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Jemean

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Jemean is a mashup language (that is, a language designed by taking aspects of several natlangs (preferably of different language families) and combining them together), which takes its vocabulary and half its grammar from Japanese, and the phonology, morphology, and the other half of grammar from the Slavic branch of the Indo-European family (most notably Czech).


Progress 91%


Name: Jemean

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Fluid

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Adverb No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No Yes No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

In all honesty, I have created this language for a potential story that I had in mind, which may or may not involve a kingdom inspired by those in tzarist Russia and feudal Japan. Other than that, there is little background to this conlang.

Phonology + AlphabetEdit

Jemean may be written with either the Latin or Cyrillic alphabet.

Latin Majuscule Latin Minuscule Cyrillic Majuscule Cyrillic Minuscule IPA Pronunciation Example
A a А а /ɑ/ all
Á á Ӓ ӓ /æ, ɑː/ apple, lawn
B b Б б /b/ bet
V v В в /v/ van
Ħ ħ Х х /x/ Bach
H h Г г /h/ hot
G g Ґ ґ /g/ get
D d Д д /d/ deed
E e Э э /ɛ/ let
Z z З з /z/ zoo
Ž/Ź ž/ź Ж ж /ʒ/ vision
I i И и /ɪ/ it
Í í Ӥ ӥ /iː/ me
J j Й й /j/ yay
K k К к /k/ cap
L l Л л /l/ low
M m М м /m/ man
N n Н н /n/ not
Ň ň Њ њ /ɲ/ canyon
Ŋ/Ng ŋ/ng Ҥ ҥ /ŋ/ sing
O o О о /ɔ/ got
P p П п /p/ pet
R r Р р /ɹ/ read
S s С с /s/ see
Š/Ś š/ś Ш ш /ʃ/ fish
T t Т т /t/ tot
U u У у /ʊ/ put
Ú ú Ӱ ӱ /uː/ shoe
W w Ў ў /w/ wish
F f Ф ф /f/ fear
C c Ц ц /ʦ/ cats
Ê/Je ê/je Е е /jɛ/ yes
Û/Ju û/ju Ю ю /jʊ/ you
Ô/Jo ô/jo Ё ё /jɔ/ yodel
Â/Ja â/ja Я я /jɑ/ yawn
Þ þ Ћ ћ /θ/ math
J j Ь ь /-ʲ/ layer

Phonotactics + OrthographyEdit

  • Up to three consonants may occur consecutively. Any more and they have to be separated with a vowel, R, or J.
  • In polyphthongs, the Cyrillic letter Ь can only be used after hard (non-palatalized) vowels, otherwise Й is used.
  • W is usually used in diphthongs and very rarely (if at all) as a stand-alone consonant.
  • Ś is the final form of Š, as is Ź of Ž.
  • The four soft vowels are usually written in the "J-Vowel" form, but can be exchanged for the diacritical version.
  • Ŋ/Ng is always used before G, Ħ, and K.
  • N(soft vowel) and Ň(hard vowel) are subtly distinct sounds and thus are represented as such.
  • R may be used as a vowel, e.g. krt (крт) - enemy
  • The letters Й, Ь, and Ҥ may not begin words.
  • Ju always replaces iw.
  • When S precedes a soft vowel, it elides into Š followed by the vowel's hard version. Same goes for Z/Ž.

Basic GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns have two genders, masculine and feminine, and can be put into three categories, physical, ideological, and spiritual.

  • Physical nouns refer to objects, people, materials, and other objects that are tangible. E.g. sešk (сэшк) - stone.
  • Ideological nouns refer to non-tangible nouns, like shapes, locations and sounds. E.g. jucú (юцӱ) - house.
  • Spiritual nouns refer to ideas, emotions, and non-sensory phenomena. This category does not have plurals. E.g. kasa (каса) - [self-]worth.

Aside from the lack of plurals in the spiritual category, the categories are largely arbitrary.


In regards to gender, masculine nouns usually end in a consonant, e, or o, while feminine nouns end in a, á, i, í, u, ú, or a diphthong ending in j. Exceptions exist, however, and will be marked in the dictionary with their correct gender, or with (m/f) if they can take either.

