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Isgalini

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  1. Isgalini is a made-up language with no major purpose beyond a slight experimentation. Its words are a mixture of mainly Latin, Spanish, French, Greek and English, with many of its own characteristics aswell. Its grammar is similar to Spanish and English in different aspects.


Pronunciation Vowels (IPA in brackets.)

a - [a]

e - [ɛ] and [ei] when followed by a vowel

i - [iː]

o - [o] and [oː]

u - [uː]

- Accents on vowels (á é í ó ú) are used to denote stress -

- The diaeresis indicates that two adjoining letters that would normally be pronounced as one are instead to be pronounced as separate vowels -

- Circumflexes are used to show that a letter used to exist after the circumflexized vowel (like in French) or in the combination to indicate the pronunciation is [i:] not [oi] -

Consonants (IPA in brackets.)

b - [b]

c - when followed by i or e like [ʃ] Otherwise pronounced like [k]

d - [d]

f - [f]

g - [g] or when followed by i or e like [ʒ]

h - [h]

j - [ʒ]

k - [k]

l - [l]

m - [m]

n - [n]

p - [p]

q - [k] only used when followed by a u and proceeded by i or e

r - [r]

s - [s]

t - [t]

v - [v]

x - [ks]

y - [j] or [iː] as a vowel

z - [z]


Diphthongs (IPA in brackets.)

Oi/oy - [oi]

Ai/ay - [ai]

Ei/ey - [ei]

Au - [au]

Ch - [tʃ]

Sh - [ʃ]

Gu - [gw] when followed by a vowel*

Cu - [kw] *

Hu - [w] *

Dh - [ð] like in that

Th - [θ] like in thing

Oî - [i:] used when writing words of Greek origin with 'οι' like; φοίνιξ, τοίχος in Isgalini - foînix, toîsi


Pronouns

I- Mi

He- Li

She- Ji

It- Si

They- Ti

We- Ni

You- Dhi

You all/lot- Dhis

In constructing a sentence - the pronoun is placed before the verb, i.e. li sta vene - he is well

If this is turned negative no is placed in front, however this merges with the first letter of the pronoun so it becomes, nol sta vene - he isn't well. This process happens for all the pronouns except dhis.

If a verb begins with an i then the i in the pronoun is dropped, i.e. m'inmena or


Possessive pronouns

My- Ma

Your- Dha

His- La

Her- Ja

Our- Na

You lot's- Dhisa

Their- Ta

Its- Sa


Myself - Mastan

Yourself - Dhastan

Himself - Lastan

Herself - Jastan

Ourself - Nastan

Yourselves - Dhisastan

Themselves - Tastan

Itself - Sastan

(the stan translates as being, so mastan = my being.)

Connectives

that, than, which - dhei

Those, them - dheis

This, these - dhe, dhes

Who - poî

What - quei

When - cuân

Where - uvi

Here - hî

There - ivi

Why - po abbreviated from 'porqueí?'

Because - po abbreviated from 'pordheí'

But - sed

And - et (pronounced [ɛd].)

If - si

Not - no

Thus or yes - sî

Verb conjugation

Present

In the present tense verbs always end in a, staying the same as the infinitive except with a pronoun before it.

Mi tena e can (I have a dog)

Past

Verbs' endings with any pronoun before it become at (pronounced like [ad].)

Mi tenat e can (I had a dog)

Future

Sa is placed before the verb.

Mi sa tena e can (I will have a dog)

Conditional

Sau is placed before the verb.

Mi sau tena e can (I would have a dog)

Imperitive (commanding)

Remains the same as the infinitive, like in English.

Verb examples

Mi ema le músiqui i mi joia le quitari.

I like music and I play the guitar.

Nom thela ira contra quei dhi 'sa.

I don't want to go against what you know.

Prepositions

To - A

Infront of, before - Ante

Against - Contra

Toward - Pros

Inside - Ene

Outside - Exe

Below - Infra

Between, among - Inter

Within - Intra

Near - Juxta

Far from - Nejuxta

Through - Per

Behind, after - Meta

Over - Sup

Under - Suv

Beyond - Ultra

With - Con

Without - Necon

(Ne is used as a prefix to make the original word have an opposite meaning.)


Adjectives & adverbs

Adjectives and adverbs always end in e (some adverbs can end in y), (Except when the adverb is commonly used as a conjunction aswell.) gender or pluralization does not affect this.

Le shoc megle consumat le pici micre.

The big shark ate the little fish.

Alexès ema shocolui calore po si sta plûe dolse dhei cafei.

