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Jörscengsclúúxell

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Yorsh
Jörscengsclúúxell
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
More initial than not
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Jörschungsclúúxel has elements of both an agglutinative and a fusional language, but primarily an agglutinative, the primary (possibly sole) fusional element being the ubiquitous vowel changes in verbs and words formed from verbs. It has a relatively large phoneme inventory, especially for vowels, and also for fricatives. Most notably it has free word order (not that any words can go in any order, only that subject, objects, verbs, prepositional phrases, etc. can go many places and are not bound by orders such as SVO, SOV, V2, or VF). Spelling conventions are still being worked out, so many of the spellings of words may change.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

ʙ͡v is a labiodental trill, a sound without a dedicated IPA symbol and which seems not to be found in world languages despite not being too difficult to produce, that may be somewhat fricated. p͡f is essentially not a true labiodental affricate, as in German.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive (p) pʰ b (t) tʰ d (k) kʰ g ʔ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ç ʝ x (χ) h
Affricate p͡f t͡s t͡ʃ k͡x
Approximant
Trill ʙ͡v ʀ
Flap or tap
Lateral fric. ɮ ʟ̝̊ (ʟ̝)
Lateral app. (l)
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y ɯ u
Near-close ɪ ʏ ʊ
Close-mid e ø ɤ o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ œ ʌ ɔ
Near-open æ ɐ
Open a ɑ

AlphabetEdit

The language is generally written the Latin alphabet. Diacritics over vowels make separate letters. There are a few digraphs and trigraphs. The letters "y" and "q" appear only in loanwords. There are no silent letters.

Acute accents and macrons over vowels are interchangeable, although acute accents are at this point more standard. Vowel length is signified by doubling vowels.

ä = a
â = æ
á = ɑ
a = ɐ
b = b, p
c = ç
d = d, t
ë = e
ê = ɛ
é = ɤ
e = ʌ, ə
f = f
g = g, k
h = h
ï = i
í = ɯ
i = ɪ
j = ʝ
k = kʰ
l = ɮ, l
m = m
n = n
ö = ø
ô = œ
ó = o
o = ɔ
p = pʰ
q = kʰ
r = ʀ
s = s
t = tʰ
ü = y
û = ʏ
ú = u
u = ʊ
v = v, f
w = ʙ͡v
x = x, χ
y = i, ʝ, y, ʏ
z = z, s

In addition, there are the following digraphs and trigraphs:

ai = a͡ ɪ

au = a͡ʊ

bf = p͡f
dh = ð, θ
ds = t͡s
dsc = t͡ʃ

ea =e͡ɑ

gx = k͡x

ll = ʟ̝, ʟ̝̊

oa = o͡a

oi = ɔ͡ɪ 
ng = ŋ
qu = kʰʙ͡v
sc = ʃ
th = θ

PhonotacticsEdit

Most any sound can come anywhere, with a few exceptions. Massive consonant clusters are essentially obligatory, partially due to the limited amount of vowels that will actually form distinct verbs as opposed to other forms of the same verb, and often occur anyway in nouns and adjectives not formed from verbs. Final obstruents are devoiced. [χ] tends to come at the end of syllables, and [x] at the beginning, although there can be some variation. Both of those are contrastive with [ç]. [l] occurs only in the syllable nucleus, and [ʟ̝̊] and [ʟ̝] only occur after. Glottal stops are inserted before word-initial vowels and in vowel hiatuses (i.e. in loanwords). Syllables tend to be closed, but nowhere near exclusively. Phonemically voiceless plosives are always aspirated.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes No No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No Yes No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

Nouns are heavily declined, but the way they are declined is complicated. Only the case and sometimes the gender are shown in the noun itself. Otherwise, the number and "definiteness" as well as the case and gender are shown by determiners. Determiners are necessary for all nouns except some proper nouns (i.e. personal names).

There are seven categories of "definiteness" shown by articles,

Indefinite (a, some)

Definite (the)

This/these

That/those

What

Which

Any/all (this is not quite an exact correlation to anything in English, but this class of article would be used before "grass" in "grass is green in spring" or "house" in "I do not own a house")

No

There are three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter (possibly better described as neuter/common) and the default gender to use for people with unknown or unspecified gender is neuter.

There are five cases, nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, and vocative. The vocative is only used to directly address people and things, and not in phrases like "What are you doing?" However, the vocative is very important for non-indicative phrases. Phrases such as "let it snow" would have the subject in the vocative, and "it would snow" would have the subject in the nominative, and the verb would look exactly the same.

VerbsEdit

There are basically only two tenses, present and past. There are also two kinds of participles, present and past. There are two moods, the indicative and the non-indicative. The difference between imperative and subjunctive is shown by what case the subject is in, or the common absence of a subject for imperative phrases (see Nouns).

SyntaxEdit

The language has free word order. However, there are some basic limits.

Articles have to go before or after nouns, unless there are adjectives in-between.

Adjectives cannot go on the outside of an article of an article-noun pair (i.e. one can say "the big house" or "the house big" or "big house the" or "house big the" but not "big the house" or "house the big")

The article in a genitive phrase always must go between the genitive noun and the noun it is referring to.

Prepositions are the default, but some adpositions can be both prepositions and postpositions, most notably "of" with a pronoun (i.e. "mine of the car" -- "the car of mine").

VocabularyEdit

Important words not listen in the word list:

jórsc = "to be"

Numbers:

0 = Zaicdsc
1 = Ois
2 = Bfúúd
3 = Dscrëëd
4 = Dsaud
5 = Slaiv
6 = Pocd
7 = Lüsct
8 = Gruusc
9 = Gxild
10 = Tüüll 


No. English
1Iëë
2you (singular)ïï (informal, nominative), üü (formal, nominative)
3hejoa
4weëër (informal), öör (formal)
5you (plural)ïïr (informal), üür (formal)
6theyjoir (neuter/mixed gender), jaur (feminine), joar (masculine)
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12whatthois
13where
14when
15how
16notzaic
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22oneOis
23twoBfúúd
24threeDscrëëd
25fourDsaud
26fiveSlaiv
27bigtäll
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36womanJörscngau
37man (adult male)Jörscngoa
38man (human being)Jörscng
39childJörscngl
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spitdsbfit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122comekoom
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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