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Jasost

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Jasost
Jasost
Type
Inflectional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Jasost is the Father-language of Jasos. Jasost is also the most widely spoken West-Paal language and the most widely used language among traders.

Jasost 'proper' is spoken predominantly in the capital peninsula, Jalihin, with three primary dialects: the northern Jaqquin dialect; the southern Javaat dialect; the language of the nomadic Hijypso. Constant trade with other kingdoms and peoples contributes largely to the dynamic shifts in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.

The saying below is a common one that describes the fluid nature of the language:

qona anloha ua ma rig - I don't even understand my neighbor

HistoryEdit

Attempts to record the history of Jasost as a language have always been fraught with inconsistencies and flaws; the language has always been in flux (av'aja - tidal.) Now, most scholars define three distinct periods of the language: Elm (Low), Ihbra (High), and A'e (Restored.)

The most significant change to Jasost was the A'e movement by the last Prince of Tides, Alyazuvi (Al'asuvi.) The changes were made to the written language not only to beautify - and initially simplify - the written form but also to create a stronger national and cultural identity. The changes were:

1. Collapse of doubled vowels (long vowels):

beaahra - beaha

skaii - sgai

2. Collapse of voiced/un-voiced consonant pairs:

p, b - b

f, v - v

s, z - s

k, g - g

t, d - t

3. Removal of digraphs by substituting the sounds with consonants no longer in use (as above), or by the introduction of new letters:

Consonants:

th, dh - d

kv, gv - q

ya - '

kh, gh, hr - h

sv - Ԅ

dv - Ԃ

Vowels:

ou - ƍ

ei - ɛ

iu, io -

4. Formalization of stress to first syllable (a change which had been occurring gradually through High Jasost.)

Compare the above saying written in Low, High, and Restored Jasos:

onolohr kvan riikimah - kvona anlohra uua ma riik - qona anloha ua ma rig


AlphabetEdit

The alphabet in Jasost is arranged into sections: consonants are grouped by place of articulation; vowels are grouped either as shapeless (pure vowels) or shaped (dipthongs) - with the exception of [a] and [u] which are considered pure sounds and are placed in the first group of consonant sounds.

︙a, g, h, u, m, b, v, n, t, d, s, c, j, q, Ԃ, Ԅ, l, r, ', e, i, o, ɛ, Ꭵ, ƍ︙

gamal (throat) sỉv (lips) tadga (teeth)

avg'omgar (pressed)

ɛvj'ahi (combined)

lu (soft)

madom (shapeless)

ƍtom (shaped)

a

(ä)

m

(m, m̥)

n

(n ,n̥)

s (s, z)

q

(kʋ, gʋ)

l

(l, ɬ, tɬ)

e

(ɛ)

ɛ

(e, eɪ)

g (k, g) b

(p, b)

t

(t,tʰ,d,dʰ)

c

(tʃ, dʒ)

Ԃ

(θʋ, ðʋ)

r

(r̥, r)

i

(ɪ)

(i, iʊ, iɒ)

h

(χ, ʁ̞)

v

(f, v, ʋ)

d (θ, ð)

j

(ʃ, ʒ)

Ԅ

(sʋ, zʋ)

' (j) o

(ɒ, ɔ)

ƍ

(o, oʊ)

u

(u)

PhonologyEdit

Consonants Edit

Jalihin & Jaqquin dialectEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m (m̥) n (n̥)
Plosive p pʰ b t tʰ d k kʰ ɡ
Fricative f fʰ v θ ð(ð̞) s z ʃ ʒ χ ʁ̞
Affricate tʃ tʃʰ
Approximant ʋ j
Trill
Flap or tap r
Lateral fric. ɬ (tɬ)
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap


Javaat dialectEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m (m̥) n (n̥)
Plosive p b bʰ t d k ɡ gʰ
Fricative f v vʰ θð(ð̞) s z ʃʒ χʁ̞
Affricate ʰ
Approximant ʋ j
Trill
Flap or tap r
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap


The largest difference between Northern and Southern dialects is in emphatic aspiration. (See emphatics) The Northern dialects treat the emphatic aspirations as un-voiced while in the Javaat they are realized as voiced.

Despite differences in vocabulary and some syntactical features, the dialects will be discussed below as the same.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close () u (u)
Near-close ɪ (i)
Close-mid eː (ɛ) (ƍ)
Mid
Open-mid ɛ (e) ɔ (o)
Near-open
Open ɑ (a)
  • Corresponding Jasost letters are in parentheses.

VoicingEdit

The rules governing the expression of consonants as voiced or un-voiced are complex yet suffer no irregularities.

Each consonant has a natural state: j [ʒ], d [θ], b [b], h [χ], etc.

1. Word-initial consonants preserve natural state:

2. All consonants become voiced between vowels.

3. Word-final voiced consonants become un-voiced; word-final unvoiced consonants stay un-voiced with the exception of g, h, and j which become approximants of their natural state.

4. Doubled consonants are un-voiced - except h and v.

5. Consonants preceded by h will be unvoiced.


PhonotacticsEdit

V: ƍ [archaic dative holdover meaning 'at the intended location']

VC: ir [rain]; ƍl [how?]