Alexès likes hot chocolate because it is more sweet than coffee.

Lorentis thela jûe ira, sed nol posat trova la jaqueti.

Laurence just wanted to go, but he couldn't find his jacket.

Some common adjectives

cold - frige

big - megle

small - micre

weak - febue

Nouns

- Male nouns can end with any vowel (except a) or any consonant. -

- Female nouns end with an a or ès (stress still placed on è) -

- Nouns which are either male or female or do not have a physical gender end in i -

- Nouns are the route to form adjectives, for example; -

Richness (noun) - Pluti | Rich (adjective) - Plute

Jealousy (noun) - Jelosi | Jealous (adjective) - Jelose

Some example text about 'Fruit'

L'usis de fruxi por omis sta megle. L'une usi sta prinsipale por consumi crude, sed cuân ti sta cose ti deocasis ira plûe dolse et plute in sávori. Le fruxis sta parti de e planti con flosis, le fruxi sta de tisui spesifique de le flosi. Pole sentis de fruxis, come pomi, peshi, piri et manghis tena e valui comerse come mangi ome, ti posa manja freshe i come fruximis, marmeladis i ale preservis.

Vocabulary

Much of the vocabulary like nouns derive from the verbs they're related to. For example, dona - to give, doni - gift, joia - to play, joi - game.

Unique suffixes can be added to the root of a verb or noun to make a particular meaning

For example;

- qui added to the end of an already existent noun to mean 'producer, maker.' Fósiqui - fosi - light + qui means 'light producer' i.e. a light bulb.

- ci 'storer, thing' can be added to nouns like, lexi to form léxici - a dictionary (word thing)

- topi means 'place', like compratopi is a mixture of compra (to buy) and topi (place) making (buy place) or shop.

- or & ès used like like in English to describe what people do, writer, player added to verb and noun roots like joi- where the -a 'from joia is replaced with or or ès. For example, joior - player or grafor - writer.

Phonotactic constraints Edit

In Isgalini the letter cluster 'ct' does not exist and appears as 'x'. 'Selecta', 'conecta', 'acta' become; selexa, conexa, axa, and so on.

Sometimes in the letter clusters, 'pl', 'bl' the l is replaced with a u, like in the words simpue, tempui, horibue, teribue. (simple, temple, horrible, terrible.)

Sometimes 's' is dropped in words like, hîtori - history, câteli - castle

Nouns which derive from words that would end in -ati, -uti, in Isgalini are lost and become, shocolati = shocolui, minuti = minui, caputi = capui

Phrases

Hello/good day - Venedí

Goodnight - Venenyxi

Goodbye -

How are you - Come sta dhi?

Body parts

capui - head

mani - hand

piei - foot

digiui - finger

capili - hair

vrasi - arm

fasi - face

ocli - eye

Numbers

uni - one

dui - two

tri - three

cui - four

sincui - five

sei - six

septi - seven

oxi - eight

novi - nine

desi - ten


unidesi - eleven

duidesi - twelve

(etc.)

duiginti - twenty

triginti - thirty

cuiginti - forty

sincuiginti - fifty

seiginti - sixty

septiginti - seventy

oxiginti - eighty

noviginti - ninety

senti - one hundred

duisenti - two hundred

(etc.)

mili - one thousand

Months

unemini - january

duemini - february

tremini - march

cuemini - april

sincuemini - may

seiemini - june

septemini - july

oxemini - august

novemini - september

desemini - october

unidesemini - november

duidesemini - december

(Months logically written for the twelve months of the year, like 'first month' = une - first, mini - month etc. )

Dictionary - Le Léxici (Eng - Isg)Edit

a(n) - e(n) [article]

and - i [conjuntion]

all - tole [adjective/adverb]

ascend - asenda [verb]

arrive - ariva [verb]

abort - aborta [verb]

above - supre [adverb]

against - contra [preposition]

baby - infâni [noun]

bad - male [adjective]

base - fundamenti [noun]

book - livri [noun]

boy - pueo [noun]

breathe - respira [verb]

catalogue - indexi [noun]

castle - câteli [noun]

Some common verbs

To be - sta

To have - tena

To do/make - fara

To be able to - posa

To say - lea

To see - via

To sing - canta

To go - ira

To give - dona

To know - siensa or abbreviated to 'sa

To understand - inmena

To want - thela

To write - grafa

To work - lavora

To wear - vesta

To love - ama

To like - ema

To live - viva

To live (in area, place) - havita

To arrive - ariva

To add - prospona

To pass - pasa

To perform - exelesa

To ought to - deba

To put - pona

To be born - nata

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