PluralsEdit

Singular nouns follow the nominative-accusative alignment, and thus when used as agents, they retain their nominativity (subjecthood) in both transitive and intransitive clauses. Plurals, however, follow the ergative-absolutive alignment, and thus plural agents are the subjects of intransitive verbs and the objects of transitive verbs.

DeclensionsEdit

Nouns decline by case, number and gender, along with the final letter of their dictionary (singular nominative) form. For all tables, the rule is to affix certain letters to the end to decline them.

  • If the final letter is a consonant other than j, see Table 1.
  • If it is e or o, and the noun is singular, see Table 2a. If it is plural and has at least two syllables, drop the vowel, then see Table 2b. If it has just one syllable, leave it as is for Table 2b (except for the plural ergative, where you must add j to the end).
  • If it is a, i, or u, and the noun is singular, see Table 3a. If it is plural, move that vowel to the next last vowel (i changes to j, u to w) or the beginning if it's the only vowel (other than r when used as such), or remove it if the next last vowel is [nearly] the same, then see Table 3b. If the final vowel is instead á, í, or ú, shorten that vowel so that it loses its accent, then check for number.
  • If it is j, drop it, then see Table 4. If the noun is to be declined as plural vocative feminine, move the vowel that was before j to the next last vowel (e/i -> j, o/u -> w) or the beginning if it's the only vowel (other than r when used as such), or remove it if the next last vowel is [nearly] the same.
Table 1 (final letter is a consonant other than j)
singular accusative e
singular dative en
singular genitive ke
singular vocative masculine -
singular vocative feminine a
plural ergative ej
plural absolutive es
plural dative en
plural genitive ek
plural vocative masculine ej
plural vocative feminine eja
Table 2a (final letter is e or o, and the noun is singular)
singular accusative r
singular dative re
singular genitive kre
singular vocative -
Table 2b (final letter is e or o, and the noun is plural)
plural ergative -
plural absolutive je
plural dative se
plural genitive ce
plural vocative masculine -
plural vocative feminine ja
Table 3a (final letter is a, i, or u (or their long versions) and the noun is singular)
singular accusative r
singular dative re
singular genitive kre
singular vocative ending in i -
singular vocative not ending in i j
Table 3b (final letter is a, i, or u (or their long versions) and the noun is plural)
plural ergative -
plural absolutive e
plural dative se
plural genitive ce
plural vocative masculine o
plural vocative feminine a
Table 4 (final letter is j)
singular accusative d
singular dative de
singular genitive ke
singular vocative -
plural ergative mm
plural absolutive m
plural dative me
plural genitive ne
plural vocative masculine -
plural vocative feminine *

For example:

mizí (мизӥ) - water (f, -í)
singular nominative mizí
singular accusative mizir
singular dative mizire
singular genitive mizikre
singular vocative mizi
plural ergative miz
plural absolutive mize
plural dative mizze
plural genitive mizce
plural vocative miza

VerbsEdit

The dictionary form of verbs consists of the verb root (which always ends in a consonant) combined with -o. There are three classes of regular verbs:

  • Class I verbs have as their penultimate letter b, g, d, k, p, or t. E.g. íko (ӥко) - go.
  • Class II verbs have v, ħ, z, ž, s, š, f, c, or þ. E.g. jaso (ясо) - translate
  • Class III verbs have h, l, m, n, w, r, or j. E.g. inro (инро) - sleep


