FANDOM


Iyachke
Laasojo Yihaajki klito
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Marked Nominative
Head direction
both
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


GeneralEdit

Iyachke (/ɪjátʃki/, natively Laasojo Yihaajki klito "Standard Iyach language", colloquially Yihaa'to or Yi'to) is a language spoken by the Aethos (Xokkiij Jiyaata) on the Isle of Iyach (Yihaaj) on the planet Aetho (Jiyaa).

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Nasal n ŋ
Plosive t k
Affricate kʟ̝̊
Fricative s χ h
Approximant j ɰ
Flap ɺ
  • Voiceless consonants are voiced intervocallically or after /N/.
  • /n/, /ŋ/, /t/, /k/, /s/, and /ɺ/ may be geminated in all dialects. /tʃ/ may be geminated in the standard dialect.
  • Geminate /ɺ/ is typically not flapped, though the actual pronunciation varies dialectally. In the standard, it is [ɭː].
  • /h/ can be dropped in colloquial speech.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High ɯː
Mid ɪ ɜ ɑː
Low a
  • Allowable diphthongs are /aɪ/, /ɑːɪ/, /aɯ/, and /ɑːɯ/. The offglides are lowered somewhat in the standard (ex. [aɛ̯]), and the main vowel shifts back and up before phonetically voiceless consonants (ex. haij [hʌɛ̯tʃ], but haijo [haɛ̯dʒɜ]).

PhonotacticsEdit

CV(N, S, NS)

  • /N/ is a homorganic nasal. On the end of words it can be /n/ or /ŋ/, according to the dialect.
  • /S/ is a fricative which differs depending on the dialect. In the standard, it is pronounced [tʃ].
  • Long /t/, /k/, /s/, and /ɺ/ CAN begin words. ex. llanti [ɭːandɪ] "feathers"
  • Geminate consonants cannot follow codas. ex. kantta*
  • Long vowels cannot be followed by geminate consonants. ex. kaatta*
  • Two long vowels cannot be in adjacent syllables. ex. kaataa*

Writing SystemEdit

Native ScriptEdit

Iyachke syllabary-0

The native script for Iyachke is a syllabary, shown on the right. The Iyachke word for a writing system is ngassini.

Interesting features Edit

  • It shares some features with the Arabic alphabet on a design level. It is a cursive script so letters are joined with a baseline, which is semi-optional in handwritten texts.
  • Many characters look quite similar, being distinguished by meaningless marks.
  • The diphthongs, ai and ao, are written ayi and awo.

Writing Direction Edit

The script is written left-to-right, top-to-bottom, like English.

Collation Edit

There are three common orders for the characters: phonetic, graphic, and poetic.

  • Phonetic: yi, yo, ya, wo, wa, li, lo, la, ho, ha, si, so, sa, ni, no, na, ji, jo, ja, ki, ko, ka, ngi, ngo, nga, ti, to, ta, xo, xa, kli, klo, kla, j, n
  • Graphic: yi, ngo, wo, wa, la, kli, ji, sa, ki, si, yo, ko, li, ta, ya, ti, ho, xo, ni, j, xa, lo, klo, n, jo, to, no, ka, nga, so, kla, na, ha, ja, ngi

RomanizationEdit

letter a aa aai aao ai ao h i ii j k
phoneme /a/ /ɑː/ /ɑːɪ/ /ɑːɯ/ /aɪ/ /aɯ/ /h/ /ɪ/ /iː/ /tʃ/ /k/
letter kl l n ng o oo s t w x y
phoneme /kʟ̝̊/ /ɺ/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɜ/ /ɯː/ /s/ /t/ /ɰ/ /χ/ /j/

NounsEdit

Nouns decline for number and case.

NumberEdit

Noun roots are inherently transnumeral, that is, whether they are singular or plural must be determined from context. However, suffixes can be applied which make a noun plural, but these are always optional. The most common of these is -Qaa(i)ni, where the Q represents a removal of the rime of the last syllable and where the (i) is only found in rural areas. Components of a diphthong are treated as separate syllables and are broken up.

