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Iermansc 2.4

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1.A/Ā generally remains /a/ in stressed syllables; before a nasal it passes to /ɔ/. In unstressed syllables it reduces to /ə/.

CAMPU “field” hamf /xɔmf/
PASSU “step” pas /pas/
GRANDE “big” grant /grɔnt/
PARTE “part” part /part/
ASINU “ass” asen /asən/
FLAMMA “flame” flama /flɔmə/
MARE “sea” mar /mar/
CARU “dear” har /xar/
PRATU “meadow” praþ /praθ/
FABA “bean” fava /favə/
PASSĀTU “passed” pasaþ /pasəθ/
PRĪVĀTU “deprived” privaþ /privəθ/
PATRE “father” paðer /paðər/
MANU “hand” man /mɔn/
PANE “bread” pan /pɔn/
SANU “healthy” san /sɔn/
AMAT “loves” ama /ɔmə/

2. -ĀRIU becomes /ər/ while ĀRIA becomes /rə/, the stress having shifted to the initial syllable.

OPERĀRIU “worker” ovrer /ovrər/
JANUARIU “January” ianer /jɔnər/
FEBRĀRIU “February” fevrer /fɛvrər/
CALIDĀRIA “caldron” halðra /xalðrə/
ŪSŪRĀRIU “usurer” isra /isrə/
DENĀRIU “penny” dener /denər/
PRĪMĀRIU “first” premer /prɛmər/
SCŪTĀRIU “shield-bearer” skiðer /ʃkiðər/
MARINĀRIU “sailor” marner /marnər/
RĪPUĀRIA “shore” rivra /rivrə/
FURNĀRIU “baker” firner /firnər/

3. -ĀTICU become /əʧ/, the stress having shifted to the initial syllable.

VIĀTICU “voyage” viatc /viəʧ/
LINGUĀTICU “language” lenguatc /lɛŋwəʧ/
SILVĀTICU “” selvatc /selvəʧ/
CORĀTICU “courage” coratc /korəʧ/
PAGENSĀTICU “” paisatc /pajsəʧ/
LINĀTICU “lineage” linatc /linəʧ/
HOMINĀTICU “” onatc /onəʧ/
ABANTEĀTICU “” avantatc /ə.vɔntəʧ/

4. -AU becomes /ɔ/, written au, in a stressed syllable. Otherwise it becomes /ə/, written u.

AURU “gold” aur /ɔr/
AUSARE “dare” ausa /ɔsə/
PAUSARE “rest” pausa /pɔsə/
THESAURU “treasure” tesur /tesər/
CAUSA “thing” hausa /xɔsə/
TAURU “bull” taur /tɔr/
AUTUMNU “autumn” autun /ɔtən/
AURICULA “ear” aurla /ɔrlə/
AVICA “goose” auia /ɔjə/
AUT “or” au /o/
AUDĪRE “hear” auðe /ɔðə/
LAUDARE “praise” lauða /lɔðə/
PAUCU “few” pauh /pɔx/
FAUCE “” fauz /fɔts/

5. Initical -C(A) becomes /x/ while G(A) becomes /j/ initally and following a consonant. C(A) and G(A) become /j/ /i/ or merge with other vowels intervocallically, though CC(A) becomes /x/. SC(A) becomes /ʃ/.

CAPRA “goat” havra /xavrə/
CAPU “head” haf /xaf/
CASA “house” hasa /xasə/
CARU “dear” har /xar/
CANE “dog” han /xɔn/
SCALA “ladder” scala /ʃalə/
PISCĀRE “to fish” pesca /peʃə/
PECCĀRE “to sin” peha /pexə/
MERCĀTU “merchant” merhaþ /mɛrxəþ/
CABALLU “horse” haval /xavəl/
CAMĪNU “road” hamen /xɔmən/
CAMĪSIA “shirt” hamsca /xɔmʃə/
CAPILLA “hair” havla /xavlə/
VACCA “cow” vah /vax/
MUSCA “fly” musca /muʃə/
FURCA “pitchfork” furha /furxə/
CASTELLU “castle” hastel /xaʃtəl/
CASTĪGĀRE “punish” hastca /xaʃʧə/
CAPTIARE “capture” haftca /xafʧə/
CAPITĀLE “capital” haftal /xaftəl/
CAMBIĀRE “change” hangia /xɔŋjə/
CANTĀRE “sing” hanta /xɔntə/
CAUSA “cause” hausa /xɔsə/
FRICĀRE “rub” fria /frijə/
PACĀRE “appease” paia /pajə/
CARRICARE “load” haria /xarjə/
AMĪCA “friend(f.)” amia /ɔmjə/
URTĪCA “nettle” urtca /urʧə/
MĪCA “crumb” mia /miə/
ADVOCĀTU “lawyer” aviaþ /avjəþ/
MANICA “sleeve” mania /mɔnjə/
COLLOCAT “places” kolia /koljə/
GAUDĒRE “to rejoice” iauðe /jɔðə/
GAUDIU “joy” iauie /jɔjə/
PLAGA “wound” plaia /plajə/
RŪGA “rut” ria /rijə/
NEGAT “denies” neia /nejə/

