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Ingrian (natively Ingermaniska [iŋɣermɑniskɑ]) is a nearly extinct Germanic language spoken natively by approximately only 200 of the Ingrian Germanics in scattered areas between the Northern Dvina River and Pechora River. It is a predominantly fusional language which has various polysynthetic tendencies. It originated from Proto-Northwest-Germanic-speaking or Proto-Germanic-speaking Swedes who arrived and settled in northern Estonia in the 2nd century BC. From there the language had spread throughout all of the Ingrian region by Late Antiquity and into northwestern Russia and southern Finland by the Early Middle Ages, peaking in the 12th century then entering gradual decline ever since. This language and its entire Germanic branch were entirely forgotten until archaeological evidence was first found northwest of Lake Onega during the 1930's and surviving speakers were first found in 1989 west of Ukhta, Russia.
Classification and DialectsEdit
Ingrian is the only surviving language of the Ingric branch of Germanic language. There are three branches of this family, the North, West, and East Ingric languages, of which Ingrian is a member of the Western Branch. This language family was formerly spoken in a range stretching from the Gulf of Finland in the west to the Pechora River in the east to Karelia in the North but has greatly declined in the past millenium. During this time, Ingrian was spoken around the Gulf of Finland within the Ingrian Empire, which existed from the 6th century until the 14th century and whose geographic location was roughly the same as the range of the Ingric languages. However, after the empire collapsed and the language family entered decline, the language shifted eastward and scattered transforming into the range in which it is spoken today. In its present range Ingrian has two regional dialects known as the Dvina and Tsilma Dialects.
|Plosive||p b||t d||k kʷ||ʔ*|
|Fricative||ɸ||θ||s||x ɣ||xʷ ɣʷ||h*|
/ʔ/ is sometimes inserted between unseparated vowels.
/h/ is an allophone of /x/ in word-initial position unless followed immediately by another consonant.
|High||i iː||u uː|
|Low-mid||ɛː ɛːː||ɔː ɔːː|
|Sound||ɑ||ɑː||b||d||e, ə||eː, ɛː||ɛːː||ɸ||ɣ||x, h||i||iː|
That dog is mine.
Þat hunda ist mína.
That dog is yours.
Þat hunda ist þína.