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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Illiaster is the primary language of Illias.
|Fricative||β||v||th (θ)||s||ç ʝ||h|
AlphabetEditIlliaster has three written forms, circular, runic, and calligraphic.
The circular system is written as a series of concentric rings, with the first letter at the center. Each letter is distinguished by a mark placed on the circle at one of seven points. The form was originally used for names, such as grave markers, so there is no established direction or punctuation. Double consonants are usually dropped. Examples exist in which consonants in a cluster are written on the same circle (see ring 5 in the sample).
The runic system is written top to bottom about a central vertical line. Each letter is represented by a combination of eight diagonal, horizonal, or circular marks. Like the circular system, most old samples of runic Illiaster are found on grave markers and do not have punctuation. A full horizontal bar represents a space between words. For extended runic writing, an open circle bisected by the vertical is the generally accepted mark to separate multiple sentences.
The calligraphic system is written right to left. The consonants have distinct capital and lowercase forms, while vowels are indicated using diacritical marks. Most letters connect to form cursive, though several lowercase letters begin at the cap line and do not connect to the preceeding letter (including L and T in the sample).
The Illiaster alphabet is ordered as follows: Pp Ʊʊ Bβ Vv Ɛɛ Θθ Tt Ss Ææ Kk Gg Oo Rr Ŕŕ ʆʝ Iɪ Hh Ʉʉ Ll Çç Ää
All verb roots end with a consonant.
Double consonants are rare, but do exist.
The letter combinations "sh" and "th" do not combine into digraphs.
Word order is flexible, as the object and subject are defined by the noun declension suffix, but OSV is most common. Adjectives and adverbs preceed the words the describe.
Plural: add -l to end of suffix
In proper names, when the full name is used only the personal name declines. When another part of the name is used alone, it declines.
An individual's full name is composed of the personal and parental names, followed by any descriptive names and titles.
Personal names are composed from two parts, combined without punctuation. The first part is gender-specific, except for some beginning with Θ and T. The options for the second part are the same for male and female names.
Male names, first part: Pɛŕθ-, Pɛlθ-, Pælv-, Pohr-, Pɪŕl-, Pʉlt-, Bæʝl-, Borθ-, Bort-, Bɪlg-, Bäθk-, Væsʝ-, Voht-, Θɛkl-, Θɛlt-, Θæks-, Θærs-, Θʉrv-, Θätl-, Θälβ-, Tʊgl-, Tɛvk-, Tɛgl-, Tægs-, Tɪsl-, Torg-, Täpt-, Tävs-, Tähg-, Sʊlh-, Sʊrt-, Kʉvh-, Kʉlp-, Gʊvl-, Gʊlç-, Gɛβt-, Gorθ-, Gɪŕt-, Gäls-, ʆɪlβ-, ʆäθk-, Hʊlt-, Hɪβs-, Hʉŕs-, Hävl-
Female names, first part: Bɛlv-, Bɛtk-, Bolŕ-, Birv-, Bʉŕs- Θɛkl-, Θɛlt-, Θærs-, Θʉrv-, Θätl-, Tʊgl-, Tɛvk-, Tɛgl-, Tægs-, Tɪsl-, Torg-, Täpt-, Sɛsk-, Sælv-, Sæhr-, Sɪlv-, Säŕp-, Kært-, Kolθ-, Kɪŕt-, Kälh-, Ŕʊvg-, Ŕɛhs-, Ŕoçt-, ʆæpl-, ʆɪŕt-, ʆɪŕs-, Lʊŕt-, Läθl-, Lähr-, Häβr-, Hälp-, Çolt-, Çævs-, Çɪŕθ-, Çɪlk-
All names, second part: -ʊgs, -ʊgl, -ʊrθ, -ʊrt, -ɛsv, -ɛgŕ, -ɛŕg, -ɛhl, -ɛlk, -æsg, -ærs, -ælg, -oβk, -oθl, -otr, -ɪtŕ, -ɪsg, -ɪŕl, -ɪlç, -ʉst, -ʉrβ, -ʉlʝ, -äθl, -ätç, -ägt, -äht, -äçs
Personal names are pronounced by placing the last consonant of the first part into the second syllable, which is stressed: Kær-täht, Pɪŕ-lɛsv, Läh-rɛlk, Θær-sɪlç
The short form or nickname is usually created by combining the first two and last two letters of the personal name, but some people prefer a nickname formed by dropping other letters from the personal name, or combining parts of the personal and parental names.
The second name comes from the parent of the opposite gender. Children of uncertain parentage may all use their mother's personal name, or be called Ksävɛgt / Ksävævθ (son/daughter of the wind).
Male parental name: Mother's personal name + ɛgt
Female parental name: Father's personal name + ævθ
Some individuals choose to take their spouse or sibling's name in addition to their parent's. This is usually only done when the other individual is notable. Occasionally, if there was a major break from the family, a person may give up the parental name completely.
Male family name: Wife's personal name + ʝʉg / Sibling's personal name + tsæk
Female family name: Husband's personal name + θɪɛl / Sibling's persona name + poβr
Nearly anything can be used as a descriptive name, but the most common describe an attribute, habit or profession. An individual may have multiple descriptive names over their lifetime, but rarely more than one at a time. Descriptive names are usually used by everyone except the subject.
|New [in town]||Sæg|
|Red (red haired)||Poɪθ|
|Black (black haired)||Kɪθ|
|Bright (blonde, pale skinned)||ʆɪv|
|Dark (dark skinned)||Ŕɛst|
|Left (left handed)||Opsɛk|
|Counter (banker, lender)||Stŕoβɪv|
There are both hereditary/landed and appointed court positions in Illias that carry titles. These titles are placed after the full name, or before the short name. Only family and close friends are permitted to drop the title, and even then only in informal settings. Hereditary titles normally pass from both parents to the oldest child. Next-in-line heirs can be designated with ordinal numbers following the title (the third Duke would be the Duke's oldest grandchild or second oldest child).
|Law enforcement (bark)||Khʉɪv|
Sample LineageEditThe descendants of Gorθærs ʆɪŕsælgɛgt Sæg, to the current heiress to the Duchy of Hægɛl, Tɛvkäht.