Regular Verb ConjugationEdit

  • The affixes in Level 1 Conjugation replace the final o when they conjugate. There are two forms of each L1 Conjugation, the basic and the polite. The polite form is used between strangers and informal settings, while the basic form is for friends, family, and intimates.
  • The affixes in Level 2 Conjugation then come after that to conjugate in agreement to (pro)nouns. The conjugation for You (formal) is only used for addressing superiors and other people not intimately connected to the speaker.
  • The adparticles in Level 3 Conjugation further conjugate the verb by modality, tense, and mood. When multiple forms are used for polite verbs (e.g. near future subjunctive), the last prepaticle before the verb and the first postparticle after must be in polite form. When either of the future forms are combined with the past tense of the verb, the result will be the future perfect tense; the (plu)perfect form cannot be combined with the future forms to achieve this. Level 3 Conjugation, even though optional, holds for all verbs, regular, irregular, and semiregular.
Level 1 Conjugation Table
Tense/Mood I II III
Basic o
Polite enjo
Negative ani ante ani
N. Polite enani enante enani
Past eva ecva
P. Polite evja ecvja
N. Past anevi antvi anecje
N. P. Polite anvari antari anecare
Level 2 Conjugation Table
Number/Person I II III
I -
thou (you sg.) c s ś
he/it t r l
she
we s n s
ye (you pl.) þ t ja
they (m/f) ź w z
You (formal) d
Level 3 Conjugation Table
Verb Form Tense Preparticle Postparticle
Imperative basic saj (polite gdas) -
Infinitive - row
Progressive/Imperfect either po (polite pocte) -
Near Future cta (polite štari) ša (polite šana)
Distant Future -
(Plu)perfect gat (polite gtraj)
Obligative (must) em (polite emsurí)
Suggestive (should) - ša (polite šana)
Permissive (may) tan (polite tanat)
Abilitative (can) rejr (polite remate)
Affiliative (like) ubus (polite ubusana)
Subjunctive (could) sti (polite stiljo)
Gerund/Participle past teh (polite mate)

Irregular VerbsEdit

There are exactly three irregular verbs in the whole of the Jemean language: dzo (дзо) - be [copula], mro (мро) - see, and šro (шро) - know [people, locations].

  • Dzo is automatically polite, and thus has no "polite" form for Level 1 Conjugation.
  • The verbs all have their own rules for Level 1 Conjugation. For Level 2 Conjugation of non-basic verbs, mro and šro follow the Class III conjugation, while dzo follows Class III for the negative form and Class I for both past forms.
Level 1 Conjugation (Irregular)
Tense/Mood dzo mro šro
Basic dzo mro šro
Polite mrenjo šrenjo
Negative masne mikani sitani
N. Polite mikenani sitenani
Past masta mrcva šrcva
P. Polite mrcvja šrcvja
N. Past desta mikace sitace
N. P. Polite mikacare sitacare
Level 2 Conjugation (Irregular)
Pronoun dzo mro šro
I doz mro šro
thou (you sg.) djes morc šas
he/she/it dzo mot štra
we dzos mos šris
ye (you pl.) doþ moþ šrþ
they (m/f) doź moź šaś
You (formal) djes mrend šrenego

Semiregular VerbsEdit

There are six classes of semiregular verbs, based on the mixture of Level 1 and 2 Conjugations. Semiregular verbs will be displayed in the dictionary with the format (A.B), where A is the class of the Level 1 Conjugation, and B that of Level 2. For example:

Level 1 Conjugation (jeco (ецо) - do (II.I))
Tense/Mood II
Basic jeco
Polite jecenjo
Negative jecante
N. Polite jecenante
Past jeceva
P. Polite jecevja
N. Past jecantvi
N. P. Polite jecantari
Level 2 Conjugation (jeco (ецо) - do (II.I))
Pronoun I
I jeco
thou (you sg.) jecoc
he/it jecot
she
we jecos
ye (you pl.) jecoþ
they (m/f) jecoź
You (formal) jecod

PronounsEdit

Pronouns decline similarly to nouns, but have only one class. In addition, pronouns also decline by the possessive and reflexive cases.

Pronoun/Case Nom Acc Erg Abs Dat Gen Voc Pos Rfx
I patáś pacek penta bení pat! benja pacek
thou (you sg.) nat nrlaf nata najd nat! najda nrlaf
he/it krje kiraj kirja krjo kar! krjaj kiraj
she krše kiś kiša kršo kaś! kršaj kiś
we vacr vadam vadna basr vac! basra vadim
ye vos vesú vesa besa vos! bese vis
they (m) okr okori okra oger ok! ogera okir
they (f) okś okoś oša ozri oś! ozra okiś
You (formal)* ros rejs ros rejs resa reź ros! reža rejs/rec

(*)This pronoun is formed from the name of the addressee and the appropriate honorific (see below), prefixed on to the appropriate declension of the You (formal) row. It may be used to address a singular or plural amount of people.


