|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Classification and DialectsEdit
|t tv d dv
/t tʷ d dʷ/
|k kv g gv
/k kʷ g gʷ/
|Sibilated fricative||s sv z zv
/s sʷ z zʷ/
|r rj rv
/r rʲ rʷ/
|Lateral affr.||tl dl
Inzu has an complicated morphosyntactic alignment. It treat differently stative intransitive verbs, active intransitive verbs, monotransitive verbs and ditransitive verbs.
- Stative intransitive verbs (V0s) - verbs, that have lexical meaning of state and have only one argument, that called subject (S). In Inzu subject takes absolutive case. English example: Cats(S) exist(V0s).
- Active intransitive verbs (V0a) - verbs, that have lexical meaning of action performed by one object and have only one argument, that called agent (A). In Inzu agent takes ergative case. English example: Boy(A) is crying(V0a).
- Monotransitive verbs (V1) - verbs that generally have meaning of action performed by active participant on patient participant. Have two arguments: agent (A), that correspond to performer of action and object (O) for patient object of action. In Inzu object takes accusative case. English example:Cat(A) eats(V1) mouse(O).
- Ditransitive verbs (V2) - verb with three arguments. Generally include all verbs with meaning of transferring. The arguments of ditransitive verb are donor (D), theme (T, also called direct object) and recipient (R, also called indirect object). In Inzu donor takes pegative case, theme take accusative case and recipient takes dative case. English example: Dave(D) gives book(T) to Jane(R).
Inzu grammarians developed special system of classification of grammatical roles of words and phrases in sentence and classification of sentences depending on their content. Inzu syntax terminology:
- Predicate - generalization of syntax role of verb as an central base of the sentence. It support the main meaning of entire sentence. Classification of verbs above is also applicable for predicates. Usually it consist of only one verb (with auxiliary as it part), however it also can be represented by plural verbs of the same transitivity connected by simultaneous and equal relation.English example: I sing and dance, "sing and dance" - one predicate, mean while in sentence 'I sing, than dance' 'sing' and 'dance' separate predicates. Aside of verbs, that big class of intransitive stative predicates is represented by "copula + nominal phrase" combination (example: I am human). In syntax analyses this member of sentence underlined by double line, example: I potatoes.
- Main argument (sometimes simply subject) of the predicate is the most crucial of argument in regards of meaning of sentence. If predicate is verb-based, verb is agreed with main argument in number and person. Subject for stative intransitive predicate, agent for active intransitive and monotransitive predicate, donor for ditransitive predicate. In applicative and causal voice purpose (P) and cause (C) correspondingly are main arguments, while default main arguments of the verb become secondary. In passive voice verb valency decrease with omitting of the main argument: intransitive predicate becomes self-sufficient sentence; monotransitive verb becomes intransitive stative and it's remained argument - former object, become an subject; ditransitive predicate becomes monotransitive by losing donor, it's theme become it's subject, while recipient remain being recipient. In antipassive voice monotransitive predicate omit object, turning agent into subject, while ditransitive predicate lose either recipient or theme, while donor turn into agent and remained secondary argument maintains its role. Reflexive and reciprocal voices hide predicate valency by turning former main argument and one of the secondary arguments (see below) into one: monotransitive predicate becomes intransitive active predicate, ditransitive predicate turn into monotransitive with three options of merger: donor and theme merge into agent (ADT); donor and patient merge into agent (ADP); theme and patient merge into object (OPT). In syntax analyses main argument underlined by single line, example: David likes pizza.
- Secondary arguments (also called compliments) - arguments of the predicate other that main argument: object for monotransitive predicate, theme and donor of ditransitive argument. In applicative and causal voices subject, agent and donor become secondary arguments as well. In passive voice predicate lose main argument as result one of the secondary argument become new main, so in the ultimate result predicate lose one of it's secondary arguments: monotransitive predicate takes former object as subject leaving no secondary arguments, while ditransitive predicate takes former theme as subject, so the patient become the only one secondary argument. Antipassive voice omit object of monotransitive predicate and either theme, or patient of ditransitive predicate. In reflexive and reciprocal voices one of secondary arguments become merged with main argument so semantically his valency slot is filled, but grammatically it is omitted. Also in case of P+T→OPT merger for ditransitive predicates two compliments merge into one. In syntax analyses compliment underlined by dashed line.
- Modifiers (also called adjunct) - words and phrases in the sentences, that are not an arguments of the verb, but made direct input in sentence meaning by clarifying qualities of verb and arguments. Each modifier create an phrase with a word that it modifies.
- Adverbial modifier (also called circumstance) - modifier that characterize verb. In Inzu this role is filled by adverbs, adverbial participles, adverbial phrases and nouns in grammatical cases of place, time, state and manner of action. Also if predicate is not in causal or applicative voice nominals in causal or final case correspondingly considered circumstances. In syntax analyses underlined by dot-dash line.
- Adjectival modifier (also called qualifier) - modifier that characterize predicate's arguments (subject and compliments). In Inzu this role is filled by adjectives, adjectival participles and nouns in the grammatical cases of the relation. In syntax analyses underlined by wave line.
- Grammatical base of the sentence - relation between predicate and its main argument, no compliments.
- Simple sentence - sentence that have only one grammatical base without compliments.
- Not full simple sentence - simple sentence consist only of grammatical base.
- Undeveloped full simple sentence - simple sentence with grammatical base and all compliments, but without any modifiers (adjuncts). Predicate and all its arguments in regard of sentence called free members of sentence, because their relation and meaning doesn't depend on their order, while modifiers should be near the free member that it's characterize.
- Developed full simple sentence - simple sentence that have grammatical base, all compliments and at list one adjunct.
- Complex sentence - sentence with two or more grammatical bases. Each grammatical base with it's adjuncts called syntax statement.
- Complex governed sentence - complex sentence where grammatical bases have governed relation between them, so one syntax statement can takes role of modifier of another. English example: I , when Superman . In this sentence second part of the sentence is dependent syntax statement, that give information about time of action in first part (main statement), so the second part of sentence takes role of adverbial modifier of the first.
- Complex composed sentence - complex sentence where syntax parts are equal in hierachy.