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Iyachke
Laasojo Klito Yihaajki
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Marked Nominative
Head direction
both
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


GeneralEdit

Iyachke (/ɪjátʃki/, natively Laasojo Klito Yihaajki, literally Standard Language in Iyach) is a language spoken by the Aethos on the Isle of Iyach on the planet Aetho.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Nasal n ŋ
Plosive t k
Affricate kʟ̝̊
Fricative s χ h
Approximant j ɰ
Flap ɺ
  • Voiceless consonants are voiced intervocallically or after /N/.
  • /n/, /ŋ/, /t/, /k/, /s/, and /ɺ/ may be geminated in all dialects. /tʃ/ may be geminated in the standard dialect.
  • Geminate /ɺ/ is typically not flapped, though the actual pronunciation varies dialectally. In the standard, it is [ɭː].
  • /h/ can be dropped in colloquial speech.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High ɯː
Mid ɪ ɜ ɑː
Low a
  • Allowable diphthongs are /aɪ/, /ɑːɪ/, /aɯ/, and /ɑːɯ/. The offglides are lowered somewhat in the standard (ex. [aɛ̯]), and the main vowel shifts back and up before phonetically voiceless consonants (ex. aij [ʌɛ̯tʃ], but aijo [aɛ̯dʒɜ]).

PhonotacticsEdit

CV(N, S, NS)

  • /N/ is a homorganic nasal. On the end of words it can be /n/ or /ŋ/, according to the dialect.
  • /S/ is a fricative which differs depending on the dialect. In the standard, it is pronounced [tʃ].
  • Long /t/, /k/, /s/, and /ɺ/ CAN begin words. ex. llanti [ɭːandɪ] "feathers"
  • Geminate consonants cannot follow codas. ex. kantta*
  • Long vowels cannot be followed by geminate consonants. ex. kaatta*
  • Two long vowels cannot be in adjacent syllables. ex. kaataa*

Writing SystemEdit

Native ScriptEdit

Iyachke syllabary-0

The native script for Iyachke is a syllabary, shown on the right. The Iyachke word for a writing system is ngassini.

Interesting features Edit

  • It shares some features with the Arabic alphabet on a design level. It is a cursive script so letters are joined with a baseline, which is semi-optional in handwritten texts.
  • Many characters look quite similar, being distinguished by meaningless marks.
  • Diphthongs are written ayi and awo for ai and ao.

Writing Direction Edit

The script is written left-to-right, top-to-bottom, like English.

Collation Edit

There are three common orders for the characters: phonetic, graphic, and poetic.

  • Phonetic: yi, yo, ya, wo, wa, li, lo, la, ho, ha, si, so, sa, ni, no, na, ji, jo, ja, ki, ko, ka, ngi, ngo, nga, ti, to, ta, xo, xa, kli, klo, kla, j, n
  • Graphic: yi, ngo, wo, wa, la, kli, ji, sa, ki, si, yo, ko, li, ta, ya, ti, ho, xo, ni, j, xa, lo, klo, n, jo, to, no, ka, nga, so, kla, na, ha, ja, ngi

RomanizationEdit

letter a aa aai aao ai ao h i ii j k
phoneme /a/ /ɑː/ /ɑːɪ/ /ɑːɯ/ /aɪ/ /aɯ/ /h/ /ɪ/ /iː/ /tʃ/ /k/
letter kl l n ng o oo s t w x y
phoneme /kʟ̝̊/ /ɺ/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɜ/ /ɯː/ /s/ /t/ /ɰ/ /χ/ /j/

NounsEdit

Nouns decline for number and case.

NumberEdit

Noun roots are inherently transnumeral, that is, whether they are singular or plural must be determined from context. However, suffixes can be applied which make a noun plural, but these are always optional. The most common of these is -Qaa(i)ni, where the Q represents a removal of the rime of the last syllable and where the (i) is only found in rural areas.

  • ex. klito /kʟ̝̊ɪtɜ/ > klitaani /kʟ̝̊ɪtɑːnɪ/
  • ex. xokkiij /χɜkːiːS/ > xokkaani /χɜkːɑːnɪ/
  • ex. yijkohaon /jɪSkɜhaɯN/ > yijkohawaani /jɪSkɜhɑːnɪ/

CasesEdit

There are 21 cases, which are represented simply by suffixes.

case gloss suffix meaning
Absolutive abs 0 verb object
Nominative nom n(o) verb subject
Instrumental instr wan "using"
Genitive gen ngi "of"
Comitative com kaya "along with"
Abessive abe (j)ngao "without"
Ornative orn sii "supplied with"
Causative caus jaikoo "because of"
Equative equ (l)lai "like"
Benefactive bene klaj "for"
Lative lat naa "to"
Perlative per linta "through"
Ablative abl (t)ta "from"
Locative loc hon "at, near"
Essive ess hoj '"as"
Inessive ine ki "in"
Superessive supe hanta "on"
Subessive sube xoo "under"
Intrative intr tola "among"
Exclusive ex xon "only"
Vocative voc haai direct address

VerbsEdit

Affix order Edit

Preverb-3rd person Subject-Preroot moods-Root-Voice-Postroot moods-Subject-Object

ex. Kanso-wanki-taa-yi-lo? "Are you being forced to eat?"

PreverbsEdit

Don't appear on verbs with preroot mood prefixes

VoiceEdit

active (0), passive (wan), causative (ki), passive causative (wanki), applicative (?)

None can be used with a reflexive or reciprocal suffix on the same verb.

MoodEdit

Divided into pre- and post-root affixes. The two types can cooccur in non-applicative voices. All postroot affixes become preroot in the applicative voice.

Preroot Moods: optative (ha), conditional (wao), desiderative (saan)

Postroot Moods: indicative (0), inferential (ngo), necessative (jaa), interrogative (taa)

Subject affixesEdit

  1. 1st person- 0
  2. 2nd person- yi
  3. 3rd person- ni-
  4. reflexive- laj

Object suffixesEdit

Objects: 0 (lo), 1s (xa), 2s (sii), 3s.an (0), 3s.inan ((n)ta), 1p (xoo), 2p (soo), 3p ((l)la), recip (kaj)

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

Most Aethos languages are base-8, due to the Aethos having one less finger per hand compared to Humans. The word for "number" is jaao.

No. 8+No. No.*8
0 ssiyon sola ssiyon
1 kka hatti sola
2 tii solaontii niiloj
3 talla solaontalla sanso
4 ngalo solaonngalo ngalaon
5 joloon solaonjoloon jolowaon
6 sakli solaonsakli saklaon
7 xojwa solaonxojwa xojwaon
8 sola niiloj janina

Body partsEdit

Because of differences in anatomy and physiology, the words for body parts are very different semantically.

  • body: koonsaotta
  • thorax: kkillaj
  • abdomen: joolasi
  • head: haotinla
  • whiskers: kaasi
  • beak: taaila
  • tongue: yinikkolli
  • throat-teeth: xaanti
  • nose/nostrils: naangan
  • eyestalks: jaa-looxa
  • eyeballs: jaa
  • ears: wanklin
  • back/neck: wollaa
  • skin: llojti
  • feathers: llanti
  • arms: xinon
  • elbows: xinon-klaanj
  • wrists/hands: xitti
  • fingers: ngassinilli
  • hand claws: naij
  • legs: hossi
  • knees: hossi-klaanj
  • feet/ankles: llosaaj
  • toes: kliwai
  • toeclaws: kliwai-naij
  • dewclaws: yisoon-naij
  • wings: hooloj
  • tail: ttaoloo

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