  • ex. klito /kʟ̝̊ɪtɜ/ > klitaani /kʟ̝̊ɪtɑːnɪ/ "languages"
  • ex. xokkiij /χɜkːiːS/ > xokkaani /χɜkːɑːnɪ/ "peoples"
  • ex. yijkohaon /jɪSkɜhaɯN/ > yijkohawaani /jɪSkɜhaɰɑːnɪ/

CasesEdit

There are 21 cases, which are represented simply by suffixes. Suffixes with a long vowel shorten any long final syllable of a stem they are attached to.

case gloss suffix meaning
Absolutive abs 0 verb object
Nominative nom n(o) verb subject
Instrumental instr wan "using"
Genitive gen ngi "of"
Comitative com kaya "along with"
Abessive abe (j)ngao "without"
Ornative orn sii "supplied with"
Causative caus jaikoo "because of"
Equative equ (l)lai "like"
Benefactive bene klaj "for"
Lative lat naa "to"
Perlative per linta "through"
Ablative abl (t)ta "from"
Locative loc hon "at, near"
Essive ess hoj '"as"
Inessive ine ki "in"
Superessive supe hanta "on"
Subessive sube xoo "under"
Intrative intr tola "among"
Exclusive ex xon "only"
Vocative voc haai direct address

Pronouns Edit

Pronouns can be declined in any case. The third person singular distinguishes animate from inanimate, but this is purely natural gender, not grammatical gender which Iyachke lacks.

sg pl
1 xa xoo
2 sii soo
3.an nij lla
3.inan kan

VerbsEdit

Affix order Edit

Preverb-3rd person Subject-Preroot moods-Root-Voice-Postroot moods-Subject-Object

  • ex. Kanso-wanki-taa-yi-lo? "Are you being forced to eat?"
  • Toolijin ni-wao-xotti-taa-lo xanaa kosongoota? "Would the key be given to me by the mayor?"
  • Saj-jaa-ngo-linta-yi-xa. "You will have to get through me."

PreverbsEdit

Preverbs are prefixes which change the meaning of some roots. They are a discontinuous part of the verb stem. They don't appear on verbs with preroot mood prefixes unless they are originally postroot suffixes which were moved due to the applicative voice.

Examples: saj "violently"

VoiceEdit

  • Active (0)
  • Passive (wan)
  • Causative (ki)
  • Passive causative (wanki)
  • Applicatives can be formed with any case suffix in place of a voice affix.

None can be used with a reflexive or reciprocal suffix on the same verb.

MoodEdit

Divided into pre- and post-root affixes. The two types can cooccur in non-applicative voices. All postroot affixes become preroot in the applicative voice.

Preroot Moods: optative (ha), conditional (wao), desiderative (saan)

Postroot Moods: indicative (0), inferential (ngo), necessative (jaa), interrogative (taa)

Subject affixesEdit

  1. 1st person- 0
  2. 2nd person- yi
  3. 3rd person- ni-
  4. reflexive- laj

Object suffixesEdit

sg pl
0 -lo
1 -xa -xoo
2 -sii -soo
3.an -0 -(l)la
3.inan -(n)ta
recip -kaj

SyntaxEdit

Sentence-level order Edit

The most neutral word order is Subject-Adverbs-Verb-Object, but word order is quite free except for adjectives and adverbs. Subject and object pronouns are frequently dropped if the verb and/or context are enough for understanding.

Verb phrases Edit

Verb phrases are generally right-branching, with the exception that adverbs are placed before the verb. Nouns declined to modify the whole clause are placed after any other adverbs.

Noun phrases Edit

Noun phrases are purely left-branching, with the quirk that nouns declined to modify other nouns are placed after any adjectives. ex. Laasojo Yihaajki klito "Standard Iyach-in language"

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

Most Aethos languages are base-8, due to the Aethos having one less finger per hand compared to Humans. The word for "number" is jaao.

No. 8+No. No.*8
0 ssiyon sola ssiyon
1 kka hatti sola
2 tii solaontii niiloj
3 talla solaontalla sanso
4 ngalo solaonngalo ngalaon
5 joloon solaonjoloon jolowaon
6 sakli solaonsakli saklaon
7 xojwa solaonxojwa xojwaon
8 sola niiloj janina

Body partsEdit

Because of differences in anatomy and physiology, the words for body parts are very different semantically.

  • body: koonsaotta
  • thorax: kkillaj
  • abdomen: joolasi
  • head: haotinla
  • whiskers: kaasi
  • beak: taaila
  • tongue: yinikkolli
  • throat-teeth: xaanti
  • nose/nostrils: naangan
  • eyestalks: jaangi looxa
  • eyeballs: jaa
  • ears: wanklin
  • halteres: taingi looxa
  • back/neck: wollaa
  • skin: llojti
  • feathers: llanti
  • arms: kinon
  • elbows: kinonngi klaanj
  • wrists/hands: xotti
  • fingers: ngassinilli
  • hand claws: naij
  • legs: hossi
  • knees: hossingi klaanj
  • feet/ankles: llosaaj
  • toes: kliwai
  • toeclaws: kliwaingi naij
  • dewclaws: yisoonngi naij
  • wings: hooloj
  • tail: ttaoloo

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.