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Isxuor

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Progress 98%
Isorian
Isxuor
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative—Accusative
Head direction
Ambidirectional
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Isorian (natively known as ‹Isxuor› /i ʃːuoːɾ/) is a Romance language spoken in the fictitive country of Isora.

PhonologyEdit

AlphabetEdit

The alphabet of Isorian is derived from the Latin alphabet. It is as follows:

Letter Name Letter Name
a a /ɑ/ o o /o/
b ba /bɑ/ œ avoi /ɑˈvoj/
c ca /kɑ/ p pa /pɑ/
d da /d̪ɑ/ q quia /ˈqwiɑ/
e e /e/ r rhoi /r͡roj/
f fa /fɑ/ s as /ɑs/
g ga /gɑ/ t ta /t̪ɑ/
h hac /hɑk/ u u /u/
i i /i/ v va /vɑ/
l al /ɑl/ x ix /iʃ/
m em /em/ y

ypselus /ˈypselus/

i graco /i ˈgɾɑko/

n en /en/ z zet /zɛt̪/

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Uvular
Nasal m (m) n (n) ŋ (n)
Plosive p (p) b (b) t̪ (t) d̪ (d) k (c) g (g)
Sibilant s (s) z (z) ʃ (x) ʒ (zx/gx)
Fricative f (f) v (v) h (h)
Lateral l (l)
Rhotic ɾ (r)

To note:

  • The consonant clusters gx and zx both represent the sound /ʒ/; gx appears where a hard /g/ sound might have initially been present (‹frigxida› "frigid" /friˈʒiːd̪ɑ/), and zx appears in other situations (zxaccal "jackal" /ˈʒɑccɑl/).
  • The consonant q always appears followed by a u, and together they represent the sound /kw/—e.g., ‹quor› "who?" /kwoːɾ/.
  • The letter n represents two possible phonemes depending on its location: before c, q, g and h (/k/, /g/ and /h/), it takes on the sound /ŋ/—e.g., ‹anhaire› "to despise" /ɑŋhɑˈiːɾe/, ‹quince› "five" /ˈkwiŋke/; and in all other places, it takes on the values of /n/—e.g., ‹annu› "year" /ˈɑnnu/, ‹envers› "contrarily, inversely" /ˈenvɛɾs/.
  • The consonant cluster gn represents the sound /ŋn/—for instance, ‹legnus› "length" would in IPA be /ˈleŋnus/. Word-final gn clusters, however, denote only a /ŋ/ sound—e.g., ‹legn› "lengthwise" /lɛŋ/. Conversely, ng represents /ŋg/, not /ŋ/: e.g., sáung /sɔ̞ŋg/.
  • and are special versions of the nasal consonants n and m that both signify a nasalisation of the preceding vowel: / ˜/; e.g., ‹siéñ› /si.ˈæ̃/. However, when followed by a vowel, usually the vowel that begins the next word, is pronounced as n and as m (although nasalisation of the previous vowel still occurs); e.g., «stalli sién̂ arvia» "they are trees" /ˈst̪ɑlli siˈæ̃ ˈnɑɾviɑ/, «num̂ yr» "I (shall) go now" /nũː myr/.
  • i and u may occasionally at the end of a syllable take /j/ and /w/ respectively, but this is rare; if at all these values do appear, they do so at the ends of names. Other inflections or derivatives of nouns or verbs that end in i or u end in /ĭ/ and /ŭ/ respectively.
  • Other consonants all denote the same sounds as shown in the table above and will not take on any other sounds, even in clusters of consonants.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded Variable Unrounded Rounded
Close i (i) y (y) u (u)
Close-mid e (e) ø (œ) o (o)
Mid ə (è, œ̀)
Open-mid ɛ (e) ɔ (o)
æ (é, áe) ɔ̞ (ó, áu)
Open ɑ (a)

To note:

