE and ŪNU,ŪNI,ŪNA,ŪNE.

Nouns underwent a shift of stress to the first syllable, shortening words and often obliterating multiple syllables in longer words. The accusative singular and nominative plural form the bases for most words. Historically the final /e/ of the feminine plural would've been lost, but it was retained analogically to the masculine plural, and later reduced to schwa along with most final vowels. The Latin nominative plural ending I > /ǝ/ became generalized on the vast majority of nouns, yielding some novel forms.

LUPUM > il luf /il luf/ "the wolf"
LUPI > le live /lǝ livǝ/ "the wolves"
NOCTEM > la noht /la noxt/ "the night"
*NOCTEI > le nohte /lǝ noxtǝ/ "the nights"
FEMINA > la fiena /la fjɛnǝ/ "the woman"
*FEMINAI > le fiene /lǝ fjɛnǝ/ "the women"

Though the analytic verbal system was reduced greatly from Latin, the imperative, present perfect, past simple and subjunctive all feature intact ancestral stress patterns. In the present simple, past perfect and the infinitive all stress shifts to the first syllable. The R of the Latin infinitive has been lost entirely.

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