6. C(E,I) becomes /ts/, spelled z.

CENTU “hundred” zent /tsɛnt/
CERVU “stag” zerf /tsɛrf/
CAELU “sky” ziel /tsjɛl/
CILIU “eyelid” zeil /tsɛjl/
CĒRA “wax” zeira /tsɛjrə/
MERCĒDE “reward” merzeþ /mɛrtsəþ/
DULCE “sweet” dulz /dults/
CĪVITĀTE “city” ziðaþ /tsiðəþ/
RACĒMU “bunch of grapes” razen /ratsən/
VĪCĪNU “neighbor” vizen /vitsən/
PLACĒRE “pleasure” plaz /plats/
COCĪNA “kitchen” kezna /ketsnə/
PACE “peace” paz /pats/
VŌCE “voice” vuz /vuts/
PICE “tar,pitch” peiz /pɛjts/
NUCE “nut” nuz /nuts/
DECE “ten” diez /djɛts/
VICE “change” veiz /vɛjts/
CRUCE “cross” kruz /kruts/
RADĪCE “root” raðez /raðəts/

7. C'L developed to /jl/ in stressed syllables and /əl/ or /lə/ elsewhere.

OCULU “eye” oil /ojl/
AURICULU “ear” aurel /ɔrəl/
LENTĪCULA “lentil” lentel /lentəl/
APICULA “bee” avla /avlə/
ACŪCULA “needle” aula /ɔlə/
PARICULU “equal” parel /parəl/
VECLU “old” veil /vɛjl/
SPECULU “mirror” speil /ʃpɛjl/
CUNICULU “rabbit“ kinil /kinəl/
VERMICULU “worm” vermil /vɛrməl/
FENUCULU “fennel” fenul /fenəl/
TRABACULU “work” traval /travəl/
GENUCULU “knee” ienul /jɛnəl/
PEDUCULU “louse” pieðul /pjɛðəl/

8. C(O,U) usually remains (spelled k). Following a vowel, C(O,U) becomes /i/, /j/, or disappears altogether. When made final in a word, C(O,U) becomes /x/. CC(O,U) becomes /h/. SC(O,U) becomes /ʃk/. When a following vowel later becmes fronted through umlaut, the /k/ sound remains.

CŪRA “care” kira /kirə/
COLŌRE “color” kolor /kolər/
CORPUS “body” korf /korf/
COHORTE “court” kurt /kurt/
CURRIT “runs” kire /kirə/
CORTU “short” kort /kort/
CONSTAT “costs” kosta /koʃtə/
SCŪTU “shield” skiþ /ʃkiþ/
ACCŪSO “i accuse” iu ahus /ju axəs/
SACCU “sack” sah /sax/
PORCU “pig” porh /porx/
SĒCŪRU “safe” seiur /sɛjər/
ACŪTU “sharp” aiuþ /ajəþ/
AMĪCO “friend” amih /ɔməx/
FOCU “fire” foh /fox/
PAUCU “small” pauh /pɔx/

9. CT becomes /xt/ in stressed syllables and /t/ otherwise.

NOCTE “night” noht /noxt/
OCTO “eight” oht /oxt/
BĪS COCTU “buscuit” biskot /biʃkət/
LACTE “milk” laht /laxt/
FACTU “done/made” faht /faxt/
LACTŪCA “lettuce” lahtca /laxʧə/
SATISFACTU “satisfied” sazfat /satsfət/
LECTU “bed” leht /lɛxt/
PROFECTU “adantage” profet /profət/
DESPECTU “contempt” despet /dɛʃpət/
STRICTU “narrow” streht /ʃtrɛxt/
DICTU “said” deht /dɛht/
TĒCTU “roof” teht /tɛht/
DĪRĒCTU “direct” diret /dirət/