  • Vowel letters can represent either a short or a long vowel sound; e.g., a /ɑ/ or /ɑː/. The distinction is marked in speech but not in writing, and so the vowel lengths per word are best learnt by heart.
  • All vowels do take the sounds as shown above, and only the sounds shown above, and the specific combinations in which they take different sounds—such as áe and áu—are also shown above.
    • The one exceptions are e and o, which can respectively take /ɛ/ or /ɔ/ instead of their usual values of /e/ and /o/, depending on ease of speech; but /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ are always short: /ɛː/ and /ɔː/ do not exist in Isxuor. Further, /e/ and /o/ are the more widely used values for even short vowels.
  • î is a rare graph that carries the phonetic values /yi/; e.g., ‹îo› "I" /yio/, ‹sî› "yes"/intensifier /syi/.
  • ao and ae have the values of /ɑú/ and /ɑí/ respectively, as apposed to au and ai which are /ɑu/ and /ɑi/; cf. ‹aore› "air" /ɑúɾe/, ‹aure› "to have" /auɾe/; ‹gigae› "gigantic (f. sing.)" /gigɑé/ ‹gigai› "gigantic (f. pl.)" /gigɑːi/.
  • The combinations áe, áu and œ̀ only appear if the first vowel of a word would be /æ/, /ɒ/ and /ə/ respectively. At all other instances of those sounds are represented by é, ó and è respectively. Cf. ‹áurón̂› "they have" /ɒ.'ɾɒ̃/, where both áu and ó represent /ɔ̞/, but their locations determine which form is used.

PhonotacticsEdit

Isorian takes any small cluster of consonants and vowels as a syllable, the smallest possible syllable being (V) or (C–V). For instance. ‹o› "at" forms a syllable, being a whole word in and of itself; ‹zu› "you" is also a whole syllable and a word, with a (C–V) composition.

Typically, syllables take on the form ([C][L]V[L][C]), where

  • C denotes any consonant;
  • L denotes the liquid consonants r and l;
  • V denotes: a short vowel, or a long vowel (V́), or a diphthong—a cluster of two combined (short) vowels (V̋); and
  • [square brackets] denote that the contents are optional to the syllable.

Syllables are classified this way:

  • Short Syllables are composed of either a single vowel (V), or a single (C–V) cluster, both cases in which the vowel V is a short vowel sound.
  • All other syllables are considered Long Syllables: to wit, ones with diphthongs or long vowels or consonant clusters.

StressEdit

The rules for stress on Isxuor words are somewhat hybrids of those that govern Latin words and those hat govern English words. There are a few key rules–of–thumb:

  • If the word has only two syllables, stress falls on the first syllable: e.g., ‹arvi› /ˈɑːɾvi/; ‹sién̂› /ˈsiæ̃/.
  • If the second–to–last syllable of the word is long, then stress falls on that syllable: e.g., ‹amare› /ɑmˈɑːɾe/.
  • If the word has no long syllables, stress falls on the first syllable: e.g. ‹ypnere› /ˈypnɛɾe/.
  • Words that are composed of multiple words can have multiple points of stress: e.g., ‹corafractitau› /ˈkoːɾɑˈfɾɑkt̪iˈt̪ɑu/ (‹cora› /ˈkoːɾɑ/ + fract- /ˈfɾɑkt̪/ + -i- /i/ + -tau /ˈt̪ɑu/).

VerbsEdit

Like most of its sister languages, Isorian is quite heavily verb-centric and ideas can, most of the time, be conveyed in sentences that comprise solely of one verb and its modifying adverbs. This is expressed moreso in Isorian than its sister languages in that Isorian has developed a more complex (although slightly more compact) system of verbs and verb functions.

Verb infinitives always end in -re, and the letter right before this syllable is used as a basis for classification of verbs. As such there are five conjugations of verbs, excluding exceptions, and they are as follows:

Verb Conjugations
Ending Example
-are amare (to love)
-ere ypnere (to sleep)
-ire sensire (to feel)
-yre seryre (to become)
-ore valore (to want)

The conjugations also match up to some extent, and the major differences are found only in how the vowels interact with other vowels and consonants.

Timeframe and AspectEdit

One can consider there to be three basic timeframes: the past (‹sta passata›), the present (‹sta prasenza›) and the future (‹sta fuitura›). This is in accordance with many other languages that create similar distinctions in time.

There are again, like most other languages, a two-fold distinction in aspect: the aorist (‹sta aorista› "the aorist") and the perfect (‹sta parfacta›).