CV: ba [to eat], 'u [and]

C'V: g'e [you sg.], m'ɛ [cap]

CVC: got [to see]; Ԅat [to sit]

CC₂V(C)(V): sga [he needs]; brid [together/with]


  Where C₁ is: s, j, or d; C₂ can only be: g, b, t, or l
  Where C₁ is: g, b, or t; C₂ can only be: r, l, or '


GrammarEdit

Noun Case

There are four cases in Jasost: Basic (Nominative), Inner (Genitive), Outer (Accusative), Relating (Dative). Noun number works in conjunction with case to inflect each noun with specific meaning.


lỉ (woman) Absent Present Added Entire
Basic lỉmai

lỉ

lỉdi lỉɛl
Inner lỉmana lỉna lỉnadi lỉnɛl
Outer lỉmɛr lỉir lỉidir lỉlɛ
Related lỉhm lỉƍ lỉdƍ lỉlƍ



dga - boy Absent Present Added Entire
Basic dgamai

dga

dgadi dga'ɛl
Inner dgamana dgana dganadi dganɛl
Outer dgamɛr dgair dgaidir dgailɛ
Related dgahm dga'ƍ dgadƍ dgalƍ



VerbsEdit

Verbs in Jasost can be either simple (ana a - alone) or compound (bridna - collective.) With both types there are three tenses: present, past, and future. In each tense verbs conjugate according to inclusivity and exclusivity.

In addition to the three tenses, there are three aspects: habitual, atelic (ongoing), and telic (completed) - though habitual and atelic now conjugate almost identically, with formal levels of the language being the exception.

There are also three moods: indicative, conditional, and rarely used emphatic.

First, we will examine simple tenses

Simple TensesEdit

Present

The simple present is just the infinitive, the only exception being the 3rd person which is considered exclusive and takes the -go ending.

HABITUAL tama: tama/tamago to do
qo qo i-ԃijguvu tama I make sails.
g'e g'e im tama? What do you do?
to/tas/ni (to) isihddi au-jlo tamago He can't keep a secret.
qadan qadan rahdi g'edna nᎥn-o tama We don't believe in your creeds.
g'edem qona tabi'at atta tama, g'edem

You all make me so proud!

tauel/nad Qona Ua, tauel or moh tamago Lord, they don't love you.
ATELIC tama: tuma/tumago to do
qo qo g'er raha ma tuma I don't believe you.
g'e g'e im tuma? What are you doing?
to/tas/ni tas qor sehg atta tumago She's making it so hard for me.
qadan qai? hƍ, qadan ibcudu tuma ua Us? Well, we're just making some cakes.
g'edem g'edem elegar suhjauran tuma Y'all are making quite the name for yourself.
tauel/nad tauel lav ma tuma They're not doing too well.
TELIC tama: tamat/tamtag to do
qo qo bat mara tama I'm not done eating yet
g'e g'e tamat? Are you done?
to/tas/ni isni-gaɛd tamtag It's been five days.
qadan qai ilti tamat! We're almost finished!
g'edem qor raha ua tamat, g'edem hai? You're just going to have to trust me, alright?
tauel/nad tauel g'er bohroj tamtag They hate you (and nothing will change that)


Past

The simple past is formed by adding -o. Those verbs which end in vowels take -o at the end and those ending in consonants undergo ablaut. Instead of -go, the past takes -h. The simple past translates as: qo bao - 'I ate' or 'I was eating.'

Habitual
-ng/-ang qo qo ganne ahang I used to go there.
g'e g'e tor beahang sam uar? Did you ever talk to him?
to/tas/ni gae dih golo valatlang The sun used to shine brighter.
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad
Atelic
qo qo nir bao I ate it
g'e
to/tas/ni
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad
Telic
qo
g'e
to/tas/ni
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad

Future

The simple future is formed by adding -daga. The only changes that occur is verbs which end in 't.' In those cases the 't' undergoes lenition to 'd.' The future translates as: qo badaga - 'I will eat.'

Habitual
qo
g'e
to/tas/ni
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad
Atelic
qo
g'e
to/tas/ni
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad
Telic
qo
g'e
to/tas/ni
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad

Compound VerbsEdit

Compound verbs are just simple verbs with an added auxiliary verb, of which there are three primary and about a dozen rarer auxiliaries. On their own, auxiliary verbs no longer have any meaning (the exception being sam which acts as the verb 'to be'). The auxilary verbs are:

Aux. Color Jasost English
ra suggests force, speed, motion qo bao ra。 I gobbled it up
ta suggests a constant or enduring state
sam suggests a changeable state
jlo suggests lack of control

b'o rahgo no toddaga jlo!

Slow down before you fall!
diri
va suggests duration of time to qor beahao va ua

He talked my ear off.
naig
gratl
boc
ht suggests finality gae haldƍ nᎥn

Ԅaot hᎥt。

The sun set beneath the mountains.
brua suggests the result of a decision ︙︙
ue suggests emotional gravity
ejt

GrammarEdit


No. English Jasost
1Iqo
2you (singular)g'e
3heto
4weqadad
5you (plural)g'edem
6theytoes (m.), taes (f.)
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoan'am
12whatim
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenmul
15howoul
16notma/moh
17alljua
18manyhoros
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22onea
23twonol
24threee'er
25fourcen
26fiveisni
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)ƍg
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalsdoh
45fishbarun
46birduadelen
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skintals
63meatlomm
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothtaga
78tongueuil'ar
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkba
93eatba
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seegot
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkbrott
105smellvỉ
106fearsaggra
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitԄat
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tiejgaah
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterja
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainhal
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightvot
178dayContionary_Wiki
179year
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldgura
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atƍ
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204and'u
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


LessonsEdit

Lesson 1 - Ismael and Arodor run into each other at the market.

Example textEdit

MusicEdit

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