In addition, the null pronoun ja is used as a placeholder for pronouns used in the same context in consecutive non-clausal sentences. It is not used in very formal situations, however, due to the potential confusion with its meaning as "no".

PostpositionsEdit

In postpositional phrases, the noun that the postposition relates to must agree with the case of the postposition itself. Most postpositions have multiple cases for different denotations, and thus have differences in pronunciation to differentiate.

Postposition Acc/Erg Dat Gen
through den (motion) dín (means)
for per
to v
against gag (adjacent) gig (opposed)
with[out] [a]m ([not] having) [a]mer (including/[except])
around šrk (circum-) šek (approximately)
until bed (cutoff) baþ (time)
out ak (out to) ák (outside) ake (out of)
in ún (in to) un (inside) une (in from)
at der (location) deren (goal) dra (time)
since kra (origin) ker (time)
about pán
from je (lineage) eś (origin)
on na (position) no (active) há (about)
off hem (position) hin (inactive)
behind/before mra (behind) mor (before) mare (time)
ahead/after sur (ahead) šir (after/in front of) sere (time)
between/among izu (location) icu (people, in the middle of) íšu (time)
adjacent nejv
opposite ingur
above/over enja (over) ajn (above) awan (dignity)
below/under ura (under) awr (below/beneath) parn (dignity)

Adjectives + AdverbsEdit

Adjectives are expressed in noun form when describing something indeterminate. E.g. kaj (каь) - red (thing). However, they act as suffixes when they describe definite objects (nouns). E.g. dakkaj (даккаь) - red brick. Successive adjectives are suffixed in reverse order, as in dakkajħow (даккаьхоў) - big red brick (lit. brick-red-big).

Comparatives are formed with one of the following suffixes, depending on the final letter of the target adjective:

  • Final letter is a consonant other than j - add jeri to the target adjective.
  • Final letter is e or o - add jori to the target adjective.
  • Final letter is a, i, or u (or their long forms) - add jari to the target adjective.
  • Final letter is j - add ri to the target adjective.

Superlatives prefix i ( if the adjective already begins with i) to the comparative form of the target adjective. Thus, jajmkroj (яймкроь) [black night] becomes jajmkrojri (яймкроьри) [blacker night] becomes jajmikrojri (яймикроьри) [blackest night]. There are certain exceptions to this rule:

ħow big kisal small
hoveri bigger kesaleri smaller
ihoveri biggest ikesaleri smallest
jori good vare bad
jorari better borjori worse
idorari best iporjori worst
ok many/much skoś few/little
sarari more skaneri fewer/less
išarari most iškaneri fewest/least

Adverbs function similarly, affixing themselves to verbs such that their final vowels (if any) are replaced by the verb's Level 1 Conjugation. E.g. jecjoro (ецёро) [do well]. However, their comparatives and superlatives use those of the adjective ok (many/much). E.g. íkosko sarari (ӥкоско сарари) [go more slowly]. NB: Nouns and verbs retain their original declensions/conjugations even with adjectives and adverbs (respectively) attached!

ConjunctionsEdit

Conjunctions come between two related items (nouns, phrases,...). When used in series, they only appear between the first and second elements thereof, like in Japanese.

þo and
uþr or
avr but

In written Jemean, following discourse with a conjunctive statement requires the use of the word ħa (ха) [yes]. For example:

Ħa, avr vacr širenanis remate. (Ха, авр вацр ширэнанис рэматэ.) - Yes, but we cannot die.

Questions + AnswersEdit

Any statement can be turned into a question with the particle inserted before the verb, as in:

Krje samvar dzo. (Кре самвар дзо.) - He is cold. -> Krje samvar ká dzo? (Кре самвар кӓ дзо?) - Is he cold?