Tenses and MoodsEdit

TensesEdit

Together, the timeframes and aspects contribute to six total tenses:

  • Present (‹Sta Tempa Prasenza "the present tense")
    • This tense denotes actions, simple and continuous, as well as habits: ‹amar› ("I love", "I do love", "I am loving"); ‹derarón̂› ("they give", "they do give", "they are giving"); ‹vaxtè› ("you (pl.) go", "you (pl.) do go", "you (pl.) are going").
  • Aorist (‹Sta Tempa Passata Aorista› "the aorist past tense")
    • This denotes basic past actions and occurences: ‹valute› ("he/she/it wanted to"); ‹deram› ("I gave"); ‹domnesto› ("you (pl.) ruled").
  • Future (‹Sta Tempa Fuitura› "the future tense")
    • This tense is used when describing intended future actions, and functions as an optative tense of sorts: ‹sera› ("I shall be", "I plan on being", "I would be"); ‹ypnerai› ("he/she/it shall sleep", "he/she/it plans on sleeping", "he/she/it would sleep").
  • Perfect (‹Sta Tempa Parfacta› "the present tense")
    • When an action is being described that has just reached completed or currently being completed, this tense is used: ‹comtexi› ("you (sing.) have eaten", "you (sing.) just ate"); ‹{nœ̀i} facore› ("we have done/finished/made", "we just did/finished/made").
  • Pluperfect (‹Sta Tempa Pius-qua-Parfacta› ("the more-than-perfect/pluperfect tense") or ‹Sta Tempa Passata Parfacta› "the perfect past tense")
    • This tense either can denote an action that was finished before the current period of time, or it can denote as well an anterior action: ‹fuhibe› ("he/she/it had flown"); ‹odanta du resiare, comti o restoranzo› ("before—to return—(I) eat <pluperfect>—at restaurant" = "before returning, I ate/had eaten at the restaurant").
  • Future Perfect (‹Sta Tempa Fuitura Parfacta› "the perfect future tense")
    • This tense regularly denotes a certainty in the future, an action one knows will get completed. It can also be used in a commissive sense (to make a promise or a threat), in the sense of "I will have ____ done": ‹beveri› ("I will drink", "I will have drunk"); ‹venyrivi› ("he/she/it will come", "he/she/it will have come").

MoodsEdit

Just as important to speech as tense-forms are the various moods, which allow expression of attitudes, such as commands and desires. While there are several moods that can be expressed by means of auxiliary verbs such as ‹valore› ("to want") and ‹povore› ("to be able"), there are three moods expressed in the form of verbal inflections: the conditional mood, the subjunctive mood and the imperative/volitional mood.

  • Subjunctive (‹Ste Motte Suviegniteve› "the subjunctive mood")
    • This mood operates irreally: it indicates emotions or opinions or possibilities more so than hard facts.
  • Imperative (‹Ste Motte Imperateve› "the imperative mood")
    • This mood is can actually be split into two moods.
      • If the verb is in the second or third person and in the imperative mood, then it signifies a command made to the subject, telling them to execute the action.
      • If however the verb is in the first person and imperative mood, then it signifies volition, in the sense of "let me ____!" or "let us ____!": ‹cantamè!› ("let us sing!"); ‹ie› ("let's (let me) go"). Note that the sense of "let me" isn't asking for permission or commanding someone to let one do something; it is in the sense of talking to oneself, and making plans.

Other Verb ConstructionsEdit

Other verb forms, moods, aspects or constructions expressed by Isorian verbs do not manifest as inflections or conjugations, but as modifications of the entire verb. They may also be expressed periphrastically, with typically one auxiliary verb denoting the additional meaning coming alongside the verb in question.

The other forms include:

