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Island Germanic

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General informationEdit

As the name suggests, the Island Germanic language is a Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of a small island group called the "Germanic Islands" in the Northern Atlantic ocean. Research has shown that the inhabitants of the islands who call themselves (the) Islandish are the descendants of several Germanic tribes from Central and Northern Europe. Archaeologists have found weapons, tools and furniture on the islands which are roughly 2000 years old. Modern historians believe that several Germanic tribes feared an invasion of the Roman empire and sent out scouting troops to search for "the land behind the sea" - several scouting troops reached the Germanic islands and decided to start a new life.

Island Germanic is related to all modern Germanic languages but being isolated on an island has preserved many grammatical features that were abandoned in other Germanic languages.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Consonants
Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z (ʃ) x h
Affricate t͡s
Approximant j w
Trill r
Lat. app. l

Velar nasal [ŋ]Edit

The velar nasal is an allophone of [n] before velar plosives.

Postalveolar fricative [ʃ]Edit

The postalveolar fricative is an allophone of the consonant clusters [s] + [x] or [h].

Final devoicingEdit

Island Germanic employs a system of devoicing syllable-final voiced consonants to their voiceless counterparts - the changes are:

  • [b] → [p]
  • [d] → [t]
  • [g] → [k]
  • [v] → [f]
  • [ð] → [θ]
  • [z] → [s]

VowelsEdit

Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i (y) u
Near-close ɪ (ʏ) ʊ
Close-mid e (ø) o
Open-mid ɛ (œ) ɔ
Open a

Vowel lengthEdit

Island Germanic possesses three different vowel lengths - short, long and overlong.

  • Short vowels: [a], [ɛ], [ɪ], [ɔ], [œ], [ʊ] and [ʏ]
  • Long vowels: [a:], [ɛ:], [e:], [i:], [o:], [ø:], [u:] and [y:]
  • Overlong vowel: [o::]

The overlong vowel can only appear at the ends of words.

i-UmlautEdit

Island Germanic has inherited the i-Umlaut - this means that back (or mid) vowels change to their front equivalents when the syllable following them contains [ɪ], [i:] or (sometimes) [j]. The changes are:

  • [a] → [ɛ]
  • [a:] → [ɛ:]
  • [ɔ] → [œ]
  • [o:] → [ø:]
  • [ʊ] → [ʏ]
  • [u:] → [y:]

If [j] causes an umlaut it is dropped.

DiphthongsEdit

Island Germanic has the following diphthongs: [aɪ̯], [aʊ̯], [iʊ̯] and [ɔɪ̯]

StressEdit

Stress usually falls on the first syllable of a word. However, if a word contains an overlong vowel, the stress is always on it.

OrthographyEdit

AlphabetEdit

Alphabet
Letter Sound(s)
A a [a], [a:]
Ä ä [ɛ], [ɛ:]
B b [b] ~ [p] (in coda position)
C c [t͡s]
D d [d] ~ [t] (in coda position)
Ð ð [ð] ~ [θ] (in coda position)
E e [ɛ], [e:]
F f [f]
G g [g] ~ [k] (in coda position)
H h [h] (in onset position), [x] (in coda position)
I i [ɪ], [i:]
J j [j]
K k [k]
L l [l]
M m [m]
N n [n] ~ [ŋ] (before [g] or[k])
O o [ɔ], [o:], [o::]
Ö ö [œ], [ø:]
P p [p]
R r [r]
S s [s]
T t [t]
Þ þ [θ]
U u [ʊ], [u:]
Ü ü [ʏ], [y:]
V v [v] ~ [f] (in coda position)
W w [w]
Z z [z]

VerbsEdit

Weak verbsEdit

Class 1Edit

Class 1 weak conjugation
Infinite verb forms
Infinitive -an
PPA -andas
PPP -edas
Present
Singular Plural
Active Passive Active Passive
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
1st Person -o -au - -oi -aujo - -am -anþaim - -ijam -anþam -
2nd Person -is -(a)sai -ii -ais -aisau -aizii -iiþ -anþait -iþ -ijaþ -anþat -anþa
3rd Person -it -(a)tai - -ai -aiðau - -ant -anþain - -ijan -anþant -
Preterite
Singular Plural
Active Passive Active Passive
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
1st Person -ido -edi - - - - -idem -edem - - - -
2nd Person -ic -ec - - - - -idet -edet - - - -
3rd Person -ide -et - - - - -iden -edin - - - -

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