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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Jasost is the Father-language of Jasos. Jasost is also the most widely spoken West-Paal language and the most widely used language among traders.
Jasost 'proper' is spoken predominantly in the capital peninsula, Jalihin, with three primary dialects: the northern Jaqquin dialect; the southern Javaat dialect; the language of the nomadic Hijypso. Constant trade with other kingdoms and peoples contributes largely to the dynamic shifts in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.
The saying below is a common one that describes the fluid nature of the language:
qona anloha ua ma rig - I don't even understand my neighbor
Attempts to record the history of Jasost as a language have always been fraught with inconsistencies and flaws; the language has always been in flux (av'aja - tidal.) Now, most scholars define three distinct periods of the language: Elm (Low), Ihbra (High), and A'e (Restored.)
The most significant change to Jasost was the A'e movement by the last Prince of Tides, Alyazuvi (Al'asuvi.) The changes were made to the written language not only to beautify - and initially simplify - the written form but also to create a stronger national and cultural identity. The changes were:
1. Collapse of doubled vowels (long vowels):
2. Collapse of voiced/un-voiced consonant pairs:
p, b - b
f, v - v
s, z - s
k, g - g
t, d - t
3. Removal of digraphs by substituting the sounds with consonants no longer in use (as above), or by the introduction of new letters:
th, dh - d
kv, gv - q
ya - '
kh, gh, hr - h
sv - Ԅ
dv - Ԃ
ou - ƍ
ei - ɛ
iu, io - ỉ
4. Formalization of stress to first syllable (a change which had been occurring gradually through High Jasost.)
Compare the above saying written in Low, High, and Restored Jasos:
onolohr kvan riikimah - kvona anlohra uua ma riik - qona anloha ua ma rig
The alphabet in Jasost is arranged into sections: consonants are grouped by place of articulation; vowels are grouped either as shapeless (pure vowels) or shaped (dipthongs) - with the exception of [a] and [u] which are considered pure sounds and are placed in the first group of consonant sounds.
︙a, g, h, u, m, b, v, n, t, d, s, c, j, q, Ԃ, Ԅ, l, r, ', e, i, o, ɛ, Ꭵ, ƍ︙
|gamal (throat)||sỉv (lips)||tadga (teeth)||
s (s, z)
(l, ɬ, tɬ)
|g (k, g)||b
(i, iʊ, iɒ)
(f, v, ʋ)
d (θ, ð)
Jalihin & Jaqquin dialectEdit
|Nasal||m (m̥)||n (n̥)|
|Plosive||p pʰ b||t tʰ d||k kʰ ɡ|
|Fricative||f fʰ v||θ ð(ð̞)||s z||ʃ ʒ||χ ʁ̞|
|Affricate||tʃ tʃʰ dʒ|
|Flap or tap||r̥ r|
|Lateral fric.||ɬ (tɬ)|
|Nasal||m (m̥)||n (n̥)|
|Plosive||p b bʰ||t d dʰ||k ɡ gʰ|
|Fricative||f v vʰ||θð(ð̞)||s z||ʃʒ||χʁ̞|
|Flap or tap||r̥r|
The largest difference between Northern and Southern dialects is in emphatic aspiration. (See emphatics) The Northern dialects treat the emphatic aspirations as un-voiced while in the Javaat they are realized as voiced.
Despite differences in vocabulary and some syntactical features, the dialects will be discussed below as the same.
|Close||iː (Ꭵ)||u (u)|
|Close-mid||eː (ɛ)||oː (ƍ)|
|Open-mid||ɛ (e)||ɔ (o)|
- Corresponding Jasost letters are in parentheses.
The rules governing the expression of consonants as voiced or un-voiced are complex yet suffer no irregularities.
Each consonant has a natural state: j [ʒ], d [θ], b [b], h [χ], etc.
1. Word-initial consonants preserve natural state:
2. All consonants become voiced between vowels.
3. Word-final voiced consonants become un-voiced; word-final unvoiced consonants stay un-voiced with the exception of g, h, and j which become approximants of their natural state.
4. Doubled consonants are un-voiced - except h and v.
5. Consonants preceded by h will be unvoiced.
V: ƍ [archaic dative holdover meaning 'at the intended location']
VC: ir [rain]; ƍl [how?]
CV: ba [to eat], 'u [and]
C'V: g'e [you sg.], m'ɛ [cap]
CVC: got [to see]; Ԅat [to sit]
C₁C₂V(C)(V): sga [he needs]; brid [together/with]
Where C₁ is: s, j, or d; C₂ can only be: g, b, t, or l
Where C₁ is: g, b, or t; C₂ can only be: r, l, or '
There are four cases in Jasost: Basic (Nominative), Inner (Genitive), Outer (Accusative), Relating (Dative). Noun number works in conjunction with case to inflect each noun with specific meaning.
|dga - boy||Absent||Present||Added||Entire|
Verbs in Jasost can be either simple (ana a - alone) or compound (bridna - collective.) With both types there are three tenses: present, past, and future. In each tense verbs conjugate according to inclusivity and exclusivity.
In addition to the three tenses, there are three aspects: habitual, atelic (ongoing), and telic (completed) - though habitual and atelic now conjugate almost identically, with formal levels of the language being the exception.
There are also three moods: indicative, conditional, and rarely used emphatic.
First, we will examine simple tenses
The simple present is just the infinitive, the only exception being the 3rd person which is considered exclusive and takes the -go ending.
The simple past is formed by adding -o. Those verbs which end in vowels take -o at the end and those ending in consonants undergo ablaut. Instead of -go, the past takes -h. The simple past translates as: qo bao - 'I ate' or 'I was eating.'
The simple future is formed by adding -daga. The only changes that occur is verbs which end in 't.' In those cases the 't' undergoes lenition to 'd.' The future translates as: qo badaga - 'I will eat.'
Compound verbs are just simple verbs with an added auxiliary verb, of which there are three primary and about a dozen rarer auxiliaries. On their own, auxiliary verbs no longer have any meaning (the exception being sam which acts as the verb 'to be'). The auxilary verbs are:
|ra||suggests force, speed, motion||qo bao ra。||I gobbled it up|
|ta||suggests a constant or enduring state|
|sam||suggests a changeable state|
|jlo||suggests lack of control||
b'o rahgo no toddaga jlo!
|Slow down before you fall!|
|va||suggests duration of time||to qor beahao va ua
|He talked my ear off.|
|hᎥt||suggests finality||gae haldƍ nᎥn
|The sun set beneath the mountains.|
|brua||suggests the result of a decision||︙︙|
|ue||suggests emotional gravity|
Lesson 1 - Ismael and Arodor run into each other at the market.