  • Passive (‹Sta Passeva› "the passive")
    • The use of the passive is generally discouraged in Isxuor. Still, there are two passive constructions available in Isxuor.
      • The first is to use the relevant conjugation of ‹sere› "to be" along with the past passive participial form (ending it -(s)ta), along with ‹par› "by, through" plus the prepositional of a noun to denote the agent: E.g., «Este alla fracta par quori?» "By whom was this broken?" (or actively, "Who broke this?"). This is not very widely used, even less so in formal texts, but is useful where an agent requires to be mentioned.
      • The more common and more widely accepted second construction involves using the reflexive pronouns ‹mo› "myself", ‹zo› "yourself", ‹no› "ourselves, ‹vo› "yourselves", and ‹so› "him-/her-/it-/theirselves" with what would in an active construction be the object. E.g., «So fragete alla?» "Is this broken?" (lit. "did this break itself?"). The agent, even if it exists, is not of importance if such a construction is used; it is omitted.
  • Imperfect (‹Sta Emparfacta› "the imperfect")
    • There is a lack of a tense to show a continuous or incomplete nature of an action. This is made up for by the imperfect construction—the present participle (it is adjectival—it still should match the subject in case, number and gender) is taken and used with the verb ‹stare› "to stand": e.g., ‹iunzo stam› ("I (m. sing.) was going"); ‹resianze starax› ("you (f. sing.) will be returning"); ‹somnenze statui› ("let them (n. pl.) dream").

NounsEdit

Having lost several nuances in how nouns are declined as it evolved, Isxuor has developed its own set of noun declensions, much as it has developed conjugations for verbs. It does retain noun cases; however, the dative case has been deprecated, and the vocative case eliminated altogether. As such, the only remaining cases are the nominative (subject), genitive (possessive), accusative (object) and adverbial/prepositional. Nouns are declined based on the final letter of the "bare" form, and are classified as such:

Noun Declensions
Ending Classification
-a Neuter Primary
-∅ (consonant ending) Neuter Secondary
-o Masculine Primary
-i Masculine Secondary
-e Feminine Primary
-u Feminine Secondary

The labels "primary" and "secondary" for each of the declensions of each gender serve little more than denoting commonness of the nouns—primary declensions are the more common bare roots and secondary declensions are less common bare roots. However, the secondary declensions are especially common when nominalising verbs or deriving meanings (such as comparative forms for adverbs, or abstract forms for nouns).

The declensions for each category are exemplified here:

persona "person" /ˈpeɾsonɑ/
Case Singular Plural
Nominative persona persone
Genitive personèu personeu
Accusative personam persones
Prepositional persona personer
fil "child" /fiːl/ (consonant–ending)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative fil fille
Genitive fillèu filleu
Accusative fillum filles
Prepositional filli filler
revo /ˈɾevo/ "king"
Case Singular Plural
Nominative revo revi
Genitive revou reviu
Accusative revom revis
Prepositional revo revor
arvi /ˈɑɾvi/ "tree"
Case Singular Plural
Nominative arvi arvia
Genitive arviu arviau
Accusative arvim arvias
Prepositional arvai arviar
tetre /ˈtɛtɾe/ "square"
Case Singular Plural
Nominative tetre tetrai
Genitive tetreu tetrau
Accusative tetrem tetras
Prepositional tetre tetrar
annu /ˈɑnnu/ "information"
Case Singular Plural
Nominative vissu visso
Genitive vissèu vissou
Accusative vissum vissos
Prepositional vissui vissor

Of importance is the "stressing" of the ultimate syllable in the consonant–ending nouns. This manifests as the duplication of the final consonant.—however, this only applies when

  • the final consonant is a single consonant, as opposed to a consonant cluster: ‹lux›, ‹lusxèu› "light", but ‹xapt›, ‹xaptèu› "head"; and
  • when the vowel preceding the final consonant is short, not long: ‹os› /os/, ‹ossèu› /ossəu/ "bone" but ‹volug› /voluːg/, ‹volugèu› /voluːgəu/ "wolf".

Certain consonants such as b and z do not appear as final–consonants.

PronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

As required of all languages, there exist the minimum three persons: the first person, indicating the entity or entities speaking; the second person, indicating the entity or entities being spoken to; and the third person, an entity or entities not participating in the conversation. There are personal pronouns for each of these persons that have the meanings of "you", "I", "they", et cetera. They are as follows, and are irregular.