The descendants of Gorθærs ʆɪŕsælgɛgt Sæg married into the landed nobility in the fifth generation, when Bæʝlærs Kälhɛlkɛgt Ŕäβɪv married Ŕɛhsɛhl Pælvʊrtævθ Pʝæt Hægɛl.
In the seventh generation, as the firstborn child Tɛvkäht inherits the title over her brother Tɛvkäθl. As infants the twins received descriptive names "the Elder" and "the Younger". Their short-form names are Tɛht Çɪsk and Tɛθl Ɛpŕʊ.
Numbers and DatesEdit
Illiaster uses a base 9 number system. The number names are compound: 0 = gäŕθ, zero; 5 = glʉs, five; 10 = vʉʊrt, one 9 and one; 27 = kɛʊvʉ or lɪtgäŕθ, two 9s and nine or three 9s and zero; 55 = khæʊrt, six 9s and one; 500 = tʉpvotglʉs, six 81s and one 9 and five; 1,000 = θɛkŕæglɪtʊrt, one 729 and three 81s and three 9s and one; 50,000 = ʝʊ θçævsotkɛglʉs ; seven 6561s and five 729s and five 81s and two 9s and five.
|1||ʊrt||one 9||vʉ-||one 81||θɪr-||one 729||θɛk-||one 6561||ŕɪg-|
|2||äʝ||two 9s||kɛ-||two 81s||ʝäl-||two 729s||vot-||two 6561s||soβ-|
|3||θät||three 9s||lɪt-||three 81s||ŕæg-||three 729s||lʊθ-||three 6561s||pʉl-|
|4||çrɪä||four 9s||pæ-||four 81s||βʊs-||four 729s||toβ-||four 6561s||äts-|
|5||glʉs||five 9s||vɛl-||five 81s||sot-||five 729s||gɪŕ-||five 6561s||hʉk-|
|6||ʝært||six 9s||khæ-||six 81s||tʉp-||six 729s||ʝɛt-||six 6561s||sɛk-|
|7||lɛç||seven 9s||go-||seven 81s||kɪβ-||seven 729s||çæv-||seven 6561s||ʝʊθ-|
|8||klɪv||eight 9s||ʝop-||eight 81s||çæs-||eight 729s||hʊr-||eight 6561s||kɪt-|
|9||ʊvʉ||nine 9s||θɪr-||nine 81s||θɛk-||nine 729s||ŕɪg-||nine 6561s||çɪv-|
Ordinal numbers are formed by adding -ɪg to the end of the number word.
Nine months (stäŕɪç), each with eight five-day weeks, make up the standard Illiaster year (pæθ). The new year's festival at the end of the ninth month lasts five or six days, as determined necessary to reach the summer solstice that marks the beginning of Ætŕɪl and the new year.
|Months||Name||Aprox. Gregorian Start Date|
The first day (rɪɛl) of the week (loʊp) is traditionally the day of rest. The afternoon and evening of the fourth day is traditionally reserved for religious observation.
Thus, the 39th of Çʉgkɛ can be written: poŕ pæθätɪg rɪɛlʉt Çʉgkɛɪβ, or more commonly just: Voʝrɪɛl, pæ'θätɪg Çʉgkɛ.
ʆɛʉt vɛstäv poŕ hʊɛtʉr gæsk βɛk poŕ värʝʉr ŕɛst. Bɛʉt ŕɪgäçɛt poŕ ʊθʉr ɛçht βɛk poŕ ksävʉr pŕot.
A Farewell to Arms, by Ernest Hemingway
In the late summer of that year we lived in a house in a village that looked across the river and the plain to the mountains. In the bed of the river there were pebbles and boulders, dry and white in the sun, and the water was clear and swiftly moving and blue in the channels. Troops went by the house and down the road and the dust they raised powdered the leaves of the trees. The trunks of the trees too were dusty and the leaves fell early that year and we saw the troops marching along the road and the dust rising and leaves, stirred by the breeze, falling and the soldiers marching and afterward the road bare and white except for the leaves.
Ɛŕälær horl pæθɪβ poŕ hʉlʉt voɛloʝ θoŕʝäær skɛθtær βlɪsoʝ ʊɪç hʊɛtʉr βɛk kloŕʉr plætorl. Lɪoŕær hʊɛtɪβ ŕɪθoʝ äplʉrl βɛk ɪrɪlkʉrl krɪs βɛk lʉhs glovær βɛk çŕoʉt ŕɪθoʝ opŕäs βɛk θɛgt ʝʉɪtɛt βɛk θäŕg hɪŕæsærl. Ŕhʉɪçʉtl särtoʝ θoŕʝäæt βɛk glɪs troɪʝæt βɛk βrɪɛtʉt tsʉkoʝ goroβ pʉçætoʝ läβorl çæŕɪβl. Bʊrlʉtl çæŕɪβl los ŕɪθoʝ βrɪɛtäç βɛk läβʉtl ʝɪtoʝ çɛrʊç pæθær βɛk hʉlʉt βlɪsoʝ ŕhʉɪçʉrl læhɛt ʝɪk troɪʝæt βɛk βrɪɛtʉrl tsʊkɛt βɛk läβʉrl θægʊç ksävoβ βɛk kæŕçʉrl læhɛt βɛk βɛlg troɪʝʉrl çŕætɪl βɛk lʉhs ʝŕɪk läβorl.