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Jasost

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Jasost
Jasost
Type
Inflectional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Jasost is the Father-language of Jasos. Jasost is also the most widely spoken West-Paal language and the most widely used language among traders.

Jasost 'proper' is spoken predominantly in the capital peninsula, Jalihin, with three primary dialects: the northern Jaqquin dialect; the southern Javaat dialect; the language of the nomadic Hijypso. Constant trade with other kingdoms and peoples contributes largely to the dynamic shifts in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.

The saying below is a common one that describes the fluid nature of the language:

qona anloha ua ma rig - I don't even understand my neighbor

HistoryEdit

Attempts to record the history of Jasost as a language have always been fraught with inconsistencies and flaws; the language has always been in flux (av'aja - tidal.) Now, most scholars define three distinct periods of the language: Elm (Low), Ihbra (High), and A'e (Restored.)

The most significant change to Jasost was the A'e movement by the last Prince of Tides, Alyazuvi (Al'asuvi.) The changes were made to the written language not only to beautify - and initially simplify - the written form but also to create a stronger national and cultural identity. The changes were:

1. Collapse of doubled vowels (long vowels):

beaahra - beaha

skaii - sgai

2. Collapse of voiced/un-voiced consonant pairs:

p, b - b

f, v - v

s, z - s

k, g - g

t, d - t

3. Removal of digraphs by substituting the sounds with consonants no longer in use (as above), or by the introduction of new letters:

Consonants:

th, dh - d

kv, gv - q

ya - '

kh, gh, hr - h

sv - Ԅ

dv - Ԃ

Vowels:

ou - ƍ

ei - ɛ

iu, io -

4. Formalization of stress to first syllable (a change which had been occurring gradually through High Jasost.)

Compare the above saying written in Low, High, and Restored Jasos:

onolohr kvan riikimah - kvona anlohra uua ma riik - qona anloha ua ma rig


AlphabetEdit

The alphabet in Jasost is arranged into sections: consonants are grouped by place of articulation; vowels are grouped either as shapeless (pure vowels) or shaped (dipthongs) - with the exception of [a] and [u] which are considered pure sounds and are placed in the first group of consonant sounds.

︙a, g, h, u, m, b, v, n, t, d, s, c, j, q, Ԃ, Ԅ, l, r, ', e, i, o, ɛ, Ꭵ, ƍ︙

gamal (throat) sỉv (lips) tadga (teeth)

avg'omgar (pressed)

ɛvj'ahi (combined)

lu (soft)

madom (shapeless)

ƍtom (shaped)

a

(ä)

m

(m, m̥)

n

(n ,n̥)

s (s, z)

q

(kʋ, gʋ)

l

(l, ɬ, tɬ)

e

(ɛ)

ɛ

(e, eɪ)

g (k, g) b

(p, b)

t

(t,tʰ,d,dʰ)

c

(tʃ, dʒ)

Ԃ

(θʋ, ðʋ)

r

(r̥, r)

i

(ɪ)

(i, iʊ, iɒ)

h

(χ, ʁ̞)

v

(f, v, ʋ)

d (θ, ð)

j

(ʃ, ʒ)

Ԅ

(sʋ, zʋ)

' (j) o

(ɒ, ɔ)

ƍ

(o, oʊ)

u

(u)

PhonologyEdit

Consonants Edit

Jalihin & Jaqquin dialectEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m (m̥) n (n̥)
Plosive p pʰ b t tʰ d k kʰ ɡ
Fricative f fʰ v θ ð(ð̞) s z ʃ ʒ χ ʁ̞
Affricate tʃ tʃʰ
Approximant ʋ j
Trill
Flap or tap r
Lateral fric. ɬ (tɬ)
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap


Javaat dialectEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m (m̥) n (n̥)
Plosive p b bʰ t d k ɡ gʰ
Fricative f v vʰ θð(ð̞) s z ʃʒ χʁ̞
Affricate ʰ
Approximant ʋ j
Trill
Flap or tap r
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap


The largest difference between Northern and Southern dialects is in emphatic aspiration. (See emphatics) The Northern dialects treat the emphatic aspirations as un-voiced while in the Javaat they are realized as voiced.

Despite differences in vocabulary and some syntactical features, the dialects will be discussed below as the same.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close () u (u)
Near-close ɪ (i)
Close-mid eː (ɛ) (ƍ)
Mid
Open-mid ɛ (e) ɔ (o)
Near-open
Open ɑ (a)
  • Corresponding Jasost letters are in parentheses.

VoicingEdit

The rules governing the expression of consonants as voiced or un-voiced are complex yet suffer no irregularities.

Each consonant has a natural state: j [ʒ], d [θ], b [b], h [χ], etc.

1. Word-initial consonants preserve natural state:

2. All consonants become voiced between vowels.

3. Word-final voiced consonants become un-voiced; word-final unvoiced consonants stay un-voiced with the exception of g, h, and j which become approximants of their natural state.

4. Doubled consonants are un-voiced - except h and v.

5. Consonants preceded by h will be unvoiced.


PhonotacticsEdit

V: ƍ [archaic dative holdover meaning 'at the intended location']

VC: ir [rain]; ƍl [how?]