îo /yio/ first person pronoun: I, we
Case Singular Plural
Nominative îo nœ̀i
Genitive missè, mea nossè, nova
Accusative me no
Prepositional mi no
Reflexive mo no

*dialectal but common

zu /zu/ second person pronoun: you
Case Singular Plural
Nominative zu vœ̀i
Genitive zussè, zea vossè, voza
Accusative ze vo
Prepositional zi vo
Reflexive zo vo
is /is/ third person neuter–gendered pronoun: it
Case Singular Plural
Nominative is ai
Genitive issè, sea lissè, lera
Accusative la las
Prepositional la lar
Reflexive so so
il /il/ third person masculine pronoun: he
Case Singular Plural
Nominative il loi
Genitive ossè, sea lossè, lera
Accusative lo los
Prepositional lo lor
Reflexive so so
el /ɛl/ third person feminine pronoun: she
Case Singular Plural
Nominative el lei
Genitive essè, sea lessè, lera
Accusative le les
Prepositional le ler
Reflexive so so
ul /ul/ third person gender–neutral pronoun: they
Case Singular Plural
Nominative ul lui
Genitive ussè, sea lussè, lera
Accusative li lus
Prepositional li lur
Reflexive so so

There are a few things of note here.

  • In formal and respectful situations, ‹zu› and the singular inflections are dropped in favour of ‹vœ̀i› and the plural inflections, even when the second person should be singular. This replacement occurs when conveying respect or conversing with a person who is perceived as older, or as holding a greater rank than the speaker, or of greater standing.
  • When the gender of an object or person is known and defined as male or female, then ‹il› or ‹el› must be used. When the gender is either known but does not fit the male/female binary or is not preferred, or if the gender is unknown altogether, or when speaking about people in general, then ‹ul› must be used. ‹il›, ‹el› or ‹ul› must be used when the object being spoken of is living. ‹lui›, the plural of ‹ul›, is used for groups of mixed genders. ‹is› is used only when the gender of the word describing the object being spoken about is neuter–gendered and the object is non–living.
  • The "reflexive case" of the pronoun is used as the reflexive pronoun.
  • ‹missè›, ‹nossè›, ‹zussè›, et cetera are only seen in use in the attributive position, never predicatively («miss' ameco ia vai» "my friend goes there", but never *«stalla ev missè» "that (thing) is mine"); ‹mea›, ‹zea›, ‹sea›, ‹nova›, ‹voza› see use as possessive adjectives (and are declined as such), and can be used in predicate position («is ev mea» "it is mine") or in attributive position («voze syrse no iuvai» "your (pl.) sister helps us").

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are declined identically to nouns, except in that they're limited to the primary declensions only—e.g., "good child" can be translated as such:

"good child"
Gender Adjective Noun

Neuter

"the good [unknown/other gender] child"

bona

bon

fil

Masculine

"the good [male] child (boy)"

bono

boni

filo

Feminine

"the good [female] child (girl)"

bone

bonu

file

As shown, the adjective ‹bona› "good" takes on different endings per gender depending on the modified word. Note, however, that bona will never take on the secondary forms *bon, *boni or *bonu.

The definite articles sta› "the", "that" and ‹la› "the", "this" both are declined and treated as adjectives. As such, ‹sta› can also form masculine and feminine forms ‹sto› and ‹ste› respectively; ‹la› likewise will also form ‹lo› and ‹le›.

To take the example of ‹bone file› "good girl", the pair are declined as such:

good girl
Singular Plural
Nominative bone file bonai filai
Genitive boneu fileu bonau filau
Accusative bonem filem bonas filas
Prepositional bone file bonar filar

Adjectives always match every aspect of the noun they modify. If one wanted to say "the good girl's book", one would say «stessè bonessè filessè (sto) livro». Note that the adjectival definite article is optional when the noun it might modify is modified in another way; one might translate «stessè bonessè filessè sto livro» as "the book of the good girl" as well, if one cared to keep word-for-word consistency between Isxuor and English.

To further stress the fact that adjectives are only ever declined in the primary forms yet without fail match the modified noun exactly, the example of ‹ste grande hornu› "the big horn" is taken:

the big horn
Singular Plural
Nominative ste grande hornu stai grandai horno
Genitive steu grandeu hornèu stau grandau hornou
Accusative stem grandem hornum stas grandas hornos
Prepositional ste grande hornui star grandar hornor

ComparativesEdit

The comparative form of an adjective can easily be formed by tajing the neuter form, and replacing the final -a with -ur. The respective gender endings of -a, -o and -e can be attached to obtain the whole words. E.g., ‹xelerura› "quicker" (from ‹xelera› "quick, fast"); ‹magnora› "bigger" (from ‹magna› "big"); ‹vivura› "sharper" (from ‹viva› "sharp"); and ‹vœ̀rtura› "greener" (from ‹vœ̀rta› "green").

