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Jörscengsclúúxell

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Yorsh
Jörscengsclúúxell
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
More initial than not
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Jörschungsclúúxel has elements of both an agglutinative and a fusional language, but primarily an agglutinative, the primary (possibly sole) fusional element being the ubiquitous vowel changes in verbs and words formed from verbs. It has a relatively large phoneme inventory, especially for vowels, and also for fricatives. Most notably it has free word order (not that any words can go in any order, only that subject, objects, verbs, prepositional phrases, etc. can go many places and are not bound by orders such as SVO, SOV, V2, or VF). Spelling conventions are still being worked out, so many of the spellings of words may change.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

ʙ͡v is a labiodental trill, a sound without a dedicated IPA symbol and which seems not to be found in world languages despite not being too difficult to produce, that may be somewhat fricated. p͡f is essentially not a true labiodental affricate, as in German.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive (p) pʰ b (t) tʰ d (k) kʰ g ʔ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ç ʝ x (χ) h
Affricate p͡f t͡s t͡ʃ k͡x
Approximant
Trill ʙ͡v ʀ
Flap or tap
Lateral fric. ɮ ʟ̝̊ (ʟ̝)
Lateral app. (l)
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y ɯ u
Near-close ɪ ʏ ʊ
Close-mid e ø ɤ o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ œ ʌ ɔ
Near-open æ ɐ
Open a ɑ

AlphabetEdit

The language is generally written the Latin alphabet. Diacritics over vowels make separate letters. There are a few digraphs and trigraphs. The letters "y" and "q" appear only in loanwords. There are no silent letters.

Acute accents and macrons over vowels are interchangeable, although acute accents are at this point more standard. Vowel length is signified by doubling vowels.

ä = a
â = æ
á = ɑ
a = ɐ
b = b, p
c = ç
d = d, t
ë = e
ê = ɛ
é = ɤ
e = ʌ, ə
f = f
g = g, k
h = h
ï = i
í = ɯ
i = ɪ
j = ʝ
k = kʰ
l = ɮ, l
m = m
n = n
ö = ø
ô = œ
ó = o
o = ɔ
p = pʰ
q = kʰ
r = ʀ
s = s
t = tʰ
ü = y
û = ʏ
ú = u
u = ʊ
v = v, f
w = ʙ͡v
x = x, χ
y = i, ʝ, y, ʏ
z = z, s

In addition, there are the following digraphs and trigraphs:

ai = a͡ ɪ

au = a͡ʊ

bf = p͡f
dh = ð, θ
ds = t͡s
dsc = t͡ʃ

ea =e͡ɑ

gx = k͡x

ll = ʟ̝, ʟ̝̊

oa = o͡a

oi = ɔ͡ɪ 
ng = ŋ
qu = kʰʙ͡v
sc = ʃ
th = θ

PhonotacticsEdit

Most any sound can come anywhere, with a few exceptions. Massive consonant clusters are essentially obligatory, partially due to the limited amount of vowels that will actually form distinct verbs as opposed to other forms of the same verb, and often occur anyway in nouns and adjectives not formed from verbs. Final obstruents are devoiced. [χ] tends to come at the end of syllables, and [x] at the beginning, although there can be some variation. Both of those are contrastive with [ç]. [l] occurs only in the syllable nucleus, and [ʟ̝̊] and [ʟ̝] only occur after. Glottal stops are inserted before word-initial vowels and in vowel hiatuses (i.e. in loanwords). Syllables tend to be closed, but nowhere near exclusively. Phonemically voiceless plosives are always aspirated.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes No No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No Yes No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

Nouns are heavily declined, but the way they are declined is complicated. Only the case and sometimes the gender are shown in the noun itself. Otherwise, the number and "definiteness" as well as the case and gender are shown by determiners. Determiners are necessary for all nouns except some proper nouns (i.e. personal names).

There are seven categories of "definiteness" shown by articles,

Indefinite (a, some)

Definite (the)

This/these

That/those

What

Which

Any/all (this is not quite an exact correlation to anything in English, but this class of article would be used before "grass" in "grass is green in spring" or "house" in "I do not own a house")

No

There are three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter (possibly better described as neuter/common) and the default gender to use for people with unknown or unspecified gender is neuter.

There are five cases, nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, and vocative. The vocative is only used to directly address people and things, and not in phrases like "What are you doing?" However, the vocative is very important for non-indicative phrases. Phrases such as "let it snow" would have the subject in the vocative, and "it would snow" would have the subject in the nominative, and the verb would look exactly the same.

VerbsEdit

There are basically only two tenses, present and past. There are also two kinds of participles, present and past. There are two moods, the indicative and the non-indicative. The difference between imperative and subjunctive is shown by what case the subject is in, or the common absence of a subject for imperative phrases (see Nouns).

SyntaxEdit

The language has free word order. However, there are some basic limits.

Articles have to go before or after nouns, unless there are adjectives in-between.

Adjectives cannot go on the outside of an article of an article-noun pair (i.e. one can say "the big house" or "the house big" or "big house the" or "house big the" but not "big the house" or "house the big")

The article in a genitive phrase always must go between the genitive noun and the noun it is referring to.

Prepositions are the default, but some adpositions can be both prepositions and postpositions, most notably "of" with a pronoun (i.e. "mine of the car" -- "the car of mine").

VocabularyEdit

Important words not listen in the word list:

jórsc = "to be"

Numbers:

0 = Zaicdsc
1 = Ois
2 = Bfúúd
3 = Dscrëëd
4 = Dsaud
5 = Slaiv
6 = Pocd
7 = Lüsct
8 = Gruusc
9 = Gxild
10 = Tüüll 


No. English
1Iëë
2you (singular)ïï (informal, nominative), üü (formal, nominative)
3hejoa
4weëër (informal), öör (formal)
5you (plural)ïïr (informal), üür (formal)
6theyjoir (neuter/mixed gender), jaur (feminine), joar (masculine)
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatthois
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notzaic
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneOis
23twoBfúúd
24threeDscrëëd
25fourDsaud
26fiveSlaiv
27bigtäll
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanJörscngau
37man (adult male)Jörscngoa
38man (human being)Jörscng
39childJörscngl
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitdsbfit
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comekoom
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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