For questions requiring specific answers, the target of inquiry is represented in an interrogative sentence by a question word:

Inquiry Nom Acc Erg Abs Dat Gen Pos
Who nadat nade nadej nades naden nadel nader
What nan nane nanej nans nanin nanel narri
Inquiry From At To
Where esok dok vrok
When esce ice vice
Why vrim
How do
How many/much* dowok-

(*)This question word is attached to the adjective/adverb of inquiry.


For answers to the yes/no questions, use ħa (ха) [yes] or ja (я) [no (not to be confused with the pronoun placeholder)].

SignifiersEdit

For answers to other questions, special pronouns called signifiers may be used to show the answer, rather than simply tell it. The following table shows signifiers that can be treated as masculine nouns and so declined as such. NB: Kojr cannot be used in place of a personal pronoun (I, you, he, she, we...)

Inquiry Who/What When Where
This kojr koce kok
That sojr soce sok
Other ajr ace ak
Every orojr oke ogu
Each ejr eci egu
None masojr macr macke
Some teci tone tokr
Many* kojr ok koce ok kokok
Few* kojr skoś koce skoś koskoś
Any dador dace dakko

(*) Kojr ok/skoś are circumparticles: kojr goes before the noun it augments, and ok/skoś goes after it.

The signifiers from the following table deal with the question word vrim (врим) [why], and so do not decline.

Thus korim
If mogo
Then kosit
Else sonna
Because dákar

NB: "There is nothing" is an idiom expressed as kojr masnel (коьр маснэл), with a postpositional phrase between those words clarifying where there is nothing. However, if a noun is inserted between the two, its meaning changes to "This is not X," where X is the noun. Similarly, inserting a question word (like nan) before kojr (or changing kojr to another signifier like kok) in the sentence that explains where there is nothing changes its meaning to "This is not Y," where Y is the postpositional phrase that now explains where something is not.

NumbersEdit

The Jemean counting system is base 10, but it separates large numbers into groups of five digits instead of three. They have a standalone/final form (for mathematics and noun use) and a counter/initial/medial form (for adjectival use).

Number Standalone Counter
0* ržje re
1* íc í
2 fuc fu
3 mic mi
4 jo jo
5 is is
6 muc mu
7 nán
8 jac ja
9 gju gi
10 on o
11 íjon íjo
12 omfuc omfu
13 ommic ommi
14 onjo onjo
15 onis onis
16 ommuc ommu
17 onnán onná
18 onjac onja
19 ogju ogi
20 fujon fujo
21 fujo-íc fujo-í
22 fujo-fuc fujo-fu
30 mijon mijo
40 jojon jojo
50 išon išo
60 mujon mujo
70 nájon nájo
80 jajon jajo
90 gijon gijo
100 ħja ħja
101 ħja-íc ħja-í
120 ħja-fujon ħja-fujo
300 miħja miħja
612 muħja-omfuc muħja-omfu
1000 seln sel
10000 majn
1,00000 keml kel
10,00000 on keml on kel
36,00120 mijon-muc keml ħja-fujon mijon-muc keml ħja-fujo
1,00000^2 fukkeml fukkel
1,00000^3 mikkeml mikkel
1,00000^[n] [n]-kkeml [n]-kkel
.1** þen íc
.11** þen í-íc
.215** þen fu-í-is
π** mic þen í-jo-í-is-gi-fu-mu-is-...

(*) These two numbers take the singular form, whereas all the others take the plural. Furthermore, íc can be used as an indefinite singluar article (as in í majka (ӥ маька) [a priestess] or íc iro (ӥц иро) [a color]), but there are no definite or plural articles.

(**) Decimals have no counter form, as they are rarely used for quantifying. When they are, they are detached from the noun being quantified.

CountersEdit

The following is a list of counters that are used when numbers are being used adjectivally. They act as suffixes.