The comparative forms of four adjectives are irregular—‹bona› "good" becomes ‹mieiora› "better"; ‹mala› "bad" becomes ‹pieiora› "worse"; ‹magna› "big" becomes ‹magnora› "bigger"; and ‹minuta› "small" becomes ‹minora› "smaller".

Comparatives are generally used with the particle ‹qua› "then", along with the prepositional case of the object being compares to. E.g., «El ev forsure qua mi.» "She is faster than me."; or «Aillan, quor ev vituro qua Piarri, xie venyte primir.» "Allan, who is faster than Peter, came here first."; and so on.

However, the equivalent of the English construction "<comparative> of the two" (e.g., "the sharper of the two knives") would not use the comparative in Isxuor; it would use the superlative.

SuperlativesEdit

Superlatives are formed very similarly to comparatives. The -a ending of the adjective is replaced with -ism- and the gender endings of -a, -e or -o can then be attached and the word inflected per need. However, is the last consonant cluster in the adjective is s, x or sx, then these clusters turn into h. E.g., ‹irristisma› "angriest" (from ‹irrista› "angry, angered"); ‹frisxisma› "coldest" (from ‹frisxa› "cold"); ‹lattisma› "widest" (from ‹latta› "wide"); and ‹grandisma› "greatest" (from ‹granda› "grand, great").

Again, the adjectives with irregular comparatives have aberrant superlatives: ‹bona› becomes ‹optisma› "best"; ‹mala› becomes ‹pessisma› "worst"; ‹magna› "big" becomes ‹masxisma› "biggest"; ‹minuta› "small" becomes ‹minisma› "smallest".

Superlatives do not use ‹qua› "than", but instead ‹du› "of" to establish a comparison, or omit the compared objects altogether if they have already been mentioned: e.g., «Sto gravismo livro (du stir totir livrir) este desficillom o levere.» "The heaviest book (of all the books) was difficult to carry."; or «Báuv du la masxisma du zuer vyrer.» "He drinks from the larger of the two glasses."; and so on.

AdverbsEdit

Much as adjectives modify nouns, adverbs formed from adjectives (or nouns themselves!) modify verbs (and occasionally adjectives too). There are two ways to form adverbs from adjectives.

  • Take the neuter (primary, of course!) declension of the adjective and eliminate the -a ending. This gives you an adverbial form that's typically used to signify sensory adverbs, although it can be used for any adjective, and it can only be used for adjectives. E.g., ‹strut› "closely, near" (from ‹struta› "near, close"); ‹sœ̀il› "solely, only" (from ‹sœ̀ila› "alone, sole, only"); or ‹fors› "strongly, firmly" (from ‹forsa› "strong, firm, hard").
  • Take the neuter declension of the adjective, inflect it to the prepositional form, and attach -motte to the end. This can also be done with nouns, to signify "in the fashion of [noun]", and is popularly used with proper nouns as "just as [name] would do", or "in a very [name] way/manner". Note that since primary declension words (marked by their nominatives) and their prepositionals are identical, adjectival adverbs of this form are simply the word followed by -motte. E.g., ‹frisxamotte› "coldly" (from ‹hiva› "cold"); ‹feliamotte› "happily" (from ‹felia› "happy"); ‹Yráultmotte› "just like Yráult" (from ‹Yráult› a name); or ‹Siedimotte› "in a Sied fashion" (from ‹Sied› a name).

Note that adverbs, unlike adjectives, do not inflect or change in any aspect: «ste file felicamotte cœ̀urei» ("the girl runs happily"), but also «stai filai felicamotte cœ̀urerón̂» ("the girls run happily").