CV: ba [to eat], 'u [and]

C'V: g'e [you sg.], m'ɛ [cap]

CVC: got [to see]; Ԅat [to sit]

CC₂V(C)(V): sga [he needs]; brid [together/with]


  Where C₁ is: s, j, or d; C₂ can only be: g, b, t, or l
  Where C₁ is: g, b, or t; C₂ can only be: r, l, or '


GrammarEdit

Noun Case

There are four cases in Jasost: Basic (Nominative), Inner (Genitive), Outer (Accusative), Relating (Dative). Noun number works in conjunction with case to inflect each noun with specific meaning.


lỉ (woman) Absent Present Added Entire
Basic lỉmai

lỉ

lỉdi lỉɛl
Inner lỉmana lỉna lỉnadi lỉnɛl
Outer lỉmɛr lỉir lỉidir lỉlɛ
Related lỉhm lỉƍ lỉdƍ lỉlƍ



dga - boy Absent Present Added Entire
Basic dgamai

dga

dgadi dga'ɛl
Inner dgamana dgana dganadi dganɛl
Outer dgamɛr dgair dgaidir dgailɛ
Related dgahm dga'ƍ dgadƍ dgalƍ



VerbsEdit

Verbs in Jasost can be either simple (ana a - alone) or compound (bridna - collective.) With both types there are three tenses: present, past, and future. In each tense verbs conjugate according to inclusivity and exclusivity.

In addition to the three tenses, there are three aspects: habitual, atelic (ongoing), and telic (completed) - though habitual and atelic now conjugate almost identically, with formal levels of the language being the exception.

There are also three moods: indicative, conditional, and rarely used emphatic.

First, we will examine simple tenses

Simple TensesEdit

Present

The simple present is just the infinitive, the only exception being the 3rd person which is considered exclusive and takes the -go ending.

HABITUAL tama: tama/tamago to do
qo qo i-ԃijguvu tama I make sails.
g'e g'e im tama? What do you do?
to/tas/ni (to) isihddi au-jlo tamago He can't keep a secret.
qadan qadan rahdi g'edna nᎥn-o tama We don't believe in your creeds.
g'edem qona tabi'at atta tama, g'edem

You all make me so proud!

tauel/nad Qona Ua, tauel or moh tamago Lord, they don't love you.
ATELIC tama: tuma/tumago to do
qo qo g'er raha ma tuma I don't believe you.
g'e g'e im tuma? What are you doing?
to/tas/ni tas qor sehg atta tumago She's making it so hard for me.
qadan qai? hƍ, qadan ibcudu tuma ua Us? Well, we're just making some cakes.
g'edem g'edem elegar suhjauran tuma Y'all are making quite the name for yourself.
tauel/nad tauel lav ma tuma They're not doing too well.
TELIC tama: tamat/tamtag to do
qo qo bat mara tama I'm not done eating yet
g'e g'e tamat? Are you done?
to/tas/ni isni-gaɛd tamtag It's been five days.
qadan qai ilti tamat! We're almost finished!
g'edem qor raha ua tamat, g'edem hai? You're just going to have to trust me, alright?
tauel/nad tauel g'er bohroj tamtag They hate you (and nothing will change that)


Past

The simple past is formed by adding -o. Those verbs which end in vowels take -o at the end and those ending in consonants undergo ablaut. Instead of -go, the past takes -h. The simple past translates as: qo bao - 'I ate' or 'I was eating.'

Habitual
-ng/-ang qo qo ganne ahang I used to go there.
g'e g'e tor beahang sam uar? Did you ever talk to him?
to/tas/ni gae dih golo valatlang The sun used to shine brighter.
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad
Atelic
qo qo nir bao I ate it
g'e
to/tas/ni
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad
Telic
qo
g'e
to/tas/ni
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad

Future

The simple future is formed by adding -daga. The only changes that occur is verbs which end in 't.' In those cases the 't' undergoes lenition to 'd.' The future translates as: qo badaga - 'I will eat.'

Habitual
qo
g'e
to/tas/ni
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad
Atelic
qo
g'e
to/tas/ni
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad
Telic
qo
g'e
to/tas/ni
qadan
g'edem
tauel/nad

Compound VerbsEdit

Compound verbs are just simple verbs with an added auxiliary verb, of which there are three primary and about a dozen rarer auxiliaries. On their own, auxiliary verbs no longer have any meaning (the exception being sam which acts as the verb 'to be'). The auxilary verbs are:

Aux. Color Jasost English
ra suggests force, speed, motion qo bao ra。 I gobbled it up
ta suggests a constant or enduring state
sam suggests a changeable state
jlo suggests lack of control

b'o rahgo no toddaga jlo!

Slow down before you fall!
diri
va suggests duration of time to qor beahao va ua

He talked my ear off.
naig
gratl
boc
ht suggests finality gae haldƍ nᎥn

Ԅaot hᎥt。

The sun set beneath the mountains.
brua suggests the result of a decision ︙︙
ue suggests emotional gravity
ejt

GrammarEdit


No. English Jasost
1Iqo
2you (singular)g'e
3heto
4weqadad
5you (plural)g'edem
6theytoes (m.), taes (f.)
7this
8that
9here
10there
11whoan'am
12whatim
13where
14whenmul
15howoul
16notma/moh
17alljua
18manyhoros
19some
20few
21other
22onea
23twonol
24threee'er
25fourcen
26fiveisni
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)ƍg
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animalsdoh
45fishbarun
46birduadelen
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skintals
63meatlomm
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77toothtaga
78tongueuil'ar
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drinkba
93eatba
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101seegot
102hear
103know
104thinkbrott
105smellvỉ
106fearsaggra
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sitԄat
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tiejgaah
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150waterja
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountainhal
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177nightvot
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184oldgura
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201atƍ
202in
203with
204and'u
205if
206because
207name


LessonsEdit

Lesson 1 - Ismael and Arodor run into each other at the market.

Example textEdit

MusicEdit

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