Category Counter Used For Example
Numerical ba ordinals miba (3rd)
jace percentages mijace (3%)
Calendar* nek days minek (three days/3rd day)
jajm nights mijajm (three nights)
šúwa weeks/days of the week mišúwa (three weeks/Wednesday)
cujk months micujk (three months/March)
[t]ton years mitton (three years/3 CE)
Clock** bíro seconds mibíro (three seconds)
šof minutes mišof (three minutes)
ziken hours miziken (three hours/ 3 O'Clock)
Living Things ikra animals cúnmikr (three foxes (cúňe))
cin people jedenmicin (three doctors (jedne))
tav foods/beverages bortmitavej (three [loaves of] bread)
Uniform Shape hrat flat objects kawbmihrat (three [pieces of] paper (kabbu))
márl round objects marmimárlej (three balls)
hov large objects gibmihovej (three walls)
kes small objects, currency kardmikes (three [small] candles (karde))
na[ng] long objects vominamm (three sticks (voj))
Other c everything else záwmicej (three statues)

(*) Capitalized, these counters denote calendar dates (šúwa in this case changes meaning to become "day of the week", where Monday is the first day). E.g. The Grateful Dead performed at the Oakland Coliseum Arena on Íšúwa Onisnek Omfucujk Íseln-giħja-jajo-mutton (1шӱўа 15нэк 12цуьк 1986тон) [Monday, December 15, 1986].

(**) Capitalized, these counters denote specific times. E.g. Armistice Day commemorates the end of World War I by a cessation of hostilities on November 11, 1918, at the precise time of Íjoziken (11зикэн) [11 O'Clock].

ArithmeticEdit

Fractions are represented by attaching a number's counter form to a fraction counter, derived from the divisor suffixed to bak (бак) [shorthand for bakrecvjal-mate (бакрэцвял-матэ) - divided]. E.g. mi-bakja (ми-бакя) - 3/8. (NB: Special counters exist for halves (ivus) and quarters (joše).) Negative numbers have the word hik (гик) [short for hiko (гико) - subtract, decrease, take away] before them, as in hik fujon (гик фуён) [-20], while positive numbers may be denoted with ca (ца) [short for cawo (цаўо) - add, increase]. Mathematical operators (which are preceded by an and-series of numbers to be operated on) are described below:

+ ca[wo]
- hiku/o
× kakr[o]
÷ bakr[o]

For example, fuc þo jajon, mic, is ca gijon dzo [2 + 80 + 3 + 5 = 90]; fuc þo jajon ca, re mic, is hiku nájojo dzo [(2 + 80) - 3 - 5 = 74]; fuc þo jajon ca, re mic þo is ca, re sojrej hiku, nájojo dzo [(2 + 80) - (3 + 5) = 74].

HonorificsEdit

Jemean uses a vast array of honorifics for addressing people. They are always used in formal situations, but seldom informally, and never intimately. Their inverses are dishonorifics (see below).

Honorific Used for
sal general purposes, when the proper honorific is unknown
spen masculine version of sal
nož feminine version of sal
jenr people of a highly learned nature (e.g. doctors, teachers,...)
spem superiors and elders (not to be confused with spen)
koraj underlings/inferiors. Vulgar when used out of context
kind pre-teen boys (adult use only)
dan pre-teen girls (adult use only)
zne teenage/young adult males (adult use only)
todr teenage/young adult females (adult use only)
brád similar-aged men of equal standing (informal)
zist similar-aged women of equal standing (informal)
tjomo friends (informal, vulgar when used out of context)
dajn important administrators (rulers, CEOs,...) Very respectful, but pretentious when used out of context.
gren those who work intimately with the innards of society (roadworkers, nurses, farmers,...) Elsewhere, a dishonorific.

Null HonorificsEdit

If the name of a person is not known, then a null honorific is used to address him/her. In the case of ale/al/ala, the first is used between males, the next between people of different genders, and the last between females. NB: Using this for someone whose name is known in certain communities may draw fire from those communities, as they would expect people to know his/her name.