VocabularyEdit


No. English Isorian
1Iîo
2you (singular)zu
3heil
4wenoèi
5you (plural)voèi
6theylui
7thisalla
8thatstalla
9herexi
10thereia
11whoquor
12whatquoi
13wherequora
14whenquanda
15howquomotte
16notni
17allomna
18manymua
19somepox
20fewpua
21otheraltra
22oneuna
23twozue
24threetreve
25fourecatre
26fivequince
27bigmagna
28longlonga
29widelatta
30thickaxposa
31heavygrava
32smallminuta
33shortcorta
34narrowtrusta
35thinfica
36womandomme
37man (adult male)omeno
38man (human being)homina
39childfil
40wifexposse
41husbandxposso
42mothermatre
43fatherpatro
44animalanimal
45fishpexca
46birdavia
47dogcana
48lousepiccu
49snakeangya
50wormylmne
51treearvi
52forestsylfe
53stickfasgo
54fruitfruxca
55seedsem
56leaffolia
57rootradi
58barkcortesco
59flowerflora
60grassyrba
61ropecordo
62skinspoi
63meatcarne
64bloodsáung
65boneos
66fatgrua
67eggœ̀vu
68hornhornu
69tailcuri
70featherplu
71hairsovonze
72headxapta
73earáuri
74eyeocloro
75nosenesso
76mouthbusxa
77toothdet
78tongueclose
79fingernailugnu
80footpeto
81legcrur
82kneegxinno
83handmeno
84wingaelte
85bellyventer
86gutsonterai
87neckcuius
88backdorso
89breastmamme
90heartcora
91liverfeie
92drinkbevere
93eatcomtere
94bitemorxcere
95sucksusxire
96spittuare
97vomitvomire
98blowfluire
99breathespire
100laughriere
101seeverre
102hearœyre
103knowsavore
104thinkpensare
105smelláulfere
106feartem̂r
107sleepypnere
108livebiore
109diemurore
110killnegnare
111fightluittare
112huntxasitare
113hitbattrare
114cuttaiare
115splitbinere
116stabferire
117scratchrazere
118digfossare
119swimnedare
120flymaxca
121walkrumnyre
122comevenyre
123liesestere
124sitstere
125standstare
126turnvertyre
127fallcazxare
128givederare
129holdtenire
130squeezepressere
131rubfrihare
132washlavare
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pulltráeere
135pushbostere
136throwiagere
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewsutere
139countnumbrare
140saydiere
141singcantare
142playlodare
143floatbloire
144flowflœire
145freezefrihere
146swellturgere
147sunsoli
148moonlune
149starastri
150watervou
151rainplîva
152riverflœo
153lakelac
154seamar
155saltselm
156stonepitero
157sandsavre
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthterre
160cloudnom̂vre
161fogbrom
162skyseaillo
163windvenzo
164snownivi
165icegláussia
166smokefumo
167firefou
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnstolare
170roadrutte
171mountainmont
172redrozxa
173greenvœ̀rta
174yellowgxuna
175whitealva
176blacknora
177nightnyx
178daydi
179yearannu
180warmhalta
181coldfrisxa
182fullplagna
183newnœva
184oldsen̂xa
185goodbona
186badmala
187rottenputrista
188dirtysorda
189straightricta
190roundrotta
191sharpviva
192dullfia
193smoothlissa
194wetContionary_Wiki
195drysicca
196correctricta
197nearstruta
198farollogna
199rightdrottora
200leftzenista
201ato
202indom
203withcom
204ande
205ifsi
206becauseparquossè
207namenomme


Example TextsEdit

  • The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveler take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveler fold his cloak around him; and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveler took off his cloak. And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.
    • Sto Venzo Norzesto e Sto Soli dispostanze stavén̂ du quor este forsuro, quanda vi voiyranzo venute vor lor, sconxesto com une halte mantre. Loi coordavén̂ que quor povute primell facore voiyranzom o mantrem ollevere, il serai conosco sto forsuro. Ton̂ sto Venzo Norzesto tanquo povute illuo duramotte suffluite ; mai tanquo fors suffluite, illuo pius sto voiyranzo strut tráeete sem mantrem ; e finalt sto Venzo Norzesto cittate seam ottentam. Ton̂ sto Soli inferate halt, e missuis sto voiyranzi ollevete lem mantrem. Afon̂, sto Venzo Norzesto devute du omisere que sto Soli este sto forsismo du stir zuir.

  • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
    • Ste omne essenze homine sién̂ nusce libre e parre com dignitaui e com detter. Lui sién̂ deraste com radzeo e comscienseo e dáuv agyre una vor altrer com uno sprixti du frœritusxi.

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