10. Double consonants simplify to a single consonant. CC becomes /x/.

ABBATE “abbot” abaþ /abəþ/
SICCU “dry” seh /seh/
BELLA “beautiful” bela /belə/
FLAMMA “flame” flama /flɔmə/
ANNU “year” an /ɔn/
CUPPA “cup” kupa /kupə/
TERRA “earth” tera /terə/
PASSU “step” pas /pas/
GUTTA “drop” guta /gutə/

11. DR becomes /ðr/ while GR becomes /ir/ in stressed syllables and /r/ elsewhere. BR generally becomes /vr/.

QUADRU “square” uaðer /waðər/
QUADRAGINTA “fifty” uaðrénta /wəð.rentə/
CATHEDRA “cathedral” haðra /xaðrə/
HEDERA “ivy” eðra /ɛðrə/
PIGRITIA “laziness” peirtca /peirʧə/
NIGRU “black” neir /nɛjr/
PELEGRĪNU “danger” pleiren /plɛjrən/
INTEGRU “whole” enter /ɛntər/
FEBRE “fever” fever /fevər/
FEBRUĀRIU “february” fevrer /fɛvrər/
LĪBRA “pound” livra /livrə/
FABRICA “workshop” fravia /farvjə/
COLOBRA “snake” klovra /klovrə/

12. Stressed E tends to become /jɛ/ in open syllables, /ɛ/ or /e/ elsewhere.

PEDE “foot” pieþ /pjɛþ/
HERI “yesterday” iere /jɛrə/
FEL “gall” fiel /fjɛl/
MEL “honey” miel /mjɛl/
TENET “holds” tien /tjɛn/
DECEM “ten” diez /djɛts/
CAELU “sky” ziel /tsjɛl/
PETRA “stone” peðra /pɛðrə/
LEPORE “hare” lever /levər/
CAECU “blind” zieh /tsjex/
CENTU “hundred” zent /tsɛnt/
VENTU “wind” vent /vɛnt/
SEPTEM “seven” seft /sɛft/
PERDIT “loses” perðe /pɛrðə/
FESTA “feast” festa /fɛʃtə/
FERRU “iron” fer /fer/

13. Stressed Ē/I/OE becomes /ɛj/ in open syllables and /e/ or /ɛ/ otherwise.

MĒSE “mouth” meis /mɛjs/
TRĒS “three” trei /trɛj/
PĒSU “weight” peis /pɛjs/
CRĒDIT “believes” kreiþ /krɛjþ/
PARĒTE “wall” preiþ /prɛjþ/
FIDA “faith” feiþ /fɛjþ/
PIRA “pear” peira /pɛjrə/
PICE “tar” peiz /pɛjts/
MINUS “less” mein /mɛjn/
VIDET “sees” veiþ /vɛjþ/
POENA “punishment” peina /pɛjnə/
PLĒNU “full” pleina /plɛjnə/
SINU “fold” sein /sɛjn/
VĒNA “vein” veina /vɛjnə/
VIRDE “green” verþ /vɛrþ/
SICCU “dry” seh /seh/
MITTIT “sends” mete /metə/
DĒBĒRE “to owe” deive /dɛjvə/
MĒSŪRA “mesure” mesra /mɛsrə/
SĒCŪRU “safe” seiur /sɛjər/
INTRĀRE “to enter” entra /ɛntrə/
PISCĀRE “to fish” peisca /pɛjʃə/

14. Verbs in -ERE with root stress retain it.

SCRĪBERE “to write” scrive /ʃrivə/
FACERE “to make/do” faze /fatsə/
CRĒDERE “to believe” kreiðe /krɛjðə/
FRĪGERE “to fry” frie /frijə/
TRAHERE “to draw” traie /trajə/
MOLERE “to grind” mole /molə/
RESOLVERE “to resolve” resólve /rə.solvə/
RUMPERE “to break” rumpe /rumpə/
VINCERE “to conquer” venze /vɛntsə/
VĒNDERE “to sell” vende /vɛndə/
TINGERE “to dye” tenge /tɛŋə/
PŌNERE “to put” pune /punə/
CONSUERE “to sew” kose / kosə/
PERDERE “to lose” perðe /pɛrðə/
SURGERE “to rise” surie /surjə/
CRĒSCERE “to grow” kreisce /krɛjʃə/
MITTERE “to send” mete /metə/
VĪVERE “to live” vive /vivə/


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