Null Honorific Used For Honorific suffix
žiba elders and other older people spem

ale (m),

al (intersex),

ala (f)

middle-aged men spen
middle-aged women nož
young adult men brád
young adult women zist
teenage boys zne
teenage girls todr
young boys kind
young girls dan
brád equal-aged males sal (bracal)
zist equal-aged females sal (ziscal)

DishonorificsEdit

Jemean also has several dishonorifics for the sole use of insulting (or joking with, as with close friends) others and sarcasm. For obvious reasons they are all considered vulgar and thus not usable in public. The following list is only of the tamer ones:

Dishonorific Meaning
bák idiot, moron
damsi fool
jár despicable one
fucigr klutz
gren pariah (when used as such)
špard coward
tákk geek, nerd
bore disrespectful one
hebro brute

ClausesEdit

Clauses are formed from sentences and postpositional phrases with the use of a pronoun, question word, or signifier. The subordinate clauses always precede the main clause. For example:

Dok Grínspenros súmenjod, narri jucur ká dzo? (Док Ґрӥнспэнрос сӱмэнёд, нарри юцур кӓ дзо?) [Which is the house where you live[, Mr. Green]? (lit. Where Mr. Green lives, which house ? is.)]
Cek krje pacek ňemišonkesen ħrawenjol, krje cikenanir! (Цэк кре пацэк њэм50кэсэн храўэнёл, кре цикэнанир!) [The man who owes me 50 ňem didn't show up! (lit. Man he me 50-ňem owes, he did-not-come!)]
Koce ker, sojr krše jumarenjol remate, patáś ursir doz. (Коцэ кэр, соьр кршэ юмарэнёл рэматэ, патӓш урсир доз.) [For now, I am glad that she can dream. (lit. Now since, that she can-dream, I glad am.)]

DictionaryEdit

Nature + The HeavensEdit

Latin Cyrillic Part of Speech Definition
bradna брадна noun (m) bear
haś гаш noun star
hogara гоґара noun shine
hoger гоґэр adjective shiny, shining
hogro гоґро verb (III.II) shine
gíri ґӥри noun tree
ejmi эьми noun rain
ejmo эьмо verb rain
zejní зэьнӥ noun nature
zuś зуш noun soil, dirt
zuškawen зушкаўэн noun (f) road, trail
izuci изуци noun (m) ram
íki ӥки noun breath
íkijo ӥкиё verb breathe
kawen каўэн noun (f) river
kaþ каћ noun wind
kor кор noun ice
krs крс noun crow
lovare ловарэ noun horse
mejren мэьрэн noun sheep
mizí мизӥ noun water
mjuś мюш noun (m/f) cow/cattle
nek нэк noun day
nerís нэрӥс noun (f) planet
požá пожӓ noun fire
sešk сэшк noun stone
suk сук noun (f) moon
tán тӓн noun valley
tajon таён noun sun
tenral тэнрал noun (m/f) sky
tenramizí тэнрамизӥ noun weather
cúňe цӱњэ noun (f) fox
juhe югэ noun air
juke юкэ noun snow
juko юко verb snow
jam ям noun mountain
jamisal ямисал noun hill
jajm яйм noun (f) night

TimeEdit

Latin Cyrillic Part of Speech Definition
as ас noun morning
bang баҥґ noun evening
Íssere (ÍR)* Ӥссэрэ (ӤР) expression afternoon (technical)
íšir ӥшир noun afternoon
Íšu (ÍŠ)* Ӥшу (ӤШ) expression/noun noon
Íšumare (ÍM)* Ӥшумарэ (ӤМ) expression morning (technical)
Nekízu (NÍ)* Нэкӥзу (НӤ) expression/noun midnight
Suknabí (SN)* Сукнабӥ (СН) expression evening (technical)
Suksof (SS)* Суксоф (СС) expression night (technical)
Tajonabí (TN)* Таёнабӥ (ТН) expression/noun sunrise
Tajonsof (TS)* Таёнсоф (ТС) expression/noun sunset
jajm яйм noun (f) night[time]

(*) The following table lists the exact times wherein these time-of-day expressions fall:

Latin Cyrillic Starts Ends
Nekízu (NÍ) Нэкӥзу (НӤ) 12:00 AM 12:59 AM
Suksof (SS) Суксоф (СС) 1:00 AM 4:59 AM
Tajonabí (TN) Таёнабӥ (ТН) 5:00 AM 7:59 AM
Íšumare (ÍM) Ӥшумарэ (ӤМ) 8:00 AM 11:59 AM
Íšu (ÍŠ) Ӥшу (ӤШ) 12:00 PM 12:59 PM
Íssere (ÍR) Ӥссэрэ (ӤР) 1:00 PM 4:59 PM
Tajonsof (TS) Таёнсоф (ТС) 5:00 PM 7:59 PM
Suknabí (SN) Сукнабӥ (СН) 8:00 PM 11:59 PM

