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Irshca is the language constructed by Mr. F. Geoghegan in the year 2015 to mimic constructed languages ("Conlangs") on this wiki such as Lidu. The language is based on grounds of simplicity and it's rather easy nature if one was to learn this language,without sacrificing minimal complexity. It is based off of several languages spoken throughout the world such as: Irish (An Caighdeán Oifigiúil), English, Russian, and Latin.
Alphabet and General Phonology Edit
The Irshca alphabet is composed of 26 letters, borrowing from both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets.
Vowels: A, E, Ё, Ê, I, O, U, V
Ee- "Ye" sound
Ёё- "Yo" sound
Êê- Short "E" sound, as in the English word yet
Acute accents are added to letters to lengthen the sound of the letter, e.g add (short "a"), father (long "a",) In Irshca, the letter "a" in "father" would be written as "fáther. Note: Elongation of vowels is very rare throughout the language.
Ph - Same as in English
Ch - Same as in English
Dh - "Y" sound
"G" - Always has a hard pronunciation
"C" - k
"X" - Voiceless velar fricative
Every other phonological rule which applies in English applies in Irshca
Irshca follows a very basic S-V-O (Subject-Verb-Object) syntax. The Subject is always in the nominative case, and the object in the accusative, this applies in every sentence where there is both a subject and object.
Irshca has rather basic, the language is designed like this to allow for easy learning.
All verbs fall under two conjugations, which are distinguished by verbs with infinitives ending in "et" or "êt" (Both first conjugation) and verbs ending in "ёt" (Second conjugation). Conjugations only decline based on tense, mood, and aspect. There are no irregular verbs.
1st conjugation endings:
|1st Conjugation||Normal||Commandative/Imperative||Perfective Aspect||Progressive Aspect|
|Future tense||-e'et||Prefix "sova"|
|Present tense||-ё'ёt||Prefix "suwa"||-ёc||-ёx|
|Past tense||-ot||Prefix "suya"|
2nd conjugation endings:
|2nd Conjugation||Normal||Commandative/Imperative||Perfective Aspect||Progressive Aspect|
All endings in both conjugations replace the distinguishing letters at the ends of the Infinitive forms.
Perfective Aspect: "I am eating"
Progressive Aspect: "I have eaten"
If a verb doesn't use either the Imperative or any of the aspect forms, they automatically use the Normal form.
To form the verbal noun of the verb, then:
|Formation of the Verbal Noun||Endings:|
|1st Conjugation||Add "ê" to the Infinitive|
|2nd Conjugation||Add "ё" to the Infinitive|
Nouns are anything in existence, they are: A person, place, thing, or idea.
There is no grammatical gender for nouns or any descriptive words in Irshca. This allows for greater simplicity in the language, as pronouns when used in place of the noun, use "it", instead of "he", or "she". Because of this, only nouns which have biological gender use the "he" or "she" forms, but if the object is not a living organism capable of being distinguished by their gender biologically, they take the neuter pronoun, if one is used.
Nouns in their dictionary and nominative forms always end in "o". This is called the Dictionary Form. There are no exceptions to this rule. This is done so that the person reading or listening to another person using the language knows which words are nouns and which words are not. Nouns decline based on if they're the subject or object of the sentence, or if they own something.
|Case||Noun's ending||Plural Endings|
|Nominative Case||Makes no change to the dictionary form.||Replace "o" in dictionary form with "as"|
|Accusative Case||Replace "o" in the dictionary form with "a"||Replace "o" in dictionary form with "ae"|
|Genitive Case||Replace "o" in the dictionary form with "es"||Replace "o" in dictionary form with "orum"|
The Nominative case is used to denote the subject of the sentence, i.e the noun doing the verb. e.g Charlie is eating cake. In this example, Charlie, is the nominative as he's doing the verb.
The Accusative case is used to denote the object of the sentence, i.e the noun which receives whatever the subject is doing, e.g Charlie eats cake. In this example, cake is the accusative as it is being eaten.
The Genitive case denotes ownership of something, i.e the " 's " at the ends of nouns to indicate such ownership. Ownership in this case is generally translated as such, though saying "of" is far more accurate. The genitive case is seen in these examples (In bold): Tom's dog, or, The dog of Tom. The latter is the more accurate translation.
Pronouns are used in the place of nouns whenever the speaker -or writer- see's it to be necessary, because of this, they can be used interchangeably with other nouns.
|Pronouns of Irshca||Nominative Form||Accusative Form||Genitive Form|
|1st person (I/Me)||Mi||Mê||Muc|
|2nd Person (You)||Ti||Tê||Tuc|
|3rd Person (He/him/she/her/it)||Masculine = On
Feminine = Ol
Neuter (It) =il
|Masculine = Ono
Feminine = Olo
Neuter = Ilo
|Masculine = Onuc
Feminine = Oluc
Neuter = Iluc
|1st Person plural (We/us)||Vê||Vês||Vêcs|
|2nd Person plural (You all)||Vё||Vёs||Vёscs|
|3rd person plural (They/them)||Tё||Tёs||Tёc|
Always end in 'a'. They describe the noun. They take no change, and are distinguishable by being directly in front of the noun which they are describing. There are no exceptions to either rules.
Possessive Adjectives Edit
Possessive adjectives describe who owns them, and are interchangeable with the Genitive Pronouns above, though the use of the Genitive Pronouns puts 'of' in the translations.
|His/Her's/It's||Masculine = Onein
Feminine = Olein
Neuter = Ilein
Always end in a 'u'. They describe how the verb was/is being done. They don't change and are positioned directly before the verb. There are no exceptions to either rules.
General Vocabulary Edit
|Word in English||Translation|