Humanity and its ActionsEdit

Latin Cyrillic Part of Speech Definition
ħo хо noun child
mro мро verb (Irregular) see
ňemuro њэмуро noun sleep
odeħo одэхо noun boy (Archaic)
odek одэк noun man (male)
oneħo онэхо noun girl (Archaic)
oneri онэри noun woman
toni тони noun (m) boy (Modern)
cín цӥн noun human, man
jeco ецо verb (II.I) do
juwi юўи noun girl (Modern)

FamilyEdit

Latin Cyrillic Part of Speech Definition
brád брӓд noun brother (elder)
zist зист noun sister
karaś караш noun brother (younger)
midasver
мидасвэр noun
husband (formal), groom
midasvera мидасвэра noun wife (formal), bride
midasmat мидасмат noun marriage
midaso мидасо verb (II.III) marry
odo одо noun husband (informal)
orja оря noun wife (informal)

Food + DrinkEdit

Latin Cyrillic Part of Speech Definition
bort борт noun bread
nommas номмас noun drink, beverage
nomo номо verb drink
swešraj сўэшраь noun milk
swej сўэь noun water (beverage)
tavmas тавмас noun food
tavro тавро verb eat
from фром noun cheese

The HomeEdit

Latin Cyrillic Part of Speech Definition
báś бӓш noun room
morbáś морбӓш noun antechamber
ňemurbáś њэмурбӓш noun bedroom
požabáś пожабӓш noun kitchen
rowk роўк noun hallway
súmo сӱмо verb live (somewhere)
širrowk ширроўк noun foyer, lobby
tavbáś тавбӓш noun dining room
tajonbáś таёнбӓш noun sunroom
ugje уґе noun (f) home
furja фуря noun bath
furjabáś фурябӓш noun bathroom
ješe ешэ noun (f) house
jassabáś яссабӓш noun living room
jasso яссо verb rest

ClothingEdit

Latin Cyrillic Part of Speech Definition
zwír зўӥр noun robe (men's)
kallotej каллотэь noun (pl. only) pants
košel кошэл noun shirt
mjušnone мюшнонэ noun leather
none нонэ noun cloth
rogi роґи noun robe (women's)
sukon сукон noun skirt
figuri
фиґури
noun
clothes/-ing

GreetingsEdit

Latin Cyrillic Part of Speech Definition
Ašori! Ашори! expression Good morning!
Bangjori! Баҥґёри! expression Good evening!
Vá vá! Вӓ вӓ! expression Bye [bye]! (informal)
Vákerjori!
Вӓкэрёри!
expression
Good bye!
Hirmjori! Гирмёри! expression Good day!
Íširjori! Ӥширёри! expression Good afternoon!
Jajmjori! Яймёри! expression Good night!

ColorsEdit

Latin Cyrillic Part of Speech Definition
awn аўн adjective (f) blue
hor гор adjective grey
iro иро noun color
kaj каь adjective (m) red
korrok коррок adjective multicolored
kroj кроь adjective black
mursak мурсак adjective (f) purple
mjol мёл adjective (f) green, cyan
palś палш adjective pink
rán рӓн adjective (f) indigo
rajle раьлэ adjective lavender
šraj шраь adjective white
cen цэн adjective orange, yellow
cenoger цэноґэр adjective golden
jukra юкра adjective violet

EducationEdit

Latin Cyrillic Part of Speech Definition
veder вэдэр noun knowledge
vedo вэдо verb know (facts)
gjako ґяко verb learn
gjakugje ґякуґе noun school
ocer оцэр noun teacher (m)
oceri оцэри noun teacher (f)
ocero оцэро verb teach
šar шар noun wisdom
šerer шэрэр adjective wise
šro шро verb (Irregular) know (people, locations,...)
jedengjak едэҥґяк noun professor

Example textEdit

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